2010TD0433 1Resonance of a Distribution Feeder with aSaturable Core Fault Current LimiterChristopher R. Clarke Member, IEE...
2010TD0433 2functions and gain operational and maintenance experienceunder real-world conditions.The FCL is designed to op...
2010TD0433 3Fig.4. Equivalent FCL inductance (mH) at 100 A DC and 120 A rms.Fig. 5 shows the simulation of the FCL’s induc...
2010TD0433 4Fig. 9 Three-phase RMS line voltages.2) Resonance Observed:The measured voltage resulted from the combination ...
2010TD0433 5Fig. 13. Simplified PSCAD model of CoF FCL.Prior to the event the feeder was loaded at approximately120A per p...
2010TD0433 6results closely simulate the actual DC bias current decay asshown by the black curve in Fig. 17. The event was...
2010TD0433 7Fig.21. Instantaneous FCL Inductance during loss of DC bias current event.It was found that at a load current ...
2010TD0433 8B. Operation Under Increased AC CurrentIt was found that at 250 A of load current, the voltage risedue to reso...
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Resonance of a distribution feeder with a saturable core fault current limiter


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Simulations of a resonance event were performed based on actual field data of a commercially operating distribution feeder and a superconducting saturable core fault current limiter. The analysis was conducted from both the system's and the fault current limiter's perspectives. Agreement in the results of the two approaches showed that under certain values of reactive shunt compensation, full insertion of the limiter's reactance, and low load conditions, a sustained but damped resonance can occur. Resonance suppression preventive measures for these conditions are proposed.

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Resonance of a distribution feeder with a saturable core fault current limiter

  1. 1. 2010TD0433 1Resonance of a Distribution Feeder with aSaturable Core Fault Current LimiterChristopher R. Clarke Member, IEEE, Franco Moriconi, Amandeep Singh, Member, IEEE, ArdalanKamiab, Russ Neal, Alonso Rodriguez, Member, IEEE, Francisco De La Rosa, Senior Member, IEEEand Nick KoshnickAbstract-- Simulations of a resonance event were performedbased on actual field data of a commercially operatingdistribution feeder and a superconducting saturable core faultcurrent limiter. The analysis was conducted from both thesystem’s and the fault current limiter’s perspectives. Agreementin the results of the two approaches showed that under certainvalues of reactive shunt compensation, full insertion of thelimiter’s reactance, and low load conditions, a sustained butdamped resonance can occur. Resonance suppression preventivemeasures for these conditions are proposed.Index Terms— Capacitive energy storage; Fault currentlimiters; Inductive energy storage; Resonance; Saturable cores;Short circuit currentsI. INTRODUCTIONA. The Fault Current Limiter (FCL)Fault current limiters can be broadly described as passiveand active types. The passive design inserts an impedance inthe circuit under normal system operation and during faults.The active design is aimed at introducing a low impedanceunder normal operating conditions, and a high impedance onlyunder fault current conditions. Saturable magnetic coredesigns use DC superconducting coils to provide the highmagnetic field needed to permanently saturate the core with asmall DC bias current.References [1-5] provide a comprehensive review of thedifferent FCL technologies and demonstrators in the electricpower industry. The present paper presents an analysis of aresonance condition involving an active type superconductorFCL in a 12.5 kV distribution circuit application.B. Nature of Electrical ResonanceResonance in a system occurs when a small drivingperturbation results in large effects in the system. In anelectrical circuit involving inductive and capacitive reactances,the resonance effect can be generated when the absolutevalues of these two reactances are equal. For a given cir cuit,this equality will be true only for a particular resonantfrequency.Physically, during electrical resonance, when a chargedcapacitor is connected across an inductor