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Weather and Climate

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  • 1. CHAPTER 19WEATHER AND CLIMATE
  • 2.  Weather satellites, computers, and other kinds of weather instrument provide accurate information about weather conditions. Meteorologists are people who study the weather and use weather data to predict the weather. Their forecasts help us plan our daily activities. Guide Questions: 1.Have you ever wondered what the weather will be on a certain day? 2.You experience weather (yes or no) and why?
  • 3. WHAT DOES WEATHER MEAN? Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at any given time and place. The chief elements of weather are sunshine, temperature, air pressure, wind, humidity (moisture), clouds , and precipitation. All these elements change frequently. Weather science is known as meteorology. This term comes from two Greek words Meteoros meaning ‘high in the air’ Logos meaning ‘knowledge’
  • 4.  Meteorologists in all parts every hour of what the weather is where they are. Each country has typical or average weather.In the Philippines, April and May are the warm summer months, while July and August are the rainy months. The average weather in a region over a period of time is called climate. Climate is the weather condition of a place over a long period of time. Thus weather is very variable and can be described as fair, rainy, sunny, or stormy.
  • 5. THE EARTH IS DIVIDED INTO THREE ZONES (1)The zone of tropical climate, (2)The zone of temperate climate,and (3)The zone of polar climate These climate zones are related to the angle at which the sun’s rays strike the earth Thus the general descriptions of climate conditions in these zones are as follows: 1.Zone of tropical climate – hot humid climate 2.Zone of polar climate – very cold climate 3.Zone of temperate climate – mild climate
  • 6. ELEMENTS OF WEATHER The earth’s surface absorbs heat but also radiates some of this heat but also radiates some of this heat. The sun’s energy that is absorbed by the earth is spread throughout the atmosphere in Three basic ways: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation Conduction is the direct transfer of heat energy from one substance to another. Convection is the transfer of heat in a gas or liquid. Radiation is the transfer of heat energy in the form of waves through a vacuum.
  • 7. QUIZFILL IN THE BLANK Write the group of words that will correctly complete each sentence. 1. m _ t e o ro l_ og_ _ _ t are people who study _e __ _ i s the weather and use weather data to predict the weather. 2.W_ a t h e_r_ is the condition of the e ___ atmosphere at any given time and place. 3.M_ t _ o r_o_ lo_ _ _ science that deals with e_e _ g y weather and climate conditions. 4. m e t_e o ro s _ meaning high in the air _ __ _ 5.L_ g o_s_meaning knowledge o _
  • 8.  6.The average weather in a region over a period of time is called c_i _ _ _t _ _. l ma e 7.P_ e c i_ p i_ t_a t_ io n_ is r __ _ _ rain, snow, sleet, hail or any other moisture u c t fails. o n d that i o n 8.C_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is the direct transfer of C o n energy from one substance to heat e c t o n another. 9._ _a_ vi _ _ _i i o n is the transfer of heat d at __ in a gas or liquid. 10.R_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is the transfer of heat
  • 9. TYPES OF CLOUDS Clouds have different shapes and sizes. Clouds are classified according to shape and altitude. The main types of clouds are cirrus clouds, cumulus clouds, stratus clouds, and nimbus clouds. Cirrus clouds are fair-weather clouds. They appear thin and curly. Cirrus means ‘feathery’. They consist of ice crystals because they are formed under low temperature at high altitudes.
  • 10.  Cumulus means ‘piled’ or ‘heaped up’. Cumulus clouds look like heads of cauliflower with flat bottoms. These clouds develop when rising columns of moist air are cooled to the dewpoint temperature. Stratus means ‘spread out’ or ‘stretched in layers’. Unlike cumulus clouds, stratus clouds are only a few hundred meters thick but may extend over thousands of square kilometers. Nimbus means ‘rainy’.
  • 11. AIR MASSES A cold air mass is turbulent because of the many convection currents affecting it. The convection currents are caused by the warming of the air when it comes in contact with the ground. Warm air masses form very few convection currents but form fog and low clouds close to the ground. This condition develops because the air close to the ground is cooled to a temperature near its dew point.
