OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Shell Development Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd.

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The OZ (Australian) SEEBASE™* Compilation represents many years of work by FrOG Tech in Australia …

The OZ (Australian) SEEBASE™* Compilation represents many years of work by FrOG Tech in Australia
in the petroleum, mineral and coal sectors. During this time FrOG Tech has undertaken numerous projects
in Australia with both the private and government sectors. These projects have resulted in the development
of a model of the geological evolution of the Phanerozoic Basins that is summarised in this report.
The model is consistent with a wide range of datasets including airborne and satellite remote sensing,
seismic, well and outcrop observations.

Further information, and the accompanying GIS, is available at http://www.frogtech.com.au/ozseebase

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  • 1. 1 Table of Contents OZ SEEBASETM Executive Summary .............................................................. 2 Albany-Fraser Mobile Belt ......................................... 92 Collaborators .................................................................. 2 Adelaide-Kanmantoo Fold Belt.................................. 94 Introduction............................................................................ 3 Tectonic Evolution............................................................... 97 Introduction to FrOG Tech Methodology ........................ 4 The SEEBASE™ Workflow – Tectonic Events and 2005 – Version 1 Systematic Approach to Basin Resource Evaluation Responses................................................................. 97 (SABRE)...................................................................... 5 Basin Tectonic Evolution .............................................. 98 The SEEBASE™ Workflow ............................................ 7 Basement Structures .................................................... 99 Project Code: GA703 Datasets ................................................................................ 8 Centralian 1 .......................................................... 100 The SEEBASE™ Workflow – Data Compilation and Whickham............................................................. 101 Processing................................................................... 8 Centralian 2 .......................................................... 102 Data Compilation and Processing .................................. 9 Petermann 1......................................................... 103 Digital Elevation Model ................................................. 10 Petermann 2......................................................... 104 FrOG Tech Project Team: 2D Seismic and Cross Sections ................................... 11 Wells ............................................................................. 12 Antrim ................................................................... 105 Delamerian ........................................................... 106 Lynn Pryer, PhD Surface Geology ........................................................... 13 Larapintine............................................................ 107 Landsat ......................................................................... 14 Rodingan, Benambran ......................................... 108 Tom Loutit, PhD Magnetics...................................................................... 15 Lachlan 1.............................................................. 109 Paul Gardner, MSc Magnetic Stitching ........................................................ 16 Bindian, Bowning.................................................. 110 Total Magnetic Intensity (TMI) ...................................... 17 Lachlan 2.............................................................. 111 Sophia Petrovich, MA First Vertical Derivative (1km Upward Continuance).... 18 Cobar.................................................................... 112 Jon Teasdale, PhD Depth Modelling............................................................ 19 Pertnjara, Tabberaberan ...................................... 113 Peter Stuart-Smith, PhD Gravity........................................................................... 20 Pillara Mid-Late Devonian .................................... 114 Bouguer Gravity............................................................ 21 Kanimblan ............................................................ 115 Karen Romine, PhD Residual of Low Pass (200km) applied to Bouguer ..... 22 Mt Eclipse, Meda.................................................. 116 Zhiqun Shi, PhD Isostatic Residual of Bouguer Gravity (Onshore) ......... 23 East Australian ..................................................... 117 Data Distribution – Excluding Gravity and Magnetics .. 24 Westralian ............................................................ 118 Sjoukje de Vries, PhD Magnetic Data Distribution............................................ 25 Hunter-Bowen ...................................................... 119 Donna Cathro, PhD Confidence, Reliability, Accuracy and Precision .......... 26 Fitzroy................................................................... 120 Basement Geology and Terranes ....................................... 27 NW Shelf .............................................................. 121 Mike Etheridge, PhD (Tectonex) The SEEBASE™ Workflow – Basement Geology and Southern Margins ................................................. 122 Clive Foss, PhD (Encom) Terranes .................................................................... 27 Gippsland ............................................................. 123 Basement Terranes ...................................................... 28 SE Australian........................................................ 124 Stuart Munroe, PhD (SRK) Megaterranes................................................................ 30 Tasman ................................................................ 125 Andrew Hamm, PhD (SRK) Terranes ....................................................................... 31 Coral Sea ............................................................. 126 Table of Contents for Megaterranes and associated South Australia..................................................... 127 Michael Ebrahim, PhD Terranes .................................................................... 32 SE Asia................................................................. 128 John Vizy Yilgarn Craton............................................................ 33 Basin Architecture ............................................................. 129 TM Thompson Fold Belt .................................................. 36 The SEEBASE Workflow – SEEBASE™ Production and Phil Henley Tasman Sea .............................................................. 37 Basin Architecture ................................................ 129 Allan Mills Southern Ocean ........................................................ 39 Basin Architecture: SEEBASE™ *.............................. 130 Pinjarra Orogen ......................................................... 41 SEEBASE™ Methodology.......................................... 131 Meredith Guy-Villon Pilbara Craton............................................................ 44 Basin Outlines............................................................. 132 NW Shelf ................................................................... 45 Major Structures Controlling Basin Architecture ............... 133 North Australian Craton............................................. 46 Sediment Thickness ................................................... 134 New England Fold Belt.............................................. 52 Crustal Thickness ....................................................... 135 Musgrave Mobile Belt ................................................ 61 References ........................................................................ 136 TM Mount Isa Fold Belt.................................................... 63 APPENDIX .............................................OZ SEEBASE GIS Lachlan Fold Belt....................................................... 66 Kimberley Craton....................................................... 73 Indian Ocean ............................................................. 75 Hodgkinson-Broken River ......................................... 77 Gawler Craton ........................................................... 79 Tom Loutit Eastern Australia ....................................................... 85 Managing Director Delamerian Fold Belt ................................................. 88 Capricorn................................................................... 90 Argo........................................................................... 916/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions andDeakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them.Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report toAustralia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd.FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 2. OZ SEEBASETM 2 Executive Summary Executive Summary The OZ (Australian) SEEBASE™* Compilation represents many years of work by FrOG Tech in Australia The key findings of this study are as follows: in the petroleum, mineral and coal sectors. During this time FrOG Tech has undertaken numerous projects • The basement geology underlying and surrounding Australia’s basins is made up of 128 in Australia with both the private and government sectors. These projects have resulted in the development tectonostratigraphic terranes. of a model of the geological evolution of the Phanerozoic Basins that is summarised in this GIS and report. The model is consistent with a wide range of datasets including airborne and satellite remote sensing, • Each terrane has a distinct “reactive fabric” that has responded differently to changes in the seismic, well and outcrop observations. regional stress field since the Late Proterozoic resulting in the formation of a suite of basins and sub-basins of markedly different architecture. Each basin or sub-basin has developed in a series of The Phanerozoic basins of Australia formed by the repeated reactivation of long-lived basement structures. phases characterized by variations in subsidence mechanism and geometry. By understanding the genesis and geometry of the old basement structures, we have produced a consistent, • 29 tectonic events have controlled the formation and deformation of each basin since the Late testable model for the evolution of the basins that explains