PLEASE INSERT STUDENT NUMBER                                                            33235046 DRAFT             PACE Su...
PLEASE INSERT STUDENT NUMBER                                                                   33235046DRAFT              ...
PLEASE INSERT STUDENT NUMBER                                                                         33235046DRAFTWHY IS L...
PLEASE INSERT STUDENT NUMBER                                                                   33235046DRAFThe seems to po...
PLEASE INSERT STUDENT NUMBER                                                                                  33235046DRAF...
PLEASE INSERT STUDENT NUMBER                                                                  33235046DRAFT“The day the fi...
PLEASE INSERT STUDENT NUMBER                                                                     33235046DRAFTLovelace, E....
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Nation states 1st_assignment.._draft

  1. 1. PLEASE INSERT STUDENT NUMBER 33235046 DRAFT PACE Submission Front Sheet 33235046 STUDENT/ REG No8 DIGIT NUMBER ON ID BADGE COLLEGE EMAIL B.A. Social and Cultural Studies 2011-2014 PROGRAMME NAME & YEAR CU51012A MODULE CODE TUTOR NAME 1,709 WORD COUNT DRAFT DEADLINE 7th December 2011 DATE OF 7th December 2011 SUBMISSION Essay or Assignment Title (type in grey box below) Please ensure when you submit your assignment that you attach the following documents; 1. Submission Front Sheet 2. Plagiarism Document 3. Mitigating Evidence form if applicable 4. Disability Front Sheet if applicable Page 1/7
  2. 2. PLEASE INSERT STUDENT NUMBER 33235046DRAFT Definition of PlagiarismPlagiarism is an attempt (deliberate or inadvertent) to gain advantage by therepresentation of another persons work, without acknowledgement of thesource, as the students own for the purposes of satisfying formal assessmentrequirements.Recognised forms of plagiarism include 1. the use in a students own work of more than a single phrase from another persons work without the use of quotation marks and acknowledgement of the source; 2. the summarising of another persons work by simply changing a few works or altering the order of presentation, without acknowledgement; 3. the use of ideas or intellectual data of another person without acknowledgement of the source, or the submission or presentation of work as if it were the students own, which are substantially the ideas or intellectual data of another person; 4. copying the work of another person; 5. the submission of work, as if it were the students own, which has been obtained from the internet or any other form of information technology; 6. the submission of coursework making significant use of unattributed digital images such as graphs, tables, photographs, etc. taken from books/articles, the internet or from the work of another person; 7. the submission of a piece of work which has previously been assessed for a different award or module or at a different institution as if it were new work; 8. a student who allows or is involved in allowing, either knowingly or unknowingly, another student to copy anothers work including physical or digital images would be deemed to be guilty of plagiarism. 9. If plagiarism is suspected students will be required to supply an electronic copy of the work in question so that it may be subjected to electronic plagiarism detection testing. Therefore students are required to keep work electronically until after they receive their results as electronic detection may be part of the investigative process.Source: Assessment Handbook 15f. In submitting this work I confirm I have read and understood the regulations relating to plagiarism and academic misconduct that I signed when I submitted my Assessment Confirmation Form. ASSIGNMENT TITLE Page 2/7
  3. 3. PLEASE INSERT STUDENT NUMBER 33235046DRAFTWHY IS LANGUAGE SUCH AN IMPORTANT ISSUE IN CARIBBEANLITERATURE? ILLUSTRATE YOUR ANSWER WITH REFERENCE TO ATLEAST TWO WRITERS.“How calm and tranquil look these negro huts,Their fruit-trees round, and scattered cocoa-nuts!Their dear security the negro loves...” (Chapman, 1833, Barbados)Language is an important issue in Caribbean literature because it can be seen as ameans of questioning Caribbean heritage and solves the mysteries surroundingCaribbean identities. An important aspect of Caribbean language is creolization whichis an aspect of Caribbean history. The mingling of slaves from different parts ofAfrica across the Caribbean meant they had to communicate in a way which wasdifferent from their original means of communication and that of their masters. This isan aspect of creolization and must be looked into when understanding how importantlanguage is in Caribbean literature. Also the idea of conformity by predecessors totheir masters as they imposed their norms makes the language used in Caribbeanliterature essential in the sense that; should Caribbean literature be comprehended as atrue genuine thing originated from the Caribbean or simply a product of Englishliterature and other colonial masters.28th August 1833 saw the Act for the Abolition of Slavery throughout the BritishColonies; for promoting the Industry of the manumitted Slaves; and for compensatingthe Persons hitherto entitled to the Services of such Slaves. All Persons who on the 1stAugust 1834 shall have been registered as Slaves, and shall appear on the Registry tobe Six Years old or upwards, shall from that Day become apprenticed Labourers 1.M.J. Chapman, a Caribbean poet wrote in this era; 1833, a poem called „Barbados‟which expresses notions of freedom. It can be argued however that the poem is anidyll and does quite distort reality. An idyll is said to be an extremely