LO4 Demonstrate professional values of commitment to participation in learning communities and to continuing professional development, including increasing self-awareness and reflective learning.
Write for THREE MINUTES without stopping. No rules EXCEPT you must NOT stop writing. You can write what you want. Share your thoughts on the process with the person sitting next to you. How did you find it?
“Thinking writing”: we think differently when we write. http://www.thinkingwriting.qmul.ac.uk/ You can get “stuff off your chest”. You can think “out of the box”. “I don‟t normally get the chance to write what I want. I like it.” Can provide good “source” material for discussion/essays. THIS IS RELEVANT TO „PREMISE RELECTION‟!
What is learning? How do we measure it? What is “reflection”? What role does reflection play in learning?
The social cognition learning model asserts that culture is the prime determinant of individual development. Humans are the only species to have created culture, and every human child develops in the context of a culture. Therefore, a child‟s learning development is affected in ways large and small by the culture–including the culture of family environment–in which he or she is enmeshed.
Learning can‟t be separated off from culture. Therefore cultural assumptions and norms that frame learning have to be examined and interrogated as much as “what is being learnt”.
When discussing the „scholarship of teaching model‟ Kreber (2004, p. 31) highlights three main areas of knowledge that are relevant to the teacher: Instructional = delivery modes, eg PowerPoint, worksheets Pedagogical = devising effective learning Curricular = aims and purposes of
The instructional mode can DOMINATE, eg you‟re given a text book, a lecture, a worksheet, and you “dish it out” to the students -- particularly if you‟re not confident, in a rush, keen to impress your superior The tutor becomes a “tool” for a higher authority – ieDANGERS whoever devised the instructional materials… You‟ve at least got some material to teach! You won‟t „run out‟! You have the security blanket of a worksheet, a PowerPoint; you have a path, a road, a map… You‟re “on message” – doing what you‟ve beenPERKS asked to do. You may well “please” your managers etc.
Kreber goes on to outline another model of teacher-reflection which involves considering “emancipatory” learning. He writes: “important aspects of learning do not occur on the basis of subjective understanding and consensus within a given social context but involve a critical analysis of how certain norms and conditions have come about. This is the
FREE WRITING EXERCISE Why is it important to study your subject? Why is your subject being studied at degree level and other levels? Who sets the agenda in your subject and why? What core values underwrite your pedagogical approach when teaching your subject? (Teacher = authority, student = novice)
Why exactly were we studying this text/material? What gave it its canonical status? What shared assumptions had caused it to be perceived as so important? These are the sorts of questions that Snapper (2009) feels need to be asked more on English Literature courses.
Why are you teaching the texts/material you are? Have you chosen them? If yes, why? If not, why not? What norms and underlying assumptions are suggested by their place on the curriculum?
How did you find the exercise? Share with a partner. Report back: Write/think, pair, share… You are beginning to do what Kreber calls “premise reflection”.
Kreber puts forward the argument that in order for learning to be transformative, the teacher needs not to reflect upon their practice after the event, but to reflect upon why they are teaching a subject before they teach it.
“It seems that when we critically question whether it is important to learn about PowerPoint, or to incorporate (planned) humour in the classroom, we need to engage in premise reflection. Learning about teaching, then, may sometimes need to begin with premise reflection in order to be meaningful. Interestingly, premise reflection, however, was the least often identified form of reflection in the first study. Indeed, we may be successful self-regulators in our learning about teaching, but all we ever do when setting our learning goals is to engage in content reflection. This is to say, that we proceed from assumptions we
Interestingly, „premise reflection‟ does not feature as a model for reflective learning at all in Clegg et al when they investigated the link between Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and Reflective Practice (2002). They used a model outlined in Figure 1, which examined Immediate and Deferred Reflection and Action; an important issue that they highlighted was that it can be difficult to unpick what is reflection and action in the CPD context,
“What is clear from our study is that the ways in which individuals engage with professional development involve a complex negotiation of the relationship between reflective and active components. If we are to better understand this relationship, then we need to take full account of the contexts within which such engagement takes place. At a structural level, issues that drive policy development, such as notions of professional competence, and the need to develop new skills and technologies, influence the relationship between reflection and action (p. 145)”
Implicit pedagogical models in many universities/depts are very much a “top-down” paradigm, which Friere characterises as viewing learning as a form of “banking” (1992). There was a clear hierarchy of power involved; the lecturer was the expert, the most important mediator of knowledge, and the students were supposed to “bank” his knowledge in their notebooks and minds before attending a seminar which would re-inforce the fundamental lessons of the lecture. The seminar was supposed to involve a more “active” approach to the material, but without careful planning could easily turn into a replication of
The English department at the University of Gloucester encourage their students to be involved in the international research community. One of their activities is cited in Linking Teaching and Research (2007): Arran Stibbe allows his students to take on the identity of a researcher right from the start of their time at university. He encourages his students to think of themselves as contributors to the research community, actively exploring the texts which surround them and sharing insights with the community. (p. 48)
Sue Clegg, Jon Tan & Saeideh Saeidi (2002): Reflecting or Acting?Reflective Practice and Continuing Professional Development in Higher Education, Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 3:1, 131- 146 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14623940220129924 Friere, P (1992) The Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Penguin. Jenkins A, Healey M, Zetter R (2007), Linking Teaching and Research (April 2007), Linking teaching and research in disciplines and departments. http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/documents/LinkingT eachingAndResearch_April07.pdf Kreber C (2004) ‟An Analysis of Two Models Of Reflection And Their Implications For educational Development.’ International Journal for Academic Development 9 (1): 29- 49 Vygotsky, L, (1962) Thought and Language. (MIT Press)