their structural framework and architecture. This Proterozoic. About the same number of events during the Archaean and Proterozoic set up the SEEBASE™ model and structural interpretation can now be used as the basis for a new understanding of basement structural fabric that was reactivated by these 29 events. the sequence stratigraphy and petroleum systems of the Late Proterozoic to Recent basins of Australia. • Each basin or sub-basin has developed in a series of phases bounded by a tectonic event Our work has shown that basement geology (particularly major fracture zones, terrane boundaries and characterized by variations in subsidence mechanism and geometry. mobile belts) is a first order control on basin architecture and the associated petroleum systems. • Fault movements in response to each tectonic event have been mapped across Australia. Reactivation of basement structures (in each terrane) by a specific sequence of tectonic events can be used to explain the structural evolution of all of the Basins. The systematic integration, calibration and • Basin architecture is largely controlled by basement structures, composition, fabric and rheology. interpretation of non-seismic and seismic datasets using a combination of mineral and petroleum • Basin architecture has been mapped using the SEEBASE™ workflow exploration techniques provides significant improvements in the efficiency and effectiveness of basin and • The SEEBASE image provides a view of the present day shape of the basins that can be restored petroleum systems evaluation. The “bottom-up” approach resulting in the generation of SEEBASE™ to earlier shapes. It provides a framework within which to place observations on stratal geometry images dramatically changes the way in which petroleum systems, plays and play elements can be mapped and reservoir, seal and source maps. In addition, the knowledge of basement structure and its and evaluated. The approach is especially relevant in the deeper parts of more prolific hydrocarbon basins possible response to younger stress events can be used to predict the timing, distribution, type, when they are approaching a period of declining production and attention begins of focus on older and size and integrity of basement-involved traps. deeper petroleum systems. • Most of the information is attributed and stored in a customized geodatabase within ArcMap 9.0. The principal objective of the OZ SEEBASE™ project has been to lower risk and assist exploration for oil and gas, minerals and groundwater in Australia’s sedimentary basins by providing: Collaborators A new view of Australia’s sedimentary basins from an integrated regional interpretation (nominally The following companies and government agencies were involved in the basin studies that contributed to FrOG 1:500,000 scale) of basement composition, structure and depth to basement SEEBASE™ image (grid) for Tech’s Southern Margin coverage: the whole of onshore Australia and its offshore margins. The first consistent testable structural model for the evolution of Australia’s sedimentary basins A new illustration of the effects of basement geology on basin evolution and petroleum systems in the individual basins, focusing on structural evolution/reactivation, basin architecture and tectonic history. A base for a new set of maps of paleogeography, crustal heat flow, crustal thickness, hydrocarbon generation volumes, etc. The project will be available as a GIS project in July, 2005. FrOG Tech is intending to run a series of workshops with each State, Territory and Commonwealth geoscience institution as part of the handover process during the next few months. FrOG Tech is also discussing a range of mechanisms to revise, improve and maintain the database. * SEEBASE™ = Structurally Enhanced View of Economic Basement 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 3. OZ SEEBASETM 3 Introduction Introduction During the past 5 years, the first-pass OZ SEEBASE™ product, representing many work years by the FrOG Tech team in the petroleum, mineral and coal sectors, has been completed. During this time FrOG Tech has undertaken numerous projects in Australia with both the private and government sectors. However, the bulk of the progress has been made during the past year after Shell Development Australia provided the funding to complete the project under an arrangement with the Commonwealth Government that ensures that the product will be available to the public. During the past year the FrOG Tech team led by Dr Lynn Pryer has mapped the basins over two-thirds of the Australian continent. This report has been prepared for Shell Development Australia and the Commonwealth Government, and describes the stitch of all of FrOG Tech’s SEEBASE™ projects in Australia. It summarizes our understanding of basement evolution, basin evolution and basin architecture of Australia’s sedimentary basins. It provides a new knowledge platform for understanding the petroleum systems of the increasingly prospective basins of this area. The Phanerozoic Basins SEEBASET M is shown on the map on the right. Basins range in age from Neoproterozoic to Recent. Proterozoic and Archaean basins will be revealed in a future project. 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 4. OZ SEEBASETM 4 IntroductionIntroduction to FrOG Tech Methodology The evolution of sedimentary basins is controlled by a response in the crust and lithosphere to tectonic The characteristics of basement provide the first-order control on basin forces. The nature of this response depends on the magnitude of the tectonic forces, and the character and architecture with the potential for influencing: kinematic response of the underlying basement. The strength, composition and fabric of basement at the Source rock distribution & volumetrics time of a tectonic event controls crustal response, while sediments record the resultant changes in basin morphology. A rigorous model for basin evolution can be developed through understanding basement Heat flow patterns character beneath and adjacent to sedimentary basins, coupled with a a knowledge of tectonic events that were responsible for basin formation. This model provides a basis for more accurate prediction of the Migration focusing and pathways occurrence and distribution of petroleum play elements throughout basin evolution. The basement structure of many of Australia’s basins has proven difficult to interpret as basement is Trap timing, distribution, type, integrity and size generally too deep to be imaged in all but the deepest seismic lines. Potential field data (principally gravity and magnetic data) provide a window to the basement that can cover a wide area with uninterrupted data at Sediment supply and stratal geometry constant resolution. Once calibrated to geology, these data provide information that allows the development of a predictive structural model based on basement composition and structure. Depth to magnetic basement Distribution and quality of reservoirs and seals can be modeled from magnetic data and used to produce a structurally-controlled model of basement topography (e.g. SEEBASE™ - Structurally Enhanced view of Economic Basement). Once calibrated with geology, basement structure and topography can be used to predict basement-involved and basement- Why FrOG Tech? detached structures, first-order fluid focus points, and the evaluation of source, reservoir and seal quality and distribution throughout the basin. The interpretation techniques and tools are efficient and cost- FrOG Tech Pty Limited was formed during 2004 when the Energy Services Group of SRK Consulting was effective from continental to concession scales. purchased and renamed to reflect new directions that the group was taking into Groundwater. The FrOG Tech team has been together for over 8 years and has consulted successfully to the petroleum, groundwater, geothermal and coal sectors around the world. Over 100 projects have been completed forImportance of Basement to Petroleum Exploration more than 30 clients since 1996 when the Energy Services Group was formed. The basement of any basin provides the foundation onto which the sediments are deposited. The rheology or mechanical behaviour of the basement controls the rate of subsidence and geometry of each phase of The company is based in Canberra, Australia with staff in Perth, Adelaide and Auckland. the evolving basin. The composition of the basement will determine its strength or stiffness. The age and FrOG Tech consultants provide innovative cost-effective solutions to everyday petroleum early history of each basement terrane will dictate the intensity and character of the structural fabric. This exploration/development problems. These problems include choosing the right ground for exploration, inherent fabric plays a major role in the manner in which the crust deforms during major periods of evaluating the prospectivity of large areas and defining prospects/targets in prospective areas. Also, the extension or compression. group has recently developed mapping and visualization techniques that are applicable within petroleum fields and coal mines. Understanding basement structures allows models to be developed that can predict which structures will reactivate, how they will move under an applied stress, and how they will propagate into the overlying FrOG Tech projects generate significant reductions in petroleum exploration and development costs and sediment pile. Using plate tectonic reconstructions, the far-field stress state during past events can be exploration/mining risks. During the past year FrOG Tech has also started and completed projects in the estimated and a kinematic reconstruction produced for each event. Since basin sediments deform in groundwater and geothermal sectors. response to movements in the basement and to gravity, knowing how and when the basement moves provides a basis for predicting the most likely locations of depocentres and structures (both basement- FrOG Tech services and products are unique in the range and scope offered, their cost-effectiveness and involved and basement-detached) in the sediments. In addition, basement topography controls the the methods used. FrOG Tech primarily consists of field-based structural geologists and experienced localisation and geometry of many basement-detached systems. seismic stratigraphers with a wide range of skills and backgrounds in the petroleum and mineral The faults described in this study have been interpreted primarily using non-seismic datasets and are industries. The combination of strong technical skills in geology, GIS and visualization has produced primarily basement-involved. The reactivation history of these faults reflects the changes in stress regime significant increases in our work flow efficiency and effectiveness. in the crust in response to specific tectonic events. The resulting event maps show structures at top- basement level interpreted to have been active during that basin phase. The details of the influence of FrOG Tech is focused on understanding the movement of fluids and gases in sedimentary basins and the these basement-involved structures on the evolution of structures in the overlying sediments provides the distribution of resources such as coal and other minerals in basins. The primary niches are in structural basis for future basin to prospect-scale studies. risk mapping, sequence stratigraphic services, play evaluation for exploration, and risk reduction and problem solving during exploration, development and extraction. By building such a “bottom-up” model for basin evolution, combining it with the “top-down” knowledge The knowledge gained over many years working in many areas of the world in the petroleum sector forms generated from seismic and wells, petroleum systems can be better understood and targeted. This the basis for the new initiative in groundwater that will play a very significant role in constraining approach is described in more detail by Pryer et al (2002) and Teasdale et al (2003). estimates of groundwater volume and quality across large areas of North Africa and the Middle East. 