happy, peacefulor picturesque period or situation, typically an idealized or unsustainable one2.If the Act for the Abolition of Slavery saw the Slaves become registered asapprenticed Labourers, surely the level of their freedom is still in question as theywere still required to do physical labour jobs under their master as an apprentice.Therefore Chapman‟s expressions can be considered an idyll and a distortion toreality. “The negroes now desert the master‟s field, And seek the joys that dearesthome can yield” (Chapman, 1833, Barbados) presents to its readers a sense ofhappiness that follows freedom from oppression. Words such as “desert” can have apunning meaning which has multi-effects on the meaning of what Chapman intended.Although “desert” in this sense could mean to depart for good, it also paints a pictureof huge space as “desert” can refer to the acres of space on earth such as the Sahara.This space could represent freedom metaphorically and the idea of “desert themaster‟s field”, although meaning to leave for good; combined with its punningmeaning, could be the poet‟s expression of becoming free. Supported with “joys thatdearest home can yield” the sentence then becomes the definition of an idyll, a happysituation. Home being described as “dearest” helps emphasise how wonderful thisfreedom is, but it is “Home” that underlines this freedom as it is often associated witha sense of belonging. It is almost as if Chapman‟s sense of identity grows stronger as1 Oxforddictionaries ( Page 3/7
  4. 4. PLEASE INSERT STUDENT NUMBER 33235046DRAFThe seems to portray a sense of Caribbean identity in “Barbados” positively. “Howcalm and tranquil look these negro huts”, sums up the poem as a whole. The poemmirrors a fantasy as Chapman expresses joys within a poem written during the time ofthe Abolition of Slavery.From the view of a Ghanaian Identity with an English upbringing; considering theBritish were Colonial Masters of the Ghanaians, up until Ghana being the first blackAfrican country to gain independence on the 6th March 19573, Chapman‟s views in“Barbados” shows optimism which is a positive for not just Caribbean identities butAfrican identities as well, simply because our history is also one of oppression andfreedom just like Chapman‟s poem “The negroes that desert our masters field” whichclearly outlines oppression and freedom, and the Ghana National Anthem that is titled“God Bless Our Homeland Ghana” and has a very powerful, emotional quote “Andhelp us to resist oppressors rule with all our will”. Although a religious quote, as Godis asked for patience to live through oppression, the fact that it is still singed todayshows the significance of Colonialism in Ghanaian/African identity. Growing up inBritain feels home simply because they were once the Colonial Masters of ourAncestors and like our Anthem shows, it is appreciated decades onwards from theperiod of Colonialism. In relation to what has just been touched on about Ghanaianidentity combined with Britishness, the Abolition of Slavery in 1833 throughout allBritish Colonies seems to create that excitement and appreciation for the ColonialMaster in the piece of work from Chapman in 1833 “Barbados”, which is an idyll anddistorts reality, but in a positive way.There is, to take a final example only, the figure of the African Daaga, described inthe last chapter of Joseph‟s History of Trinidad, who in 1837 led a brief and ill-prepared mutiny of the 1st West India Regiment in his determination to take hisfollowers back to Guinea. (Lewis, 1983, p.228-229) Identity is a problem. Althoughthe 1833 abolition of slavery saw “Negro” Slaves free of slavery, their identities werenever really recovered. Despite the argument that the transition from Slaves to labourApprentices is not exactly in itself a positive transition as they mirror the samepurpose, the fact that their heritage has been taken hence their identities transformedfrom what it could have originally been from their intended social context, theirfreedom is further in question which makes the idyll presentation in „Barbados‟ adistortion to reality. Their freedom was not necessarily a “dear” return “home” as they“desert their master‟s”. The language placed by Chapman in „Barbados‟ could simplybe outlining how important that little step to self proclamation is after theemancipation of slavery. Use of language and metaphors picture the sweetness of thefreedom which is really important to Caribbean literature when the mixture ofdifferent African identities is considered within Caribbean culture. Even today, theymay be free of their master but their unknown African heritage still lays over themwhich bring the question of whether they are free in terms of knowledge of truth.“I noticed he kept looking towards the east, watching as I conjecture the firstappearance of the morning star... „How is dis? I can‟t put dis meat in Quaco‟scoffin‟... He ate it all up and placed the empty gourd in the coffin.” (From MichaelScott‟s Tom Pringle‟s Log) Two different language registers are used in this passage.Register can be considered the language style and vocabulary appropriate to particular3 Page 4/7