in an RLC circuit,charge will flow through the inductor.This work was supported in part by the California Energy Commission,Southern California Edison, and Zenergy Power, Inc.C. R. Clarke, A. Kamiab, and R. Neal are with Southern California Edison,Rosemead, CA, USA.F. de la Rosa, A. Singh, F. Moriconi, and A. Rodriguez and Nick Koshnickare with Zenergy Power, Inc., South San Francisco, CA, USA.Energy is stored in the inductor’s magnetic field and thevoltage in the capacitor is reduced until all the charge on thecapacitor plates is depleted. However, current flow continuesbecause inductors oppose changes in current, and current isinduced by the collapsing magnetic field of the inductor. Thiscurrent charges the capacitor with a voltage of oppositepolarity of the original charge until the magnetic field’s energyis dissipated. Current flow stops and the capacitor will againstore all the charge and the discharge-charge cycle repeats, butcurrent flows in the opposite direction.As described, this is generally a low loss process, as theonly opposition to current flow in the circuit is the resistanceof the circuit. In most power circuits the total resistance of theline conductors and other components is relatively smallcompared to the reactive impedance. Typically, the value ofresistance can usually be ignored for most calculations, thussimplifying the circuit to an inductive and capacitive (LC)model.Yet, it is the low loss condition during inadvertentresonance that causes concern. Depending on whether a seriesor a parallel LC circuit is formed, either high voltages or highcurrents can be generated. In this case study, the resonantcircuit formed was a series circuit, as described in thefollowing sections.Depending on the circuit’s parameters, resonance candevelop into serious problems. If damping of the resonanceoscillations is not sufficient and the conditions that generatedresonance are sustained, energy can accumulate to extremelyhigh levels. In particular, if the magnitudes of the resonantvoltages or currents are lower than the normal settings ofconventional protection relays; this undetected sustainedcondition can lead to extreme energy build-up with everyinput cycle from the system.C. High Temperature Superconductor (HTS)FCLDemonstration on the 12 kV Distribution Circuit of the Future(CoF)Southern California Edison’s Distribution FieldEngineering envisioned, installed and commissioned adedicated 12 kV feeder to demonstrate and obtain serviceexperience with state-of-the-art equipment and operatingprocedures that could result in increased system reliability andlower costs. This feeder is known as the Circuit of the Future(CoF). Zenergy Power’s HTS FCL is installed at thesubstation feeding the CoF.The FCL is connected in series between the feeder loadsand the 12 kV side of the substation’s transformer bank. Thepurpose of the installation is to demonstrate the limiter’s
  2. 2. 2010TD0433 2functions and gain operational and maintenance experienceunder real-world conditions.The FCL is designed to operate as an inherently variablereactance based on the fact that the FCL’s insertion reactanceis proportional to the slope of its B-H curve. As illustrated inFig. 1, under normal operating conditions the FCL has a verylow series reactance, but under fault conditions it changes to avery high reactance within a millisecond, in order to limit thecurrent surge to a desired safe level. When the fault is cleared,the operating point automatically returns to its normal statecorresponding to a very low series reactance, hence a lowvoltage drop during steady state.Fig. 1. Operating region of the saturable core FCL.Fig. 2 shows a single-phase arrangement of the FCL. AnHTS coil provides the DC bias to saturate the two cores ofevery phase. For a three-phase configuration, six core limbs(two per phase) pass through the DC coil.Fig. 2. Dual iron cores saturated by an HTS DC coil in a single-phase FCL.II. RESONANCE EVENT DESCRIPTIONA. State of the Circuit1) Feeder Elements:The CoF is a 12kV distribution feeder servingapproximately 1,500 mostly residential customers in SanBernardino County, California. The mainline or ‘backbone’ ofthe circuit is approximately 8.5 miles long, and is