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 5. OZ SEEBASETM 5 IntroductionSystematic Approach to Basin Resource Evaluation (SABRE) “Map View” versus “Cross Section View” Interpretation Map- Map-view interpretation of structures: Trap prediction Trap Controlling Basement Terranes = Structures Building blocks for basins Province and Regional and Early rift depocentres – Play Analysis Source kitchens Terrane Analysis Basin Analysis Distinction of Salt / Basin / Granite Paleogeography Top- Top-Basement Climate Basement grain, fabric & Eustasy N Reactivation of deep Source basement structures structure controls inversion + Interpretation of deep Seal structure + basins below trap formation Plate Intraplate Basin Phase Stratal Reservoir seismic resolution Basin Phase Interactions Deformation Architecture Architecture Geometry Timing, Distribution & BASIN PHASES Character Distribution Subsidence/ Uplift Trap Timing 4 Paleogeography Sediment Provenance & Supply Petroleum Systems & Play and Style Evaluation BASIN ARCHITECTURE Timing and/or focusing of Fluid Movement 3 SEEBASE™ Depth to Basement Cross-sections Petroleum Systems TECTONIC HISTORY Crustal Architecture Precambrian Basement 2 Evolution Paleozoic Basement Assembly Mesozoic Basin Evolution Cainozoic Basin BASEMENT Modification GEOLOGY 1 Terranes / Mobile Belts Composition Structure Heat Flow FrOG Tech’s “Bottom-Up” Basin Analysis 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 6. OZ SEEBASETM 6 Introduction Each basin phase is defined by the Systematic Approach to Basin Resource Evaluation (SABRE) kinematics of a tectonic event and the 115 ° 12 0 ° 12 5 ° 1 30 ° 13 5 ° 1 40 ° 14 5 ° response (fault reactivation) of the structural fabric of each terrane. Each - ° 30 basin phase is characterised by a -30 ° Eyre Perth Polda specific subsidence mechanism that Bremer Type 3 may vary considerably along an extensional margin as shown in this - ° 35 Robe Trough Penol image of the Southern Margin. a Otway -35 ° Troug Torquay Ranges Recherche Gippsland h Ceduna -40 ° Type 1 Type 4 SEEBASE images provide a picture of -40 ° the present day shape of the basins. The 115 ° 120 ° 125 ° 130 ° Sorell 135 ° 140 ° 145 ° Type 2 Office r image is based on the systematic Type 5 -30 ° calibration, integration and Megasequences See legend0 on p22 -3 ° 0 110 ° 1 15 ° 12 0 ° 1 25 ° 1 30 ° 13 5 ° 14 0 ° 1 45 ° 15 ° interpretation of both non-seismic and Pe rth Polda Eyre seismic data and an underlying Stan sb ury Ced una Men telle Reche rche structural model for the evolution of the Breme r Dun troo n -35 ° Denma rk Robe target area. Pen ol a -35 ° Basin Phases Reche rche Tro ug h Tro ug h Colac Torq ua Tro ug y Bea chp o h Sub - rt S ub - basin Gipp sland basin Ou ter O tway -40 ° Bas s -40 ° Basins 1 15 ° 120 ° 1 25 ° 1 30 ° 13 5 ° Sore ll 140 ° 145 ° e Munyarai Nawa Christie an Terrane Terrane Wilge na rr Terrane Terrane Te -30 ° a nn Gawler di -30 ° St Vince nt’s nt’ oo Range ar Terrane lt Volcanics m 110 ° 115 ° 120 ° 125 ° 130 ° 135 ° 140 ° 145 ° 150 ° Be Yilgarn Cra ton Am Fowler Terra ne Nuyts ile Terranes Indian Ocea n Terrane ob (oceanic crust) Stavely nM Terrane Adelaide- Adelaide- ba Moonta- Moonta- Kanmant oo Kim Coulta Wallaroo Pinjarra Terrane Fold Belt Mobil e Belt Domain King Island Block Albany- Albany-Fr aser Highly Exte nde d -35 ° Exte nde d Kanga roo Mobil e Belt Conti nent al Crust Coulta Island (undifferent iated) Block Stawel l- l- -3 ° Terrane Bucha n Terra ne Cratons Mobile Belts Ex ba n Ki 5 Transiti ona l Crust xt im Bendi go m e n MB (Conti ne nt-Ocea n Boundary) nt- Terrane d de n d Melbour ne- ne- Sout her n Ocean (oceanic crust) NW Tasma nia Block Terranes are either cratons or mobile Exte nde d Adelaide- Adelaide- Tabberabbera- Tabberabbera- Mathi nna belts. The “character” or fabric and Kanmant oo -4 ° 115 ° 120 ° 125 ° 130 ° 135 ° 140 ° 145 ° Terrane 0 Provinces Fold Belt -30 ° -4 ° rheology of each terrane controls basin 0 Yilgarn - 30 ° architecture. Terrane edges and the Tynea n Lachla n Fol d Adela Block Belt fabric of the mobile belts are the Cambro- Cambro- ide-Ka Ordov ician primary controller of basin location and -Kanm Mobil e Belts -3 5 ° Albany- Albany- Gawler- Gawler- East Ant arctic Fraser 1 10 ° Craton 15 ° 1 12 0 ° 12 5 ° 1 30 ° 13 5 ° 14 0 ° 145 ° 15 0 ° -3 5 ° architecture. a nto o Belt Pinjarra o-Ro -Ross M obi l - 40 ° i le Bel e -40 ° Provinces are either extensional or compressional. t Basement Provinces Terranes are the building blocks of compressional provinces. 110 ° 115 ° 120 ° 125 ° 130 ° 135 ° 140 ° 145 ° 150 ° 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 7. OZ SEEBASETM 7 Introduction The SEEBASETM Workflow The key element in developing a structural model for basement topography is the integration of all available geological and geophysical information. No individual dataset alone will ever provide as definitive and unambiguous an interpretation as a combination of datasets. Integration provides the means for constraining the interpretation of each dataset. This process ultimately provides the most tightly constrained model result. Once the interpretation has been calibrated to known geology, a model consistent with all available data can be developed. Then the model can be applied and tested by iterative interpretation and checkin g against the seismic interpretation. Adjustments are made as needed to both the model and the seismic interpretation with each iteration. The following report documents and provides a model for the structural evolution the Phanerozoic Basins of Australia that explains the current location and geometry of basin elements, and basement topography. The model is consistent with all the data examined, but is not intended to be comprehensive. Ideally, this model will provide a foundation from which to acquire or assess new data, and will evolve as new information becomes available. “BOTTOM-UP” DOCUMENTATION STATE-OF-THE-ART INTEGRATED PETROLEUM PRESENTATION PROJECT SEEBASE™ DATA PROCESSING INTERPRETATION PLAY VISUALISATION INITIATION PRODUCTION & COMPILATION & CALIBRATION INTEGRATION DELIVERY Magnet ics Magnet ic Enha nce me nt Depth to Processing Base me nt Mode lling Event & Maturity + Gravity Hydrocarbon Response Rock Maps for Generat ion Property Each Ba sin & DEM/ Crustal-sca le Calibrat ion Basin Phase Bathy metry gravity mode lling Total Sediment Landsat/ Thickness Report Radarsat Plate Basin-sca le SEEBASE™ Migration Project Setup Data Surface Construct Tectonic Structura l SEEBASE™ Basin Pathways/ SRK QC Delivery Ongoing & Compilation Geology GIS Base & Events, Interpretation Construction Architecture Fluid Workshop Workshops Support Manage ment & Processing Metadata using a ll Kine mat ics & Evolut ion Focusing datasets Publicat ions & Reports Interpret Fina l GIS Preparation Base me nt Reservoir & Terranes, Seal Qua lity Wells Composition, Gravity/ 2D & 3D Fabric Magnet ics/ Seismic DEM Image calibration Seismic Trap Timing, Processing Navigat ion Size & Distribut ion Interpret Other Data Salt & Volcanics 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 8. OZ SEEBASETM 8 Datasets The SEEBASETM Workflow – Data Compilation and Processing “BOTTOM-UP” DOCUMENTATION STATE-OF-THE-ART INTEGRATED PETROLEUM PRESENTATION PROJECT SEEBASE™ DATA PROCESSING INTERPRETATION PLAY VISUALISATION INITIATION PRODUCTION & COMPILATION & CALIBRATION INTEGRATION DELIVERY Magnet ics Magnet ic Enha nce me nt Depth to Processing Base me nt Mode lling Event & Maturity + Gravity Hydrocarbon Response Rock Maps for Generat ion Property Each Ba sin & DEM/ Crustal-sca le Calibrat ion Basin Phase Bathy metry gravity mode lling Total Sediment Landsat/ Thickness Report Radarsat Plate Basin-sca le SEEBASE™ Migration Project Setup Data Surface Construct Tectonic Structura l SEEBASE™ Basin Pathways/ SRK QC Delivery Ongoing & Compilation Geology GIS Base & Events, Interpretation Construction Architecture Fluid Workshop Workshops Support Manage ment & Processing Metadata Kine mat ics using a ll & Evolut ion Focusing datasets Publicat ions & Reports Fina l GIS Interpret Preparation Base me nt Reservoir & Terranes, Seal Qua lity Wells Composition, Gravity/ 2D & 3D Fabric Magnet ics/ Seismic DEM Image calibration Seismic Trap Timing, Processing Navigat ion Size & Distribut ion Interpret Other Data Salt & Volcanics 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 9. OZ SEEBASETM 9 Datasets Data Compilation and Processing As many datasets as possible were compiled into GIS format for this study. Datasets can be divided into Core Datasets (those which are interpreted and integrated in detail) and Calibration Datasets (those which are used selectively to constrain the interpretation). Our interpretations are based largely on potential field data (i.e. gravity and magnetics), since these data provide the most continuous coverage in the map view. The interpretation should be updated as new datasets become available. Core Datasets Gravity xyz point data + grids Magnetics processed flight line data + grids Digital Elevation Model (DEM) grids Surface Geology digital coverage, maps Calibration Datasets 2D seismic workstation access, screen captures, navigation data Wells location, formation tops, basement penetrations etc. Rock properties density, magnetic susceptibility Plate tectonic reconstructions animations, maps, Paleomap, published plate tectonic models Sequence stratigraphy stratigraphic charts, paleogeography, tectonostratigraphy Seismic refraction data cross sections Deviato ric stress data World Stress Map FrOG Tech regional reports, intellectual property knowledge-base Published papers, maps, cross extensive reference list sections The following section outlines the datasets used for this project, and their processing history. 