  • 12. AIR MASS BOUNDARIES A cold front forms when a mass of cold air meets and replaces a mass of warm air. A warm front forms when a mass of warm air overtakes a cold air mass and moves over it. A cold front travels faster than a warm front. When cold front overtakes a warm front, and is rushed upward, an occluding front occurs. An occluded front produces less extreme weather than a cold or a warm front. When a warm air masses meets a cold air mass and no movement occurs, a stationary front forms.
  • 13. ENUMERATE THE FOLLOWING: 1-4 types of clouds 5-8 types of fronts 9-10 two air masses Answers: 1.Cumulus clouds 5.cold front 9.cold air masses 2.Cirrus clouds 6.warm front 10.warm air masses 3.Stratus clouds 7.occluding front 4.Nimbus clouds 8.stationary front
  • 14. STORMS AND TYPHOONS Thunderstorms are heavy rainstorms with thunder and lightning. These storms can be violent.During a thunderstorm, areas of positive and negative electrical charges build up in the storm clouds. Lightning is a sudden discharge or spark of electricity between these cloud areas or between a cloud and the ground.
  • 15. THE CLIMATE OF THE PHILIPPINES The climate of the philippines may be categorized into three: 1.From March to May–warm and dry seasons 2.From June to November–rainy seasons 3.From December to February–cool and dry seasons
  • 16.  Tropical cyclones, which affect the Philippines during the months of June to November, may be classified into three categories depending on the wind speed. 1.Tropical depression–has a maximum wind speed of less than 63 kilometers per hour(kph). 2.Tropical storm–has a maximum wind speed of 63 to 118 kph. 3.Typhoon–has a maximum wind speed exceeding 118 kph. The Philippines Atmospheric, Geophysical, and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA)
  • 17. WEATHER FORECASTING All over the world, weather stations keep track of the presence of cyclones, anticyclones, and weather fronts. This information is supplied to meteorologists in local weather stations. The information received is put together or summarized in a weather map. Stations with the same air pressure are joined by a line. Such a line is called an isobar.
  • 18. CLOUD SEEDING Cloud seeding is a method that is used to control precipitation. This method uses silver iodide particles spread in clouds to act as condensation nuclei. Cloud seeding helps disperse fog in airports and, in dry areas, it induces rainfall and snowball. It ha also been successful in reducing the power of thunderstorms and hurricanes. Cloud seeding causes droplets of water to
  • 19. QUIZMULTIPLE CHOICE:ON THE LINE BEFORE EACH NUMBER, WRITETHE LETTER THE CORRESPONDS TO THE CORRECT ANSWER. ____1.Which refers to the general conditions of b. temperature and precipitation over a large area over a long period of time? a.atmosphere c.latitude d. b.climate d.weather ____2.What occurs due to the unequal heating of the air? a.conduction c.radiation currents b. b.precipitation d.convection currents ____3.What instrument is used to measure air pressure? a.altimeter c.psychomotor a. b.barometer d.thermometer ____4.What term refer to an area where two different air masses meet? a.front c.low pressure area b.isobar d.high pressure area
  • 20.  ____5.Which of the following people study weather? c. a.astronomers c.meteorolgists b.geologists d.seismologists ____6.What kind of front occurs when a cold front overtakes a warm b. front? a.cold c.stationary b.occluded d.warm ____7.What happens to air above a surface when the surface a. absorbs more heat? a.becomes warm c.becomes dense b.becomes cooler d.becomes humid b. ____8.Which layer in the upper atmosphere absorbs ultraviolet rays? a.hydrogen c.water vapor b.ozone d.carbon dioxide a. ____9.Which area of high pressure contains cold, dry air? a.anticyclone c.hurricane b.cyclone d.tornado ____10.Which type of cloud is feathery and occurs only at very high a. altitudes? a.cirrus c.cumulus b.cumulonimbus d.stratus
  • 21. SEATWORK/HOMEWORKANSWERS:Pages 281 to 283

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