comprisedof 25% overhead construction and 75% undergroundconstruction.The saturable-core fault current limiter is installed insidethe substation fence line immediately beyond the main feedercircuit breaker (CB 0 in Fig.3). The FCL is also equipped witha bypass switch.There are four shunt capacitor banks installed on the CoFfor VAR and voltage support. At the time of the event two ofthe four capacitor banks were disabled. The remaining in-service capacitor banks are rated at 1.2 MVAR and a 1.8MVAR. Both banks are connected wye ungrounded and arecapable of switching automatically. Prior to the event the 1.8MVAR bank was closed, and the 1.2 MVAR bank was open.Fig. 3. Diagram of the CoF relevant to the resonance event.The switchable capacitor banks operate on a time-biasedvoltage control. The switched capacitor banks open or close ifthe voltage is measured outside of a programmed dead-bandfor a set duration. The capacitor banks also are set to performan emergency open or close if the voltage is measured at 130V or 110 V (on a 120 V base) respectively for five seconds.The 1.8 MVAR capacitor bank is programmed to open on124.5V and close on 120.0V (on a 120V secondary basevoltage), and has a delay of 60 seconds. The 1.2 MVAR bankwas programmed to open on 125.0V and close at 121.0V (on a120V secondary base voltage) and has a delay of 180 seconds.It is important to note that the capacitor controls are set with afive minute delay before a capacitor bank can perform anotheropen or close operation. Data was sampled at CB 1 and CB 2where SEL-351 relays from the CoF’s advanced protectionscheme were monitoring and reporting A-B phase voltage, andphase current every 5 seconds.2) FCL Status Before ResonancePrior to DC bias current loss on March 16, 2009, the FCLwas operating normally. The FCL’s inductance is not a uniquenumber even during normal operating conditions, but is afunction of instantaneous AC current. The equivalentinductance of the FCL is shown in Fig. 4.
  3. 3. 2010TD0433 3Fig.4. Equivalent FCL inductance (mH) at 100 A DC and 120 A rms.Fig. 5 shows the simulation of the FCL’s induced emf at 8 volts peak.Fig.5. FCL emf in normal mode with 120A AC.An FFT analysis of the FCL voltage revealed a very cleanwaveform with less than around 3% of the third harmonic.B.Resonance Sequence of Events1) Onset:As shown in Fig. 6, at 10:10am the DC bias current sourceshut off initiating the feeder’s voltage rise.Fig.6. Line-to-line voltage between A and B phases at CB 1 for the first 18minutes of the event.Current in the DC coil took approximately 5 minutes todecay to trace levels. Fig. 7 shows the HTS coil’s DC current(blue) and its voltage (red) during the event. The coil voltagedropped from predominantly resistive 120mV topredominantly inductive -2 V, and decayed after severalminutes as the HTS current settled to zero.Fig.7. HTS coil current (blue) and voltage during the event.At 10:13am, three minutes into the event, the systemvoltage had risen above the 1.8 MVAR capacitor bank’s upperdead-band limit (12.45 kV). After 60 seconds above the dead-band limit, the 1.8 MVAR capacitor opened. Without acapacitor bank, the system voltage dropped to about 11.65kVat 10:14am. At approximately 10:17am the 1.2 MVARcapacitor bank switched in due to the system voltage beingbelow the dead-band lower limit for three minutes. This actioncaused the feeder to re-enter a resonance condition. As a resultthe voltage increased to 12.4kV. The feeder voltage remainedat 12.4 kV until the FCL was manually bypassed atapproximately 11:35am, as depicted in Fig. 8. A loudhumming sound in the FCL was due to the highmagnetostriction of the iron cores undergoing large fluxvariations. After the FCL was bypassed, the system voltagedropped to approximately 12.2kV, which was approximatelythe same voltage as before the event.Fig.8. Line-to-line voltage between A and B phase at CB 1 from 10minutes before the event to 25 minutes past the end of the event.Fig. 9 shows the line-to-line voltages, as measured by thethree potential transformers installed at the load side of theFCL. HTS current (red) also appears for reference. Bothfeeder voltage and feeder current as measured at the FCLagreed with SCE’s field data.