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 10. OZ SEEBASETM 10 DatasetsDigital Elevation Model Digital Elevation Models (DEM’s) often show the youngest structures, and any active geological structures. They are widely used for neotectonic analysis. The composition of eroding terrain controls its resistance to weathering, hence DEM’s can be used to distinguish different compositional domains. To provide the best possible digita l elevation model, two available datasets, the Sandwell and Smith Global satellite bathymetry dataset and the SRTM30 (see below) were used. Global Topography The Sandwell and Smith Globa l Topography dataset provides a combined topography / bathymetry model, using the SRTM30 dataset for the topography mode l and satellite altimetry data combined with ship depth sounding for the bathymetry model. For more details about the bathymetry model see: Smith, W. H. F., and D. T. Sandwell, Global seafloor topography from satellite altimetry and ship depth soundings, Science, v. 277, p. 1957-1962, 26 Sept., 1997. SRTM30 is a global digital elevation model (DEM) with a horizontal grid spacing of 30 arc-seconds (approximately 1 kilometer). SRTM30 is a near-globa l digital elevation model (DEM) comprisin g a combination of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, flown in February, 2000 and the U.S. Geologica l Surveys GTOPO30. More information is available online. This image is a mosaic of the SRTM30 (onshore) and Sandwell & Smith Globa l Topography (offshore). 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 11. OZ SEEBASETM 11 Datasets2D Seismic and CrossSectionsSelected 2D seismic lines and publishedcross sections were used to calibrate thestructural interpretation and constrainthe SEEBASE surface.Seismic data are important forcalibration of basement depth andstructure. In particular, theinterpretation of fault movementhistories, essential for calibration, is notreadily obtained from other datasources.Published cross-sections provideimportant regional constraints on thestructural geometry of basement blocksand basins, and movement histories ofmajor structures. 2D Seismic Published Cross Sections 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 12. OZ SEEBASETM 12 DatasetsWellsThe OZ SEEBASE well database was compiled from well and drillholedatabases supplied by each of the state surveys and Geoscience Australia. Asthese database vary markedly in both database structure and the informationthey record, it was necessary to re-compile each dataset to a common structurewith a focus on the depth of the well and the formation, lithology and age atTD.Basement penetrating wells were then extracted from this master database basedon the stratigraphic history of each area and basement age within each basin(below).Basement penetrating wells were then used to constrain the SEEBASE surface. 110 E 120 E 130 E 140 E 150 E Basement Age ic n n us ic oic c oi ni a ia o p o zo ss ro oz oz br ia vo fe m e Tr Me ot er er ni la De Ca ot bo Pa r pr ar rly so Ea Ne -C id M Above : Well database from Geoscience Australia with basement penetrating wells with a depth greater than 500m Above: Basement Age used to extract basement wells from well compilation database. 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 13. OZ SEEBASETM 13 Datasets Surface Geology Northern Territory Surface geology is a key dataset for any geological interpretation. Surface 250k Digital Geology available geological maps provide calibration for interpretation of DEM, gravity and although not provide consistently mapped coverage magnetic data. Where basement is outcropping, the direct correlation of across the state geological units with patterns in geopotential field data is possible. Once the magnetic and/or gravity response of different basement lithologies is calibrated, 1:2.5M Digital Geology it is possible to extrapolate beneath basins to interpret basement character. Queensland No statewide coverage available. 1:1M North and Northwest Queensland 1:1M South Queensland Western Australia 250k Digital Geology 500k Digital Geology 250k Raster Mosaic NSW South Australia 250k Digital Geology The main surface geology dataset used for interpretation 100k Digital Geology 1:1M Digital Geology was the Geoscience Australia 2.5m Geology (shown here) 1:2M Digital Geology as it provides a consistently mapped nation-wide coverage. Limits of basement outcrop were extracted from this dataset. Victoria 250k Raster geology was also available nation-wide as a 1:1M Digital Geology single ECW image provided by Earth Etc or as individual Tasmania 250k sheets from Geoscience Australia 1:1M Digital Geology 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 14. OZ SEEBASETM 14 Datasets Landsat The Landsat mosaic shown here provides surface reflectance data in an RGB image with a 30 metre pixel size across 3 bands (band 7 in red, band 4 in green and band 2 in blue). The data is useful for identifying surface geology and structure which may be reflected in outcrop, vegetation patterns or soil types. The source of the Landsat data was EarthSat and NASA with the image being created and supplied by ERMapper. 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 15. OZ SEEBASETM 15 DatasetsMagnetics Northern TerritoryAeromagnetic data measures variations in the Earth’s magnetic field caused by variations in 100m State-wide Queenslandthe magnetic susceptibility of the underlying rocks. It provides information on the structure Compilation 200m State-wide Compilationand composition of magnetic basement and intrasedimentary magnetic units (if present).Most bodies within the basement have a distinctive magnetic signature which ischaracterized by the magnitude, heterogeneity and fabric of the magnetic signal. Whencalibrated with known geology, basement terranes can be mapped under a cover ofsedimentary rock, regolith, water or ice.The most important and accurate information provided by magnetic data is the structuralfabric of the basement. Major basement structures can be interpreted from consistentdiscontinuities and/or pattern breaks in the magnetic fabric. Once the structures have beenevaluated and combined with those interpreted from gravity data, a model for the evolutionof the basement and overlying basins can be developed.The Magnetics coverage used for OZSEEBASE is a stitch of multiple datasets. TheGeoscience Australia 2001 Magnetic Anomaly Grid was stitched with all available statecompilation grids (Right).As much as possible, survey boundaries and levelling problems were fixed by stitchingpublic domain surveys sourced from Geoscience Australia (overleaf) New South Wales 50m TMI (Partial Coverage) 250m State-wide Compilation Western Australia No Compilation Available South Australia 100m State-wide Compilation Tasmania 100m Compilation Victoria 50m Compilation 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 16. OZ SEEBASETM 16 Datasets Magnetic Stitching A new Australia-wide stitch was generated for the following reasons: 1. Improve the Geoscience Australia 2001 TMI grid (400m spacing); 2. Integrate updated TMI grids from State Surveys (including NSW, VIC, QLD, SA, NT and TAS); 3. As no state-wide compilation was available for WA. The process of generating the stitch provided an opportunity to address the obvious data issues such as survey boundaries and levelling problems (eg. E-W lines in top right image removed by leveling An example of a levelling problem. correction in centre right image). The image below shows the coverage of surveys incorporated into the stitch to enhance the Geoscience Australia and state TMI compilations. Stitched grid after correction using decorrogation. Line Spacing 00 0 0 0 00 00 00 00 80 80 28 -5 -1 -2 -4 -1 - 0 20 1 1 1 1 50 0 0 0 01 10 20 48 80 Mosaic image of final FrOG Tech stitch grid and Geoscience Australia Offshore Shiptrack 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 17. OZ SEEBASETM 17 Datasets Total Magnetic Intensity (TMI) 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 18. OZ SEEBASETM 18 Datasets First Vertical Derivative (1km Upward Continuance) A first vertical derivative is applied to the data to remove the effects of very regional magnetic anomalies that would come from deep crustal or mantle sources. The FVD filter enhances magnetic anomalies caused by shallow sources and by the top parts of deep, or large depth extent, bodies. Anomaly peaks can be used to locate the centres of magnetic sources or the steeper sides of magnetic bodies. The zero contour lines can be used to locate boundaries of magnetic sources 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 19. OZ SEEBASETM 19 DatasetsDepth ModellingEncom Technology have developed techniques using their 3-D forward andinverse magnetic modelling package “ModelVision Pro” to provide estimates ofdepth, dip, width, depth extent and susceptibility of the sources. Firstly suitableprofiles are selected across the TMI grid. These profiles are then modelledindividually to match observed magnetic field variations using tabular sourcesof uniform magnetization and sharp margins with distinct edges. An initial arrayof bodies is created based on inspection of the profile. These bodies are adjustedusing forward modelling, with strike, position and azimuth corrected to matchthe anomaly extents mapped by the TMI image.The model is then adjusted by inversion of the body positions (along profile),widths, dip, susceptibilities and depths to closely match the observed magneticfield variation along that profile. The source bodies can be converted to pointdepth values at the centre of their top faces. With images of the depth sectionsused for reference, the most reliable depth points are selected based ongeological understanding of the study area. These depth points and inferredfaults are incorporated into a (possibly discontinuous) surface to represent thefaulted top of basement or, where appropriate, of any intra-sedimentary surfaceat which sources generate magnetic field variations. Step 1: A traverse is selected through the anomaly of interest to pass through maxima/minima roughly perpendicular to strike. Bodies created for each anomaly are positioned, strike and azimuth adjusted to match the anomaly extents. Step 2: A regional field gradient is assigned and then the bodies are inverted to match the field variation along the extracted traverse. Step 3: A data point containing the source parameters is generated for each body. Modeled Depth Points used to constrain the OZSEEBASETM surface 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 20. OZ SEEBASETM 20 DatasetsGravityGravity is a very important tool forinterpreting basins. It maps subtle Free-Air Gravitychanges in the Earth’s gravitationalfield caused by variations in thedensity of the underlying rocks.Although the resolution of thisdataset is relatively low, it providesvaluable information on basementtopography and the nature of thedeeper parts of the crust and mantlebeneath the basins. Important intra-basin elements often have anassociated gravity signatureindicating that each element isrelated to a deep basementstructure.In order to interpret the geologicalsource of a gravity anomaly, thedata must be calibrated. Gravityimages show density contrastswithin the crust, but the source ofthe contrast is not unique. As aregional tool it gives informationboth on the density of bodies withinthe crust and on differences inmantle depth and composition.Satellite free-air gravity also has amajor contribution frombathymetry. Thus, the nature ofeach anomaly as crust or mantlemust be distinguished. Bycombining the onshore gravity datawith mapped geology of the sameregion, the sources of many of theanomalies can be inferred andextrapolated offshore and/or undersedimentary cover. Others requiregeophysical modeling which must This image is a mosaic of the 2001 Geosciencebe constrained by a geological Australia Gravity dataset (onshore, Bouguer-model. Calibrated interpretation of corrected) and the Sandwell and Smith’s Globalgravity data is a powerful tool for Gravity v10.1 dataset (offshore, Free-Air).developing an understanding ofbasin shape. 