  5. 5. PLEASE INSERT STUDENT NUMBER 33235046DRAFTcircumstances4. Here, the writer uses two different language style and vocabulary todifferentiate between the two characters within the poem. The first tone or register inthe opening line is presented the view from whereas the second is viewed as. It ispresumed from register in the first voice that it is the white man mimicking orspeaking for the black man as the story is being told about the black man. Thedifferent dialects differentiate. Dialect is a regional, social or subordinate variety of alanguage, differing distinctively from the standard language3. The rather informaldialect is read out from the interpretation of the black man from the white man. Theuse of different register and dialect is important to point out how the two races withinthat era did not only differ in skin colour and in social class but intellectually as well.It in a way brings to an understanding that the intellectual capability of the master wasthe key to their position over the colonialists.The white mans perceptions are perceived as correct and the norm whereas the blackmans is the complete opposite; queer in another sense. “He could understand howdevotees in pagan lands were moved at time almost madness by the call andcompulsion of their strange and horrible religions.” (de Lisser, 1929, The WhiteWitch of Rosehall) White observers in this passage are simply disgusted by theactions of an African religious ceremony. The language used “strange and horriblereligions” which is described as “madness” is enough to explain the ways in which aculture of normality is created by the white man and anything that does not conformto that is not normal. Comparing this piece to the previous one, they both share theidea of the superior and the inferior. From the different tone in voice between theblack man and the white man, to the differences in spiritual practices, the fact that thewhite man is fascinated to portray to their understanding; this “weirdness”, an overallview of colonialism is perpetuated as the white man in these texts impose their viewsof what is correct similarly to how pre-colonial masters would have exerted their willover the colonialists.Earl Lovelace who wrote later in the 20th century as a Caribbean writer; from Trinidadexpresses his literary views differently compared to Pringle and de Lisse. “Dancing isthe chanting that cuts off power from the devil. Dance! Dance! Dance! Carnivalbrings this dancing to every crevice of this hill.” (Lovelace, 1979) Unlike the previoustwo writers, Lovelace shows some form of conformity to the white man ideology ashis reference to cutting of the devil shows his awareness of religion and a need to bedelivered from evil. Lovelace tends to relate to religion in this piece of work “Letevery sinner man bear his own blasted burden. Who is I to die for people who ain‟thave sense enough to that they can‟t pelt a man with big stones when so much littlepebbles on the ground.” (Lovelace, 1979, p.4) During colonialism the treatment ofslaves created anger and hatred towards the white population owners, feeling that theslaves could vent in only one way: resistance. Yet for the resistance to succeed, slavesneeded to share some common values. These slaves that were able to convert toChristianity were able to create such a band through common religion 5. This idea ofcommon values makes Lovelace different. By using religion to what can beconsidered to the satisfaction of the white man, there is no doubt Lovelace workwould be embraced as a norm. Religion outlines society, at least of the white man inpre-colonial era, not strange practices like feeding the dead and rituals.4 The Penguin English Dictionary 20025 Page 5/7
  6. 6. PLEASE INSERT STUDENT NUMBER 33235046DRAFT“The day the first snow fell I floated to my birth of feathers falling by my window;touched earth and melted, touched again and left a little touch of light and everywherewe touched till earth was white” (Brathwaite, 1984, p.310) Reference to snow here isimportant when it is considered that not only would English be spoken in AnglophoneCaribbean, the education system would carry the counters of an English heritage,hence Shakespeare, George Eliot, Jane Austen. (Brathwaite, 1984, p.310) Education isan important theme in Caribbean literature when the work of Brathwaite and Lovelaceis looked at, seeing as the imposition of religion and English literary geniuses areplaced on the Caribbean‟s as they are presented to be of little knowledge. Lookingback at the references to snow, it could be argued that the studying of the likes ofCharles Dickens would have had an impact on the imagination of Caribbean Literarygeniuses such as Brathwaite, which makes the use of language in Caribbean literaturevery important. It all boils down to sense of identity and whether the truth of theirheritage plays a part in their imaginations or whether their identities have beenmoulded by colonialism.Language used in Caribbean literature, whether formal or informal is a product ofcolonialism. Whether it is the descriptions used by various writers or poets, or eventhe relation to particular beliefs; the judgements made on what Caribbean literaturepresents seem to be influence by the thinking of the colonial masters. CaribbeanLiterature tends to focus on all that is oppressive and Language is an important devicein helping this stand out.REFERENCE SHEETBrathwaite, E.K., p.310, 1984, Nation Language, History of the voice: TheDevelopment of Nation Language in Anglophone Caribbean Poetry London and Portof Spain: New BeaconBrathwaite, E.K., p.310, 1984, Nation Language, History of the voice: TheDevelopment of Nation Language in Anglophone Caribbean Poetry London and Portof Spain: New BeaconChapman, M.J., 1883, „Barbados‟Chapman, M.J., 1883, „Barbados‟de Lisser H.G., 1929, The White Witch of RosehallLewis, G.K., p.228-229, 1983, Main Currents In Caribbean Thought, The JohnHopkins University PressLovelace, E., Calypso, 1979, The Dragon Can‟t Dance, assignment sheet fromGoldsmiths University of London Page 6/7
  7. 7. PLEASE INSERT STUDENT NUMBER 33235046DRAFTLovelace, E., p.4, 1979, The Dragon Can‟t Dance, PrologueMichael Scott‟s Tom Pringle‟s LogBIBLIOGRAPHY ( Penguin English Dictionary 2002 Page 7/7