  4. 4. 2010TD0433 4Fig. 9 Three-phase RMS line voltages.2) Resonance Observed:The measured voltage resulted from the combination of twoopposite effects. The bus voltage increased due to resonancewith the 1.8 MVAR capacitor, while the bus voltage decreaseddue to the voltage drop across the de-saturating FCL. Whenthe event occurred, resonance effects out-weighed the FCL’svoltage-drop. A net voltage increase on the bus was measured.Note that the 1.8 MVAR capacitor bank switched out beforethe DC coil’s current decayed to trace amounts. If the DC coilhad decayed to trace amounts before the 1.8 MVAR capacitorbank opened, simulations show the line voltage would haverisen to 12.65kV. Under normal system conditions,simulations show the voltage rise due to the 1.8 MVAR andthe 1.2 MVAR capacitor banks would be about 0.2 kV and0.12 kV, respectively.When the 1.8 MVAR bank opened, the resonance conditionceased and the system voltage dropped to 11.87kV. Thisvoltage drop from 12.2 kV was due to the FCL’s voltage-dropunder de-saturating conditions. This measurement allowscomparison of the line-voltage for the saturated FCL withrespect to that for the de-saturating FCL without a maskingeffect due to resonance. The line voltage decrement from 12.2kV (saturated FCL) to 11.87 kV was caused by the FCL’svoltage drop. Furthermore, the DC current was still decreasingcausing the FCL’s voltage drop to increase, resulting in afurther decrease to 11.65 kV.III. RESONANCE ANALYSISA. Analysis from the Circuit Perspective1) Relative Inductance and Capacitance ValuesThe impedance of a single phase of a 1.2 MVAR capacitorbank is 129.6 Ω, and 86.4 Ω for a 1.8 MVAR capacitor bank.Due to the non-linear nature of the FCL, an rms value wasused. During the event, a maximum rms inductance of 0.020H, or 7.5 Ω was measured. The maximum instantaneousinductance value calculated during simulation was 0.030 H.Maximum resonance occurs when inductance and capacitanceare equal. During the event, the capacitor banks would haveneeded to be more than ten times larger to cause a worst caseresonance condition. Figures 10-12 show the PSCADsimulation results describing instantaneous inductance, rmsinductance and harmonic orders, respectively. Observe in Fig.12 that without any capacitor banks in series, the resonantfrequency rises to a very high order number beyond thegraph’s scale boundary.Also note that the PSCAD charts have an accelerated timescale due to the lengthy processing time to run the EMTDCalgorithm. At 4 seconds the 1.8 MVAR capacitor bank opens,at 7.5 seconds the 1.2 MVAR capacitor bank closes, and at15.5 seconds the FCL is bypassed.Fig. 10. FCL instantaneous inductance.Fig. 11. FCL rms inductance.Fig. 12. FCL harmonic numbers. Note the time scale wasaccelerated in PSCAD modeling.2) Load Magnitude LevelsA simplified PSCAD circuit was used, as shown in Fig. 13,to test the FCL model under normal conditions.
  5. 5. 2010TD0433 5Fig. 13. Simplified PSCAD model of CoF FCL.Prior to the event the feeder was loaded at approximately120A per phase. As a series resonance causes an increase involtage and not current, load levels remained relativelyconstant until the 1.8 MVAR capacitor bank opened.Due to distribution design practice of using shuntcapacitor banks for VAR supply and voltage support, thepower factor was leading at the time of the event. Justbefore the 1.8 MVAR capacitor bank opened, about 1.1MVAR was flowing through CB 0 back to the source.When the 1.8 MVAR capacitor bank opened, 0.5 MVARVARs was supplied by the substation source, causing theload to drop by a net 0.6 MVAR, about 25A.When the 1.2 MVAR bank closed, an excess of reactivepower was supplied by the 1.2 MVAR bank and the currentincreased by approximately 12A. Figures 14 and 15describe the calculated MVAR demand on the load side ofCB 0 and the load side of the FCL, respectively. Figure 16illustrates the measured phase current on phase A.Fig. 14. Simulated MVAR demand at CB 0.Fig. 15. Simulated MVAR demand downstream of the FCL.Fig. 15. Simulated MVAR demand downstream of the FCL.Fig. 16. Ia measured at CB 1. Note there are about 20A of loadbetween CB 0 and CB 1.B. Analysis from the Fault Current Limiter Perspective1) Simulations of Normal Operating ConditionsThe induced emf across each phase of the FCL is a functionof DC bias and AC load currents [6,7]. It can be representedby the following function:maxmaxmaxmax)2()()1(),,,()(IitiLiemfIiItiKIBiAntiiBAniemfacairacacsataccoreacaccoreacac≥∂∂−=≤≤−∂∂ℑ−=∂∂∂∂−=Where:nac is the number of AC turns per coil,Acore is the core cross section contained by the AC coil,iac is the instantaneous line current,Bsat is the magnetic flux density in the core material atsaturation. The derivative of B with respect to iac is a functionof geometry, DC bias current, and AC load current.Imax is the maximum AC peak current needed to fully de-saturate the cores,K accounts for the level of DC bias current,Lair is the equivalent air-core inductance of a single AC coil,ℑ is the FCL function.2) Simulations of DC Current Loss ConditionsThe PSCAD model in Fig. 13 was adapted to simulate theDC bias current loss and the resonance phenomenon. The