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 21. OZ SEEBASETM 21 DatasetsBouguer GravityBouguer correction of free-airgravity data corrects forbathymetric and topographiceffects.As the Geoscience Australiawas Bouguer-corrected onshoreit was only necessary to correctthe offshore Geosat Gravity.This Bouguer correction used acrustal density of 2.67 g/cm3..This image is a mosaiccomprising two parts: BouguerCorrected Geosat Gravityoffshore and GeoscienceAustralia 2001 GravityAnomaly Grid onshore. 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 22. OZ SEEBASETM 22 DatasetsResidual of LowPass (200km)applied to BouguerA residual separation of the short-wavelength components of theBouguer gravity grid wasundertaken to reduce the effects ofthe shallow Moho (see previouspage). This process does introduceartefacts into the dataset (eg.introduces “dipolar” anomalieswhere there are sudden fieldchanges), therefore caution must beexercised during interpretation.The resulting image is useful forinterpreting upper crustal structureand basement relief. 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 23. OZ SEEBASETM 23 Datasets Isostatic Residual of Bouguer Gravity (Onshore) Isostatic residual gravity anomaly maps are produced by subtractin g long-wavelength anomalies produced by masses deep within the crust or mantle from the Bouguer anomaly map. The long-wavelength anomalies are assumed to result from isostatic compensation of topographic loads. Isostatic residual gravity anomaly maps therefore reveal more clearly than Bouguer gravity anomaly maps the density distributions within the upper crust . This isostatic residual dataset was created by Andrew Lockwood (GSWA, 2004) using the Geoscience Australia Gravity Anomaly Grid (2001) and imaged in ERMapper 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 24. OZ SEEBASETM 24 Datasets Data Distribution – Excluding Gravity and Magnetics This image shows the distribution of non-geophysical data that was used to constrain the SEEBASETM surface. Each dataset has been assigned a confidence value that has been used to generate a reliability map that can be used to assess how well constrained the SEEBASETM has been at any given point. 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 25. OZ SEEBASETM 25 Datasets Magnetic Data Distribution 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 26. OZ SEEBASETM 26 DatasetsConfidence,Reliability, Accuracyand PrecisionThe Confidence, Reliability, Accuracyand Precision (CRAP) Map aims tocommunicate the interpreters evaluationof various datasets in terms of supportin gthe development of the SEEBASETMmodel.For OZSEEBASE the CRAP Map valueis the resulting maximum confidencevalue at any X, Y location from thefollowing input datasets:- Mapped basement outcrop (at selectedscale)- Basement wells locations- Selected seismic lines imagingbasement- Published cross sections- Other published references- Magnetic models- Gravity coverage- Magnetic coverageDuring the interpretation process theinterpreter evaluates the various datasetsavailable to support the SEEBASETMmodel, and assigns confidencepercentages to each feature. These valuescan be a constant value like 100% forbasement outcrop or 70% for CrossSections. Mag surveys are treated moreindependently depending on the surveyspecification.FrOG Tech is considering methods toenhance the information content of theCRAP Map to include representations ofgeological continuity to enhance theConfidence and Reliability elements ofthe map. 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 27. OZ SEEBASETM 27 Basement Geology and TerranesThe SEEBASETM Workflow – Basement Geology and Terranes “BOTTOM-UP” DOCUMENTATION STATE-OF-THE-ART INTEGRATED PETROLEUM PRESENTATION PROJECT SEEBASE™ DATA PROCESSING INTERPRETATION PLAY VISUALISATION INITIATION PRODUCTION & COMPILATION & CALIBRATION INTEGRATION DELIVERY Magnetics Magnetic Enhancement Depth to Pr ocessing Basement Modelling Ev ent & Matur ity + Gravity Hydrocarbon Response Rock Maps for Generation Pr operty Each Basin & DEM/ Crustal-scale Calibration Basin Phase Bathy metry gravity modelling Total Sediment Landsat/ Thickness Report Radarsat Plate Basin-scale SEEBA SE™ Migration Pr oject Setup Data Surface Construct Tectonic Structural SEEBA SE™ Basin Pathw ays/ SRK QC Deliv ery Ongoing & Compilation Geology GIS Base & Ev ents, Interpretation Construction Architecture Fluid Workshop Workshops Support Management & Pr ocessing Metadata Kinematics using all & Evolution Focusing datasets Publications & Reports Final GIS Interpret Pr epar ation Basement Reservoir & Terranes, Seal Quality Wells Composition, Gravity/ 2D & 3D Fabric Magnetics/ Seis mic DEM Image calibration Seis mic Trap Timing, Pr ocessing Navigation Size & Distribution Interpret Other Data Salt & Volcanics 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 28. OZ SEEBASETM 28 Basement Geology and Terranes 110 E 120 E 130 E 140 E 150 E Basement Terranes S Basement terranes have been interpreted for the Australian Plate, using magnetic and gravity data, calibrated with mapped geology. The terranes represent mostly structurally-bound regions that have a common depositional, deformational, volcanic and metamorphic history. They include Archaean cratons, Proterozoic to Phanerozoic fold belts, oceanic plates, and transitional crustal zones. In addition to the basement terranes, S Archaean - Mesoproterozoic sedimentary basins that overlie them have been distinguished separately as “Basement Platforms”. An attempt has been made to map the latter in the subsurface using the geopotential field data, however, their full extent beneath the subsurface is difficult to determine owing to their relatively weak magnetic character. This particularly applies to the extent to which the Macarthur Basin underlies the Gulf of Carpentaria. Both of the terranes and overlying platforms form basement to the Neoproterozoic and S Phanerozoic petroleum basins. Post-tectonic intrusive igneous rocks are a feature of many basement terranes, platforms and less commonly within the sedimentary basins themselves. These rocks have not been considered within the terrane definitions, as to do so would distort both the extent and the minimum age, otherwise defined as the last significant deformation ( that produced the basement unconformity). To consider the affects of post-tectonic intrusive S activity, the mapped granite and mafic intrusive bodies of Australia have been included in the GIS. In places, these define separate igneous provinces that crosscut, stitching the basement terranes and platforms. Many of the basement terranes evolved within an older crustal unit, that maintained a distinctive structural Basement Megaterranes fabric, controlling the nature of subsequent tectonism. These larger units, or crustal blocks, comprise the 110 E 120 E 130 E 140 E 150 E interpreted “Megaterranes”. Unlike the sutures bordering terranes, that may represent reactivated intracratonic rift margins or decollements beneath and allochthonous unit, the majority of megaterrane boundaries are crustal sutures. These boundaries typically form the weakest zones within the Australian Plate and were the focus of tectonism throughout the Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic extension and compression events. Many of the megaterranes have either an Archaean core or an inferred Archaean lower/mid crust (eg Kimberley). This interpretation of basement terranes differs from previous work in the separation of platforms from terranes. Additionally, the interpretation east of the Tasman Line differs considerably from conventional interpretations that show this feature as the limit of continuous Proterozoic crust and composed of the Paleozoic Tasman Orogen. The area of the Thompson Orogen (most of south Queensland) is here interpreted to comprise extended Paleoproterozoic crust overlain by relatively undeformed Adelaide-Kanmantoo Fold Belt and Paleozoic sediments. Thus, the Australian Paleoproterozoic continent may have extended as far east as the suture with the New England Fold Belt. It is difficult to reconcile any large strike–slip or allochthonous origin of structural blocks within the Lachlan Fold Belt, except possibly along the eastern portion, as the influence of the orthogonal Neoproterozoic extended crustal architecture has imprinted itself on subsequent Paleozoic structures. There is no evidence in the geopotential field data to support a suture along parts of the Tasman Line, such as the NE margin of the Curnamona Craton. Basement Terranes 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 29. OZ SEEBASETM 29 Basement Geology and Terranes Basement Terranes 110 E 120 E 130 E 140 E 150 E 110 E 120 E 130 E 140 E 150 E S S S S Maximum Age 50 50 50 0 50 0 0 0 00 0 45 20 70 10 60 -1 -2 -3 -5 27 -1 -1 -2 -4 - - 50 0 0 0 0 00 00 00 00 15 25 35 45 0 55 12 17 21 27 Basement Platforms Basement Terranes by Minimum Age 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 30. OZ SEEBASETM 30 Basement Geology and TerranesMegaterranes 10°S 20°S Megaterranes Adelaide-Kanmantoo Fold Be Albany-Fraser Mobile Belt Argo Capricorn Coral Sea Delamerian Fold Belt 30°S Eastern Australia Gawler Craton Hodgkinson_Broken River Indian Ocean Kimberley Craton Lachlan Fold Belt Mount Isa Fold Belt