Inductive shielded superconducting fault current limiter: test results for scaled model

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Results of measurements with a downscaled model of a novel superconducting inductive Shielded Fault Current Limiter (iSFCL) based on 2nd generation HTS material are reported. Two different types of …

Results of measurements with a downscaled model of a novel superconducting inductive Shielded Fault Current Limiter (iSFCL) based on 2nd generation HTS material are reported. Two different types of models were tested, one with an open iron core and one with a closed iron core. The operational characteristics of both systems with focus on the superconducting secondary modules in normal operation and in quenching mode with quench times of up to 500 ms are analyzed. The HTS modules are based on 40 mm wide YBCO coated conductors with a high-ohmic protection layer and an external shunt system. Further development/testing program includes a 3-phase-field trial, where a full scale technology demonstrator (15-MVA class) will be integrated in the distribution grid of the utility Stadtwerke Augsburg in Germany. This joint project of Schneider Electric, Bruker HTS, Bruker Advanced Supercon and Stadtwerke Augsburg is supported by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi)

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  • 1. Federal Ministryof Economicsand TechnologySponsored by:Mandated by ParliamentFederal Republic of Germany5LB-05 Inductive Shielded SuperconductingFault Current Limiter:Test Results for Scaled ModelF. Moriconi1, A. Usoskin2, A. Henning3, S. Schmidt3, K. Bäuml4, T. Janetschek51Bruker EST, Fremont, CA, USA, 2Bruker HTS GmbH, Alzenau, 3Bruker Advanced Supercon GmbH, Cologne,Germany, 4Schneider Electric Sachsenwerk GmbH, Regensburg, Germany, 5Stadtwerke Augsburg EnergieGmbH, Augsburg, Germany.
  • 2. Bruker ESTIndustrial PlantOutline• Product Development• Application 10.6 kV• Principle of Operation iSFCL• Prototype test results• Model Validation• Future Work• Q&AASC 2012 – Portland-Oct 12 - oral # 5LB-05 2
  • 3. Bruker ESTPlanned iSFCL in AugsburgSubstationiSFCLIndustrial PlantFederal Ministryof Economicsand TechnologySponsored by:Mandated by ParliamentFederal Republic of GermanyiSFCL Funded Project• ProjectInductive shielded superconducting fault current limiter(iSFCL) as a "smart grid" device for energy efficiencyand security of electricity supply• ApplicationFault current management in Augsburg networkconnecting substation to an industrial plant MTU OnsiteEnergy (manufacturing and testing of CHP plants)• Partners3ASC 2012 – Portland-Oct 12 - oral # 5LB-05
  • 4. Bruker ESTMTU On-Site Power – 10.6 kViSFCL Technical RequirementsAugsburg InstallationLine Voltage = 10.6 kVRated Current = 817 AProspective Peak = 25.1 kAProspective Symmetric = 10.1 kALimited Peak < 5 kALimited Symmetric < 2 kAFault Duration 500 ms10.6 kV80% FaultReductionAdditional requirements• Active losses smaller than forcomparable Current LimitingReactor CLR (including cryo-losses)• Low maintenance• Fail Safe4ASC 2012 – Portland-Oct 12 - oral # 5LB-05
  • 5. Bruker ESTiSFCL Technical RequirementsAugsburg InstallationMTU On-Site Power – 10.6 kVLine Voltage = 10.6 kVRated Current = 817 A10.6 kV5Property iSFCL 15-MVA reactorTotal impedance(normal operation)1.4 Ω ⇒Voltage change Uϕ~5%2.7 Ω ⇒Voltage change Uϕ~10%Operating losses 45 – 50 kW(incl. cryogenics)95 kWImpedance increase atfaultFactor 2 noneFault current limitationfirst peakFactor 5 Factor 5ASC 2012 – Portland-Oct 12 - oral # 5LB-05
  • 6. Bruker ESTiSFCL Advantages• Low operating losses compared to conventional reactors, lowresistive losses/cryo-losses, and low insertion impedance• Low voltage drop under normal operating conditions• Fail-safe triggering through material properties / no activetrigger / no control needed• Fast response time (first peak is limited)• Self-recovery• Long fault duration (up to 500 ms and possibly longer)• Easy configurability of key operating parameters (switchingcurrent)• Scalable due to flexible design (in size, power and voltage)• Smaller than competing technologies for similar performances6ASC 2012 – Portland-Oct 12 - oral # 5LB-05
  • 7. Bruker ESTNormal Operating Conditions• HTS is superconducting⇒ no magnetic field penetrates the HTS shield⇒ reduced flux linkage of primary winding⇒ primary inductance mainly due to stray fields⇒ small insertion impedance⇒ primary winding smaller than a comparable air coilreactorFault Conditions• HTS becomes normal conducting⇒ magnetic flux penetrates shield and iron core⇒ increased flux linkage of primary winding⇒ large impedance gainCBPrimary coilLoadCryostatSuperconducting short-circuitedsecondaryCBPrimary coilLoadCryostatSuperconducting short-circuitedsecondaryiSFCL Principle of Operation7ASC 2012 – Portland-Oct 12 - oral # 5LB-05