  6. 6. 2010TD0433 6results closely simulate the actual DC bias current decay asshown by the black curve in Fig. 17. The event was simulatedby estimating the transient decay of the DC bias current andcalculating the transient increase of the FCL inductance. Thiscan be compared with Fig. 7 which shows measured DCcurrent decay.Fig. 17. DC bias current loss and line voltage dynamics.Fig. 18 shows the simulation of the FCL voltage over aperiod of several minutes. The voltage increased steadily overthat period, reaching a peak value of 700V at the time ofcomplete loss of DC bias current.Fig.18. FCL emf during the loss of DC bias current event.Fig. 19 shows the rms value of the FCL voltage drop. At theend of the DC bias current decay, the maximum FCL voltagedrop was of the order of 400V rms.Fig.19. rms FCL emf during loss of DC bias current event.An FFT of the computed bus voltage was simultaneouslyperformed. As the FCL model transitioned deeper into de-saturation; the 3rd, 5th, 7th& 9thharmonics started to appear insuccession as illustrated in Fig. 20. The fundamentalfrequency component showed a substantial increase from 6Vunder saturated conditions, to about 800V under loss of DCbias current.Fig. 20. FFT of FCL voltage with harmonic contentFig. 21 shows the simulated transient dynamics of theequivalent FCL inductance during this period. As the DCcurrent decreased exponentially, the instantaneous AC currentwas able to alternately swing the cores more and more into de-saturation and saturation. This was reflected in terms of largerswings in the instantaneous values of inductance riding uponan almost linear increase in inductance as shown in Fig. 21.This also relates with the observed increase of the fundamentalcomponent of the FCL’s emf during the event, which in turnproduced a linear increase in the line voltage (color traces inFig. 17).3) Simulations of Increased Load CurrentA series of simulations with increasing AC load current,keeping everything else constant, were analyzed to determineif there was a certain load current value that would yield avoltage rise due to resonance equal and opposite to the FCL’svoltage drop.
  7. 7. 2010TD0433 7Fig.21. Instantaneous FCL Inductance during loss of DC bias current event.It was found that at a load current of approximately 250A,the two effects were equal and opposite, and bus voltage nolonger increased despite a DC bias current loss condition. SeeFig. 22 for simulated bus voltage at 250A load current.Fig. 22. Simulated bus voltage with AC load of 250A (includes DCcurrent decay).For AC loads exceeding 250A, the FCL voltage dropalways out weighed the resonance voltage effects and thebus voltage decreased when simulating the loss of DC biascurrent. Fig. 23 depicts the bus voltage drop at 700A loadcurrent.Fig. 23. Simulated bus voltage with AC load of 700 A(includes DCcurrent decay).IV. CONCLUSIONSA. Operation Under Low AC CurrentIt was confirmed that the PSCAD FCL model was capableof closely reproducing the loss of DC bias current event andthe resonance condition that followed, as illustrated in Fig. 24.Fig.24. Simulated (blue trace) vs. measured line-to-ground voltage.It was shown that the instantaneous FCL inductance showsincreasing swings riding upon a quasi-exponential rise ininductance as the FCL’s DC bias current collapses (see Fig.18). The steady increase in inductance occurs as the FCLcurrent swings over increasing inductance slopes in themagnetization curve. The protuberance on the FCL inductancein Figs. 18-19 is caused by the increased third harmoniccomponent that develops as the magnetic core loses the DCbias current.This phenomenon causes an increase in the FCL’s rmsvoltage. This in turn sums with the source voltage, yieldingthe increased line voltage observed in Fig. 17 and identifiedhere as a resonant condition.