Musgrave Mobile Belt NW Shelf Naturaliste Plateau New England Fold Belt North Australian Craton 40°S Patterson Orogen Pilbara Craton Pinjarra Orogen Sea Floor Southern Ocean Tasman Sea Thompson Fold Belt Volcanic arc Yilgarn Craton 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 31. OZ SEEBASETM 31 Basement Geology and Terranes Terranes 110°E 120°E 130°E 140°E 150°E 10°S 20°S 30°S 40°S 40°S 130°E 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 32. OZ SEEBASETM 32 Basement Geology and Terranes Table of Contents for Megaterranes and associated Terranes Yilgarn Craton...........................................................................................33 Thompson Fold Belt..................................................................................36 Tasman Sea .............................................................................................37 Southern Ocean .......................................................................................39 Pinjarra Orogen ........................................................................................41 Pilbara Craton...........................................................................................44 NW Shelf .................................................................................................45 North Australian Craton ............................................................................46 New England Fold Belt .............................................................................52 Musgrave Mobile Belt ...............................................................................61 Mount Isa Fold Belt...................................................................................63 Lachlan Fold Belt ......................................................................................66 Kimberley Craton ......................................................................................73 Indian Ocean ............................................................................................75 Hodgkinson_Broken River ........................................................................77 Gawler Craton ..........................................................................................79 Eastern Australia ......................................................................................85 Delamerian Fold Belt ................................................................................88 Capricorn ..................................................................................................90 Argo ..........................................................................................................91 Albany-Fraser Mobile Belt ........................................................................92 Adelaide-Kanmantoo Fold Belt .................................................................94 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 33. OZ SEEBASETM 97 Tectonic EvolutionThe SEEBASETM Workflow – Tectonic Events and Responses “BOTTOM-UP” DOCUMENTATION STATE-OF-THE-ART INTEGRATED PETROLEUM PRESENTATION PROJECT SEEBASE™ DATA PROCESSING INTERPRETATION PLAY VISUALISATION INITIATION PRODUCTION & COMPILATION & CALIBRATION INTEGRATION DELIVERY Magnetics Magnetic Enhancement Depth to Pr ocessing Basement Modelling Ev ent & Matur ity + Gravity Hydrocarbon Response Rock Maps for Generation Pr operty Each Basin & DEM/ Crustal-scale Calibration Basin Phase Bathy metry gravity modelling Total Sediment Landsat/ Thickness Report Radarsat Plate Basin-scale SEEBA SE™ Migration Pr oject Setup Data Surface Construct Tectonic Structural SEEBA SE™ Basin Pathw ays/ SRK QC Deliv ery Ongoing & Compilation Geology GIS Base & Ev ents, Interpretation Construction Architecture Fluid Workshop Workshops Support Management & Pr ocessing Metadata Kinematics using all & Evolution Focusing datasets Publications & Reports Final GIS Interpret Pr epar ation Basement Reservoir & Terranes, Seal Quality Wells Composition, Gravity/ 2D & 3D Fabric Magnetics/ Seis mic DEM Image calibration Seis mic Trap Timing, Pr ocessing Navigation Size & Distribution Interpret Other Data Salt & Volcanics 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 34. OZ SEEBASETM 98 Tectonic EvolutionBasin Tectonic Evolution MAX MIN TECTONIC EVENT EVENT NAME AGE AGE CATEGORY EVENT TYPE STRESS FIELD DIR Petroleum basins that developed during the Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic on the Australian Plate, have undergone a number of compressional and extensional SE Asia 21 5 INTERPLATE COMPRESSIONAL N-S Convergence events. The timing and nature of these events has been the result of plate Eocene 43 35 INTERPLATE COMPRESSIONAL SE-NW Convergence interactions, principally, involving both the assembly and disassembly of Coral Sea 85 43 INTERPLATE EXTENSIONAL NE-SW Divergence Gondwana. Twenty nine events are recognized and described This compilation is the first to document all these events and interpret their kinematics within a Tasman 90 85 INTERPLATE EXTENSIONAL N-S Divergence consistent plate tectonic model. Plate reconstructions used throughout are after SE Australian 100 90 INTERPLATE COMPRESSIONAL SE-NW Convergence Ross & Scotese (2000). Gippsland 120 100 INTERPLATE EXTENSIONAL NE-SW Divergence Structural interpretation was carried out using a range of new images generated from gravity, magnetics, topography/bathymetry, Landsat and surface geology Southern Margins 145 134 INTERPLATE EXTENSIONAL SE-NW Divergence data. Calibration with 2D seismic, well data and published maps and cross sections NW Shelf 190 155 INTRAPLATE EXTENSIONAL SE-NW Divergence has also been undertaken. Fitzroy 220 210 INTRAPLATE COMPRESSIONAL N-S Convergence All faults contain are attributed with: Hunter - Bowen 235 230 INTRAPLATE COMPRESSIONAL E-W Convergence Data source (e.g. gravity, magnetics, etc) Westralian 306 268 INTRAPLATE EXTENSIONAL SE-NW Divergence Confidence in interpretation East Australian 310 300 INTRAPLATE TRANSPRESSIONAL NE-SW Convergence Positional accuracy Mt Eclipse / Meda 325 310 INTRAPLATE COMPRESSIONAL NE-SW Convergence Orientation (dip, dip direction) Kanimblan 350 325 INTRAPLATE COMPRESSIONAL E-W Convergence Basement involved or detached Pillara 375 350 INTRAPLATE EXTENSIONAL NE-SW Divergence Dykes Pertnjara, Tabberaberan 395 370 INTRAPLATE COMPRESSIONAL NE-SW Convergence Initiation age Cobar 400 395 INTRAPLATE COMPRESSIONAL ENE-WSW Convergence Lachlan 2 410 400 INTRAPLATE EXTENSIONAL NNE-SSW Divergence Reactivation ages Bindian / Bowning 417 400 INTRAPLATE COMPRESSIONAL ESE-WNW Convergence Reactivation kinematics Lachlan 1 425 415 INTRAPLATE EXTENSIONAL NNE-SSW Divergence Reactivation displacements Rodingan, Benambran 450 430 INTRAPLATE COMPRESSIONAL NNE-SSW Convergence Comments (e.g. fault name, descriptions etc) Larapintine 475 455 INTRAPLATE EXTENSIONAL NE-SW Divergence The map, on the following page, shows all interpreted basement-involved faults Delamerian 510 475 INTRAPLATE COMPRESSIONAL ESE-WNW Convergence generated during the tectonic events. The following section details the main events that shaped the Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic tectonic and structural evolution Antrim 530 510 INTRAPLATE EXTENSIONAL SE-NW Divergence of basins within the Australian Plate. Petermann 2 560 540 INTRAPLATE COMPRESSIONAL SE-NW Convergence Petermann 1 640 560 INTRAPLATE COMPRESSIONAL N-S Convergence Centralian 2 750 640 INTERPLATE EXTENSIONAL NE-SW Divergence Whickham 760 750 INTRAPLATE EXTENSIONAL SE-NW Divergence Centralian 1 835 750 INTRAPLATE EXTENSIONAL NE-SW Divergence 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 35. OZ SEEBASETM 99 Tectonic EvolutionBasementStructures Centralian 1 Centralian 2 Cobar Coral Sea Delamerian Dindian / Bowning East Australian Fitzroy Gippsland Hunter Kanimblan Lachlan 1 Lachlan 2 Larapintine Mt Eclipse / Meda NW Shelf Pertnjara, Tabberaberan Petermann 1 Petermann 2 Pillara Rodingan, Benambran SE Asia SE Australian Southern Margins Tasman Westralian Whickham 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 36. OZ SEEBASETM 100 Tectonic EvolutionCentralian 1Cryogenian: 835-750 MaNE-SW Extension During the Early Neoproterozoic, Australia was part of the Rodinia Supercontinent, which included Gondwana and North America. Minor, short-lived extension occurred during the Gairdner-Stuart Dyke “event” at 827±6Ma (Wingate et al, 1998), in which a NW-SE trending continental dyke swarm was emplaced in south-central Australia. This event marked the onset of extension between North America and Gondwana. Although net structural displacement during dyke emplacement was negligible, it introduced a fundamental crustal scale fabric into the Australian continent. The dykes crosscut all major preexisting basement features in Central and Southern Australia, and do not appear to follow any pre- existing weaknesses. Parallel structures now define the NW trending segments of the Tasman Line, as well as many parts of the Adelaidean rift and the Great Australian Bight. The NE-SW-directed intracratonic extension in Rodinia, initiated by 840Ma and leading to eventual breakup between North America and Australia, coincides with formation of the Centralian Superbasin (Walter & Veevers, 1997; Walter et al, 1995). Subsequently, NW-oriented segments of the Tasman Line (eastern edge of thick Proterozoic crust in Australia) developed along the NW-dyke trend. Thick Neoproterozoic sedimentary sequences were deposited in a belt that included the Adelaide Geosyncline, western Tasmania and parts of the Ross Orogen in Antarctica (Burrett & Martin, 1989; Floettmann et al, 1993; Gunn et al, 1997). Major NW linear structures in western Tasmania and western Victoria such as the Moyston-Tamar Fault Zone, probably formed during the Centralian 1 event. Deposition of Neoproterozoic sediments in the Centralian Centralian Superbasin Superbasin is thought to be coincident with the NE-SW extension during the Willouran event in the Adelaide Rift Complex approximately ~840-800Ma (Walters et al, 1995; Walter & Veevers, 2000). Age correlations have been made based on the similarly aged dyke swarms in the both regions. In the Musgrave Block, the Amata dolerite dykes yield baddeleyite ages of 824+/-4Ma (unpublished data of Shensu Sun; see p16 of Edgoose et al., 2004) comparable to the 827Ma Gairdner dyke swarm in the Stuart Shelf (Wingate et al., 1998). 793Ma 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 37. OZ SEEBASETM 101 Tectonic Evolution Whickham Cryogenian: 760-750 Ma NW-SE Extension An brief episode of SE-NW extension separates the NE- SW extension that lead to breakup of the Rodinia Supercontinent during the Centralian 1 and 2 events. The flip in extension direction is evident by intrusion of the Muggamurra dyke swarm at about 755 Ma. alon g the northwestern margin of the Yilgarn Craton and adjacent Northampton terrane. The event is possibly recorded in the Adelaide-Kanmantoo Fold Belt where a change of extension direction, indicated by N-S trending extensional structures and oblique reactivation of the older NW structures, is evident during the latest part of the Centralian 1 event (W. Preiss pers. comm., 2001). 