  • 8. Bruker EST0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%0 500 1000 1500 2000VOLTAGEDROPACROSSFCL[%ofSourceV]LIMITED CURRENT – PRIMARY [A]Air CoreIron CoreShieldedUnshieldedGAIN (2-3)iSFCLiSFCL Principle of Operation8ShieldedIron-coreAir-CoreIron-CoreUnshieldedIron-CoreQuenched ShieldASC 2012 – Portland-Oct 12 - oral # 5LB-05
  • 9. Bruker EST2500mmiSFCL DESIGN9ShieldASC 2012 – Portland-Oct 12 - oral # 5LB-05
  • 10. Bruker ESTOpen-Core Prototype10Core Area 358 cm2 Core Height 710 mmCore Weight 230 Kg ID Primary 454 mmOD Primary 625 mm H Primary 140 mm# of Turns 20 Inductance 240 µH (air core)# of Modules 3 Inductance 470 µH (iron core)HTS Current 6 kA HTS Material 12 mASC 2012 – Portland-Oct 12 - oral # 5LB-05
  • 11. Bruker ESTTest Circuit11V Source = 300 V AmplitudeZ Source = 0.154 Ohms (mainly resistive)Z Load = 0.937 Ohms (power factor 0.98)• Load Current Only• Short-Circuit• Long Duration Short-CircuitASC 2012 – Portland-Oct 12 - oral # 5LB-05
  • 12. Bruker ESTCircuit Calibration12-2000-1500-1000-5000500100015002000-500-400-300-200-1000100200300400500 0.000.010.020.030.040.050.060.070.080.090.100.110.120.130.140.150.160.170.180.190.200.210.22CURRENT[A]VOLTAGE[V]Time [s]Source Voltage Prospective CurrentI prospective= 1950 AI Load= 285 AASC 2012 – Portland-Oct 12 - oral # 5LB-05
  • 13. Bruker ESTOpen-Core iSFCL Measurements13-2000-1500-1000-5000500100015002000-200-150-100-500501001502000.000.010.020.030.040.050.060.070.080.090.100.110.120.130.140.150.160.170.180.190.200.210.22CURRENT[A]VOLTAGE[V]Time [s]Voltage iSFCL Prospective Current Limited CurrentZ pre-fault= 55 mΩ16V, 285AInductance 175 µΗZ fault= 143 mΩ187V, 1285AInductance 455 µΗImpedance GAIN= 2.6ASC 2012 – Portland-Oct 12 - oral # 5LB-05
  • 14. Bruker ESTiSFCL MeasurementsQuench Stability and Robustness14-1500-1000-5000500100015000 0,02 0,04 0,06 0,08 0,1 0,12 0,14 0,16 0,18 0,2 0,22CurrentinATime in sComparisonOpen Core 20120117-12 and 20120127-19I 20120117-12 I 20120127-19Î = 325A(20120117-12)Î = 325A(20120117-12)Î = 275A(20120127-19)-200-150-100-500501001502000 0,02 0,04 0,06 0,08 0,1 0,12 0,14 0,16 0,18 0,2 0,22VoltageinVTime in sComparisonOpen Core 20120117-12 and 20120127-19U 20120117-12 U 20120127-19NO DEGRADATION of PERFORMANCEAFTER SEVERAL QUENCHES (~100)ASC 2012 – Portland-Oct 12 - oral # 5LB-05
  • 15. Bruker ESTiSFCL MeasurementsLong Duration Short-Circuit15~0.5 s faults were achievedShunt resistance must be revised-600-400-2000200400600-150-100-500501001500 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5CurrentinAVoltageinVTime in sVoltage at iSFCL CurrentASC 2012 – Portland-Oct 12 - oral # 5LB-05
  • 16. Bruker ESTQuench Model Validation16-0.20.00.20.40.60.81.01.21.41.61.82.02.20.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1E/EcJ/JcMeasured (J/Jc)^43 Power FunctionASC 2012 – Portland-Oct 12 - oral # 5LB-05
  • 17. Bruker ESTFinite Elements Model Validation17-2000-1500-1000-50005001000150020000.000.010.020.030.040.050.060.070.080.090.100.110.120.130.140.150.160.170.180.190.200.210.22CURRENT[A]Time [s]Prospective Current Limited Current Limited Current Predicted0.75 TMeasured Measured3 mTASC 2012 – Portland-Oct 12 - oral # 5LB-05
  • 18. Bruker ESTFinite Elements Model Validation180.75 TMeasured3 mT-200-150-100-500501001502000.000.010.020.030.040.050.060.070.080.090.100.110.120.130.140.150.160.170.180.190.200.210.22VOLTAGE[V]Time [s]Voltage iSFCL Voltage iSFCL PredictedASC 2012 – Portland-Oct 12 - oral # 5LB-05
  • 19. Bruker ESTFrom Prototype to Full-Scale192500mmPrototype Full-Scale358 Core Area cm2 1250710 Core Height mm 2500230 Core Weight Kg 2750454 ID Primary mm 977625 OD Primary mm 1180140 H Primary mm 60020 # of Turns # 740.24 Inductance air-core mH 50.47 Inductance iron-core mH 163 # of Modules # 106 HTS Current kA 5012 HTS Material m 250ASC 2012 – Portland-Oct 12 - oral # 5LB-05
  • 20. Bruker EST25 I [kA]15102050Predicted Performance iSFCL Augsburg10.6kV, 817A, 80% Fault Reduction2025kA PEAK5kA PEAKASC 2012 – Portland-Oct 12 - oral # 5LB-05
  • 21. Bruker ESTFuture Work• Perform AC Losses Measurements (CAPS)• Assemble and test Full-Scale HTS Modules• Integrate single-phase 12 kV- 820A device• High-Power and HV testing of single-phase• Build, Test and Commission 12kV, 3-PhaseAugsburg Installation21ASC 2012 – Portland-Oct 12 - oral # 5LB-05
  • 22. www.bruker-est.comASC 2012 – Portland-Oct 12 - oral # 5LB-05