  8. 8. 2010TD0433 8B. Operation Under Increased AC CurrentIt was found that at 250 A of load current, the voltage risedue to resonance was exactly equal in magnitude and ofopposite polarity to the FCL’s voltage drop, and the busvoltage no longer increased. At load currents in excess of 250A the line voltage always decreased when simulating loss ofDC bias current.C. Practical Aspects in Dealing with Risk of ResonanceConditonsBased in the lessons learned from this experience, thefollowing aspects should be considered when dealing withresonance risk under application of FCL’s:1) DesignIn the design process simulate resonance, includingcapacitor banks in the line where the FCL is to be installed atdifferent loading conditions, to check for extraordinary eventsin the controller’s logic. This entails an increased FCLinductance under de-saturation condition.2) OperationThe ideal protection against resonance under loss of FCLDC bias conditions is to immediately bypass the FCL. Giventhat the event evolves relatively slowly, an automated switchthat can operate on the order of seconds is consideredadequate.Fixed capacitor banks should be avoided. Switchablecapacitor banks can be disconnected automatically, should theautomated bypass switch fails to close.Lastly, base loading of the circuit should be increased, ifoperating conditions allow it.REFERENCES[1] Schmitt, H., Amon, J. Braun,D., Damstra, G., Hartung, K-H, Jager, J.,Kida, J, Kunde, K., Le, Q., Martini, L., Steurer, M., Umbricht, Ch,Waymel, X, and Neumann, C., “Fault Current Limiters – Applications,Principles and Experience”, CIGRE WG A3.16, CIGRE SC A3&B3Joint Colloquium in Tokyo, 2005[2] CIGRE Working Group, “Guideline of the impacts of Fault CurrentLimiting Devices on Protection Systems”. CIGRE publishing, VolA3.16, February 2008. Standard FCL and Cigre[3] CIGRE Working Group, “Fault Current Limiters in Electrical mediumand high voltage systems”. GIGRE publishing, Vol A3.10, December2003.[4] [5] Noe. M, Eckroad. S, Adapa. R, “Progress on the R&D of FaultCurrent Limiters for Utility Applications,” in Conf. Rec. 2008 IEEE Int.Conf Power and Energy Society General Meeting pp.1-2.[5] Orpe, S. and Nirmal-Kummar, C.Nair, “State of Art of Fault CurrentLimiters and their Impact on Overcurrent Protection”, EEA ApexNorthern Summit 08, November 2008, Power Systems Research Group,The University of Auckland[6] Moriconi, F. “Loss of DC Bias –Resonance Study”, Zenergy Power,South San Francisco, CA, Internal Report, April 6, 2009.[7] Moriconi, F., Darmann, F., Lombaerde, R., “Design, Test andDemostration of Saturable Core Reactor HTS Fault Current Limiter”,U.S. Department of Energy Anual Peer Review,. Alexandria, VA, Aug4-6, 2009.BIOGRAPHIESChristopher Clarke joined Southern California Edison in April 2004. Hisprimary experience at SCE includes distribution analysis, distributionplanning, and power systems modeling. He earned a Bachelor of Sciencedegree in Electrical Engineering from the University of California at LosAngeles, and is pursuing a Master of Science degree in Electrical Engineeringat the University of Southern California. He is a registered professionalengineer in the State of California and a member of the IEEE.Franco Moriconi leads Zenergy’s engineering effort in the development of acommercial superconducting fault current limiter. Under his technicalleadership Zenergy installed and energized its first-ever HTS FCL in the USelectric grid. He has being practicing engineering since 1992, when he firstjoined ABB Corporate Research, actively leading R&D work in the areas ofnumerical methods and FE simulations, short-circuit strength and noisereduction of power transformers, GIS switchgear technology, and high-speedelectrical motors and generators. He participated in two IEC working groups,and was the Convener of the IEC Scientific Committee 17C on seismicqualification of gas insulated switchgear. Currently, he is an active memberof the IEEE Task Force on FCL Testing. He