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  1. 1. The Rise of the Khmer Rouge Cambodia
  2. 2. Before the French <ul><li>During the 1800s, the Khmer kingdom was weak and under threat from Vietnam and Thailand. </li></ul><ul><li>1884- the French had taken over. The King had ceremonial powers and Cambodia became one of the protectorates of the French Indochinese Federation. </li></ul>
  3. 3. WW2 <ul><li>King Norodom Sihanouk renounced France at the insistence of Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Khmer Issarak (Free Khmer) emerged as an Independence Movement, gaining support from students, public servants and workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Conducted guerilla warfare against the French. </li></ul><ul><li>The Viet Minh helped Khmer Issarak to develop an organisational base. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1954 <ul><li>The Geneva Conference gave complete independence to Cambodia. </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign troops were prohibited to enter Cambodia. </li></ul><ul><li>Norodom Sihanouk renounced his throne and took up politics, being elected Prime Minister. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sihanouk’s Goal <ul><li>To preserve neutrality. </li></ul><ul><li>Foster relations between communists and non-communists. </li></ul><ul><li>Decline the South East Asian Treaty Organisation (SEATO) which was distinctly anti-communist. </li></ul><ul><li>Accept military and developmental aid from China and the Soviet Union. </li></ul><ul><li>Co-operate with trade and economy with China and the Soviet Union. </li></ul>
  6. 6. U.S. Relations <ul><li>Concerned with Cambodia’s developing relations with the communist giants. </li></ul><ul><li>Gave support to Khmer Serai guerillas. </li></ul><ul><li>1966, all aid and diplomatic relations ceased with Cambodia. </li></ul><ul><li>Cambodia reached certain agreements with the North Vietnamese. </li></ul><ul><li>Shattered the economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Sihanouk became increasingly unpopular. </li></ul><ul><li>1970 coup against Sihanouk, which he believed had the backing of the CIA </li></ul>
  7. 7. Khmer Republic <ul><li>Lon Nol, the Minister for Defence, led a coup d’etat against Sihanouk. </li></ul><ul><li>Had little support among the population. </li></ul><ul><li>Suffered attacks from the rural peasants and the Khmer Rouge (Communists) </li></ul><ul><li>Sustained a civil war that lasted 5 years. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Civil War <ul><li>Lon Nol ordered the Vietnamese out of Cambodia. </li></ul><ul><li>Communist forces defeated the Cambodian army. </li></ul><ul><li>US and ARVN troops invaded in April 1970 in support of Lon Nol. </li></ul><ul><li>Large scale bombing caused terrible damage. </li></ul><ul><li>10% (600,000) of the population were killed. </li></ul><ul><li>1/3rd of the peasant population became refugees. </li></ul>
  9. 9. F.U.N.K <ul><li>Sihanouk retained nationwide support and helped fund the National United Front of Kampuchea. </li></ul><ul><li>Contained support from the King’s supporters and local communists. </li></ul><ul><li>The Khmer Rouge grew in strength as the war continued. </li></ul><ul><li>3000 people in 1971 to 60,000 in 1973. </li></ul><ul><li>Pol Pot declared Sihanouk; Commander in Chief. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Khmer Rouge enter Phnom Penh
  11. 11. The Khmer Rouge enter Phnom Penh
  12. 12. Democratic Kampuchea <ul><li>1975 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Khmer Rouge and loyal Sihanouk forces took control of most of the nation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>17th April: Phnom Penh was taken by the Khmer Rouge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The threat of famine and epidemics caused the Khmer Rouge to instigate a mass exodus of the urban population. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 million people were moved. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Effect of the Khmer Rouge <ul><li>Cambodia became a huge labour camp. </li></ul><ul><li>Wished to change society back to a pre-industrial rural economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that Western technology and civilisation had ‘poisoned’ Cambodia </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Effect of the Khmer Rouge <ul><li>Agriculture was of extreme importance and everyone had to work on collective farms. </li></ul><ul><li>Run with military discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>Families were separated. </li></ul><ul><li>People were told that they should be docile and do the will of the Angkor (party) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Vietnam Invades <ul><li>Khmer Rouge were nationalistic and were antagonistic towards the US and Vietnam. </li></ul><ul><li>Saw the 1973 ceasefire as a betrayal, especially when the US increased its bombing of Cambodia. </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnamese communists ceased aid to the Khmer Rouge. </li></ul><ul><li>The armies of Democratic Kampuchea responded by attacking Vietnamese borders in 1977. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Vietnam Invades <ul><li>Combined force of the NVA and ARVN invaded Kampuchea in December 1978. </li></ul><ul><li>Quickly ousted the Khmer Rouge government. </li></ul><ul><li>What remained of the Khmer Rouge fled to the Thai border. </li></ul>