755 Ma 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 38. OZ SEEBASETM 102 Tectonic EvolutionCentralian 2Cryogenian-Ediacaran:750-640 MaNE-SW ExtensionThe Centralian 2 rift phase, associated with Sturtianglaciation in the Adelaide Rift Complex, represents the finalcontinental breakup of the Neoproterozoic supercontinentRodinia (Preiss, 2000) . NE-SW rifting reactivated majorextensional structures developed during the Centralian 1 andearlier Neoproterozoic Willouran rift events in the Adelaiderift complex (Preiss, 2000). Subsidence and deposition in theCentralian superbasin of the Sturtian glaciations are aproduct of this extension, and most likely reactivate similarextensional structures that were formed during intrusion ofthe Late Mesoproterozoic Giles Complex. The occurrenceof thick Sturtian sequences in the northeast Amadeus andsouthwest Georgina basin, suggests the possibility of a riftdepocenter centered on the Harts Range region of theEastern Arunta Block. This may explain inherited zirconages between 650-700Ma (Buick et al., 2001) in themetapelite and metabasic rocks of the Harts Range Group.As for the Centralian 1 extensional phase, tectonism wasfocused along a NW-trending belt extending between theNW Shelf and Tasmania. The Belt is developed over therelatively ‘weaker’ series of Paleoproterozoic Mobile Beltsthat separate major crystalline Archaean-cored cratons. AnE-W jog in the Belt in Central Austral developed along thesouthern margin of the North Australian Craton. Thisgeometry provided a locus of transtensional structures Centralian Superbasinduring both the Centralian 1 and 2 events and has repeatedlyhad a marked influence on the style of later extensional andcompressional structures developed during subsequentevents. Most of Southeastern Australia, east of the TasmanLine, was the site for deposition of the Adelaide-KanmantooFold Belt sediments and is interpreted to be underlain byhighly extended Paleoproterozoic crust at this time. 695 Ma 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 39. OZ SEEBASETM 103 Tectonic Evolution Petermann 1 Ediacaran: 640-560 Ma N-S Compression The Pinjarra Orogeny possibly reflects the initial collision of East and West Gondwana at ~650-556Ma (Veevers, 2000, part of the Pan African Orogeny). In Australia the event was associated with N-S compression and locally granulite facies metamorphism of Palaeoproterozoic crust, The Pinjarra Orogen underwent extensive dextra l transtensional deformation at this time with associated intrusion and possible metamorphic core comple x formation. During this time dextral strike-slip movement on major N-S structures elsewhere in Australia are interpreted, most notably the Halls Creek Mobile Belt and the Lasseter Fracture Zone A major disruption to the architecture of the Centralian Superbasin began during the Petermann Orogeny where the axis of principal deposition of the Amadeus Basin sediments shifted northward to form new depocentres in the northern Amadeus Basin. The Petermann Orogeny was a significant intraplate orogeny that had a dramatic influence on the shape and subsequent depositiona l history in the Amadeus and Officer basins. Substantia l crustal shortening during the Petermann Orogeny is recorded in the Musgrave Block with eclogite to greenschist facies metamorphism, and widespread tectonism. Exhumed eclogite facies rocks imply >40km of vertical uplift during the Petermann along crustal scale faults, the Woodroffe Thrust and the Mann Fault (Lambeck & Burgess, 1992; Camacho & Fanning, 1995; Scrimgeour & Close, 1999). Teleseismic studies by Lambeck (1991) suggest the displacement of the moho on the northern and southern margins of the Musgrave Block by thrusts that extend through the crust into the mantle. The northern margin is dominated by the Mann- Woodroffe Thrust system with the Mann containing a steeper dip, whereas the southern crustal scale fault zone, e.g. the north dipping Munyarai Thrust, is shallower and is more likely the suture zone for the South Australian 600 Ma Craton and the Musgrave-Arunta Blocks (Lambeck & Burgess, 1992). 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 40. OZ SEEBASETM 104 Tectonic Evolution Petermann 2 Ediacaran: 560-540 Ma NNW-SSE Compression The regional continuity of the Centralian Superbasin was terminated by the ~550Ma Petermann 2 Orogeny, and further interrupted during the Paleozoic Delamerian and Alice Springs Orogenies. During these events the deepest parts of the basin underwent significant inversion. The Petermann Orogeny represents the effects of the final collision and accretion of West and East Gondwana. The terminal Pan African deformation along the east African margin is defined by major deformation in the Mozambique Belt between ~570-520 Ma (Grunow et al., 1996). High-grade metamorphism and anatexis is documented by zircon ages between 557 and 526 Ma (mean about 550 Ma) within the Madagascar portion of the Belt (Kroner et al, 1996). The event, together with a slightly younger collisional zone along the southern Prince Charles Mountains-Prydz Bay (sPCM-PB, Antarctica) suture, represent the terminal deformation and final cratonisation of Gondwana. The East African Orogen (Mozambique Belt) most likely formed a continuous suture across the length of Gondwana, extending to the north between the southeastern portion of the Arabian Plate and northwest India/Afghanistan (Gass et al, 1990; Windley et al., 1996). The NNW compression , initiated dextral transpressional reactivation of the Paterson Orogen-Tasman Line, that accommodated differential movement between northern and southern Australia. A stepover in this strike-slip zone occurred along the E-W trending portion of the belt in Central Australia. Here a continent-scale “pop-up” occurred, exhuming and deforming what is now the Musgrave Block, causing widespread tectonism, including regional eclogite facies metamorphism of basement, associated with greater than 40km of exhumation via a complex array of anastamosing ~E-W shear zones, and high pressure metamorphism of Neoproterozoic sediments. In the southwest, widespread intrusion (Leeuwin Igneous Complex) and emplacement of the NNW-trending Boyagin Dykes (SW Yilgarn), may be associated with 550 Ma dextral transtensional reactivation of the ~N-trending Greater India-Australia boundary. 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 41. OZ SEEBASETM 105 Tectonic EvolutionAntrimCambrian: 530-510 MaNW-SE Extension The Final assembly of Gondwana had been achieved by about 530-520 Ma. By the end of the Proterozoic, the proto-Pacific Ocean separated Australia and North America, and the eastern margin of Australia had become active. Early Cambrian extension in south- eastern Australia was probably caused by plate margin processes on the eastern margin of Gondwanna (e.g. slab rollback). In the Early Cambrian this extension was oriented ~NW-SE (on a continental scale). Most of the extension was accommodated to the east of the Tasman Line on structures now beneath the Lachlan Fold Belt, and may have led to the formation of small back-arc basins. Minor intracratonic rifting occurred to the west of the Tasman Line in the Georgina, Officer, Stansbury, Arrowie and Warburton basins, and in the Kimberley region. These localised early ?pull-apart Cambrian depocentres may contain good source rocks (as discovered in the Georgina Basin). In the Kanmantoo Fold Belt, Early Cambrian extension in ~NE trending rifts resulted in the deposition of thick sedimentary sequences (e.g. Kanmantoo Group turbidites and volcanics [including the Mt Reed Volcanics in Tasmania]). Similar Cambrian sequences may underlie large parts of the Lachlan Fold Belt (e.g. Burrett & Martin, 1989). Crustal-scale structures and variations in crustal Pull- Pull-apart basin thickness produced during the Antrim and earlier Neoproterozoic events formed the basement architecture that subsequently controlled the location and nature of all Paleozoic and Mesozoic contractional and extensional events in SE Australia. For example, the NW and NE-trending structures formed during the Cambrian extension defined the pattern of Early Cretaceous extension and evolution of the Bass Basin. Sinistral displacement and deformation along the India/Australia boundary has been interpreted for this 520 Ma interval (Powell & Pisarevsky 2002) 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 42. OZ SEEBASETM 106 Tectonic Evolution Delamerian Cambrian: 510-475 Ma ESE-WNW compression The Cambro-Ordovician Delamerian Orogeny (~520- 480Ma; Drexel & Preiss, 1995; Veevers, 2000; Vandenberg et al, 2000, and references therein) caused extensive ~WNW-directed compression in the Adelaide and Kanmantoo Fold Belts, and presumably in basement beneath parts of the Lachlan Fold Belt. Deformation was accompanied by extensive syn- to post-orogenic plutonism. Obducted Cambrian oceanic crustal elements and island arc fragments (preserved in the Victorian greenstone belts), together with Cambrian passive margin sediments deposited on the extended Proterozoic craton margin, were deformed and variably metamorphosed at this time (e.g. Woodward et al, 1993). After initial deformation, post-collisional medium- to high-K calc- alkaline andesitic volcanic arcs formed on the active continental margin (Drexel & Preiss, 1995). Thick Late Cambrian-Ordovician quartz-rich turbidite deposits overlie the arc sequences in the Lachlan Fold Belt. Delamerian structures are likely to dominate the basement fabric beneath the Otway and Sorell Basins, and include N-S-trending thrusts and NW-trending sinistral transpressional faults and shear zones. These structures are highly reactive due to their strong planarity and penetrative character and were an important control on subsequent Mesozoic basin evolution. No Delamerian tectonism is interpreted to have occurred in the Great Australian Bight. To the west of Kangaroo Island the Delamerian structures terminate against major ~NNW structures of the Palaeoproterozoic Kimban Mobile Belt. The Delamerian Event is associated with the development of a continuous convergent margin along southern margin of Gondwanna that encompassed the Australian Antarctic and South American margins. Subduction ceased by about 470 Ma on the south American margin with 493 Ma docking of the Precordillera terrane (Sims et al., 1999). 