earned a Bachelor of Sciencedegree and a Master of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering from UCBerkeley. He is the co-author of six patents in the field of HV and MVelectrical machines.Amandeep Singh has been with Zenergy Power Inc. since January 2008. Heholds a Bachelor of Electronics & Telecommunications degree from GNEC,Ludhiana (Punjab). He has worked for ten years in utility generation,transmission and distribution sectors for plant control systems, sub-stationO&M and distribution system planning, augmentation, metering and revenuehandling. He has an EIT in the State of California and is pursuing aprofessional engineer’s registration. He is a member of IEEE.Ardalan Kamiab Earned a B.S. E.E. degree at California State Polytechnic,Pomona, CA, and a Project Manager Professional Certification from theUniversity of California Irvine. He is presently Project Manager of the“Smart Grid System of the Future” at Southern California Edison (SCE).Previously he was Project Manager responsible for implementing the design,construction, and operation of the “Circuit of the Future” at SCE. He has alsospecialized in the area of power quality related to Customer facilities. As anSCE Senior Field Engineer, Ardalan was lead for Distribution SubstationAnnual Load Planning for two key zones of the SCE system. He also hasextensive experience in substation automation utilizing state of the artelectronic relaying and communication schemes in both distribution and hydrogeneration systems. He is a registered professional engineer and a member ofIEEE Power Engineering Society: Distribution Automation and IntelligentGrid.Russ Neal is a Strategic Program Manager for Southern California Edison,specializing in Smart Grid with an emphasis on distribution. Mr. Neal holds aBSEE from the US Naval Academy, an MEEE from the University of Idaho,and an MBA from Azusa Pacific University. He is a registered ProfessionalEngineer in both Electrical and Nuclear Engineering in the State of California.His previous experience includes five years as an officer in the surface nuclearNavy, seventeen years at Southern California Edison’s San Onofre NuclearGenerating Station, and twelve years in the Transmission and DistributionBusiness Unit including service in distribution apparatus engineering, as adistrict superintendent, and as Manager of Distribution System Engineering.Alonso Rodriguez has worked thirty-nine years in the electrical powerindustry in the U.S and Mexico. This experience includes: system planning,operation, and maintenance of public and private generation and powerdelivery systems; project management; applied research and development;commercialization of utility products; manufacturing quality control; nuclearpower plant quality assurance; and fourteen years as graduate powerengineering instructor at the University of Southern California. He earned aPhD in Electrical Power engineering from the University of SouthernCalifornia. Currently he holds a faculty visiting associate appointment inEngineering and Applied Science at the California Institute of Technology. Heis a member of IEEE.Francisco De La Rosa joined Zenergy Power, Inc. in April 2008 at the timethe Company was embarked in the development of the first HTS FCLprototype that would become a utility tested unit. He has held variouspositions in R&D, consultancy and training in the electric power industry foraround 30 years. His fields of interest include the smart grid concept,applications of superconductivity in power systems, power quality, and powersystem protection in utilities and industry. Francisco holds a PhD degree fromUppsala University, Sweden. He is a Collective Member of CIGRE and aSenior Member of IEEE PES where he contributes in several WG’s.Nick Koshnick is a consulting engineer with Zenergy Power with expertise inelectrical and electromagnetic modeling and superconductivity. He earned aPhD in applied Physics from Stanford University in early 2009.