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 43. OZ SEEBASETM 107 Tectonic Evolution Larapintine Ordovician: 475-455 Ma NE-SW Extension During the mid-late Ordovician, NE-SW intracratonic extension (possibly in response to slab rollback on Australia’s eastern, proto-Pacific margin) opened a broad rift basin which transected the Australian part of Gondwana, connecting the Canning, Amadeus and Warburton basins to the proto-Pacific Ocean, forming the Larapintine Seaway. Marine sediments were deposited in this narrow seaway, which was connected to the ocean to the NW and SE. Source rocks were deposited in the Canning and Amadeus Basins at this time. Widespread turbidites were deposited on extended continental crust and ?back arc basins in the southern Lachlan Fold Belt. High-grade upper amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism in the Harts Range region of the eastern Arunta Block occurred during the deposition of the Larapinta Group sequences (Mawby et al., 1999; Hand et al., 1999a; Buick et al., 2001). The metamorphism is interpreted to be the result of deep crustal extension associated with local development of a pull-apart basin (Mawby et al., 1999; Hand et al., 1999a). The limits of the inferred pull-apart basin were the southwestern margin of the Georgina basin and the northeastern boundary of the Amadeus, with the bulk of the basin sediments exhumed and eroded during the subsequent Rodingan-Benambran event. La ra pi nt ine Se aw ay ic ci f -Pa 465 Ma ot o Pr 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 44. OZ SEEBASETM 108 Tectonic EvolutionRodingan, BenambranOrdovician-Early Silurian:450-430MaNNE-SSW CompressionThe Rodingan movement (first phase of the Alice SpringsOrogeny) in the Amadeus Basin is coincident with the~450Ma onset of a convergent subduction at the easternmargin of the Australian continent, which also led totectonism within the Lachlan Fold Belt during theBenambran Orogeny. The deformations marked thecessation of Ordovician extension and the progressivespread of non-marine conditions as deformation graduallydisrupted the Larapintine Seaway.The Late Ordovician – Early Silurian (450 and 430 Ma)deformations, probably linked beneath the Cooper-Eromanga Basin, was accommodated in the west byinferred dextral reactivation of the Halls Creek MobileZone.In the Lachlan Fold Belt the deformation was aprotracted, contractional, and widely distributed, eventand involved thrusting, local nappe development, uprightfolding metamorphism and granitic plutonism.Approximate E-W-trending fold axes and thrustkinematics reflect mostly ~N-S shortening, althoughlocally structural geometry and kinematics wereinfluenced by reactivation of older structures.In central Australia deformation appears to be confined tothe eastern Arunta Block, with strain mostly Closure of Wagga Marginal Basin andaccommodated along major shear zones and local folding Monaro Forearc basinof early shallow dipping foliations (James et al., 1989;Mawby et al., 1999). Upper amphibolite conditions wererecorded in these shear zones with metamorphic gradewith temperatures and pressure estimates between 600-700ºC and 6-7kbars (Mawby et al., 1999; Scrimgeour &Raith, 2001b). No major folding of Amadeus Basinsequences occurred at this time.In the Amadeus Basin uplift and exhumation began at~450Ma along the Delny shear zone and the Brunadetachment zone (Dunlap et al., 1995; Mawby et al.,1999; Scrimgeour & Raith, 2001), coinciding with 440 Maprogressive shallower marine conditions in the upper partsof the Stokes Siltstone (Walley et al., 1991). 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 45. OZ SEEBASETM 109 Tectonic EvolutionLachlan 1Mid Silurian: 425-415 MaNNE-SSW Extension Middle to Late Silurian probable inception of a new subduction zone within the accretionary complex associated with the intra-oceanic Calliope volcanic arc in the PaleoPacific, or possibly roll-back of an old one, coincided with a period of sinistral NNE-SSW transtension along the PaleoPacific margin. Older Ordovician extensional structures, themselves controlled by the underlying Neoproterozoic crustal architecture, were reactivated mostly as horst and graben and within the Lachlan and Thompson Fold Belts. Locally, core complexes in pull-apart basins (Stuart-Smith, 1990) and MORB rocks were emplaced at high crustal levels forming possible oceanic crust (Ashley et al, 1979; Scheibner & Basden, 1997). Sedimentation was shallow non-marine to marine deposition accompanied by subaerial and submarine bimodal (dominantly felsic) volcanism. Max limit of Proterozoic continental crust 420 Ma 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 46. OZ SEEBASETM 110 Tectonic Evolution Bindian, Bowning Late Silurian: 415-410 Ma ESE-WNW Compression Sinistral transtension and basin deposition continued in the Lachlan Fold Belt in most areas west of the Gilmore Suture throughout the Late Silurian (Glen, 1993). However, to the east of the suture at the same time, ESE-WNW compression resulted in meridional folding, faulting and regional metamorphism of the Bowning-Bindi Orogeny . NW-trending Mid-Silurian oblique growth faults including the Gilmore Suture (Stuart-Smith, 1991) were inverted as sinistral reverse faults with local thrusting. Max limit of Proterozoic continental crust deformed 412 Ma zone 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 47. OZ SEEBASETM 111 Tectonic Evolution Lachlan 2 Siluro-Devonian: 410-400 Ma NNE-SSW Extension Renewed Siluro-Devonian NNE-SSW extension alon g the Paleo Pacific margin continued the sinistra l transtensional conditions that characterised the Middle to Late Silurian in the Lachlan Fold Belt. Much of central eastern Australia underwent subsidence (Veevers, 2000) with non-marine deposition in the Cobar, Darling and Adavale Basins. In the southeastern Lachlan Fold Belt oblique reactivation of NW to N- trending grabens east of the Gilmore Suture accommodated shallow-marine to continental deposits. Extensive felsic magmatism with intrusion of granite batholiths and deposition of coeval volcanics occurred along the entire length of the continental margin. Max limit of Proterozoic continental crust 405 Ma 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 48. OZ SEEBASETM 112 Tectonic Evolution Cobar Early Devonian: 400-395 Ma ENE-WSW Compression The Cobar deformation is one of a series of diachronous and extensive Devonian extension and compressional events that affected the eastern margin of Gondwana, corresponding to a period of plate jostling and closure of the marginal sea behind Calliope Volcanic Arc. Dextral transpressional conditions are evident (Schreibner & Basden, 1997) with deformation focused in the central eastern part of the Lachlan Fold Belt within the Darling Basin. Areas further south, such as the Grampians Basin were possibly affected with local fault reactivation throughout eastern Victoria. To the north, in the Adavale Basin, E-directed thrust-loading caused foreland basin subsidence (Evans et al, 1990). The eastern part of the Lachlan Fold Belt continued to be the site of sediment and volcanic accumulation. Closure of marginal sea 397 Ma 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 49. OZ SEEBASETM 113 Tectonic EvolutionPertnjara, TabberaberanEarly-Mid Devonian: 395-375NE-SW Compression During the Early-Mid-Devonian, widespread deformation occurred as part of the Tabberaberan Orogeny in the Lachlan Fold Belt and the eastern-most parts of the Kanmantoo Fold Belt during a period of convergent subduction at Australia’s eastern margin. The zone of deformation probably extends NW from the Lachlan, beneath the Cooper-Eromanga Basin, though Centra l Australia and north along the Halls Creek Mobile Belt and Bonaparte Gulf to the Tethyan margin. ~NE-SW compression resulted in sinistral transpression in Centra l Australia and dextral transpression in the Halls Creek Mobile Belt. Movement on the latter zone decoupled deformation in Central Australia from deformation in the Canning Basin. This orogeny is termed the Pertnjara Movement in Central Australia, and was the most significant period of deformation in the Alice Springs Orogeny. In SE Australia, the deformation involved widespread folding and faulting with an indicated E-W- to NE-directed shortening (eg. Glen, 1990). The deformation followed an episode of Early Devonian rifting, felsic magmatism alon g the eastern margin of Australia, and was associated with contraction and foreland thrust loading to the west of a volcanic arc developed on an oblique convergent Paleo- Pacific margin (Veevers, 2000). In central Australia, synorogenic deposition of the Pertnjara Group in the Amadeus, Georgina, and Wiso basins was Subduction Zone synchronous with deformation and major exhumation of the Arunta Block, the focus of thrusting, medium-grade metamorphism and granite intrusion. (Shaw et al., 1991, Dunlap et al., 1995; Dunlap & Teyssier, 1995; Flotmann & Hand, 1999; Buick & Hand 2001). Deformation is expressed in the Amadeus Basin by progressive tilting, low grade thrusting and folding of the Amadeus Basin sequences (Stewart, 1993). In the Canning Basin affects the deformation is marked by a hiatus in deposition (Prices Creek Movement) and minor inversion on older Paleozoic growth faults under N-S 385 Ma compression. Deformation was focused locally on the SE corner of the Kimberley Craton. 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 50. OZ SEEBASETM 114 Tectonic Evolution Pillara Mid-Late Devonian: 375-350 Ma NE-SW Extension Renewed breakup of the Gondwana Tethyan margin, north of Australia, was preceded by a period of Mid to Late Devonian NE-SW Extension. Tectonism was focused in western and eastern Australia where sinistral transtension in the latter produced an extensive strike-slip system alon g the margin of the P ilbara and Kimberley Cratons, exploiting the pre-existing NE basement grain. The location of the strike-slip faults is most likely influenced by the Proterozoic North West Shelf “Megashear” (NWS Group, WABS 1994) that extends along the northwestern Australian margin. The inferred movement involves NE extension with sinistral movement on major NE-trendin g faults. These reactivated faults are interrupted by NS- and EW-trending basement structures, which act as accommodation (transfer) zones where the strike-slip system steps across them.. East of the “megashear”, the NE-SW “Pillara” Extension developed major depocentres in the Canning Basin. Extension exploited the preexisting orthogonal fault sets developed during earlier Paleozoic extension with significant growth on NW-trending structures controlled by basement grain in Halls Creek and King Leopold Mobile Belts. Total crustal extension during the P illara movement in the Fitzroy Trough has been estimated variously as 40 km (Drummond et al., 1991), 50 km (Brown et al.,1984) and 80 km (Romine et al., 1994). The Max limit of Proterozoic continental crust Petrel Sub-Basin developed on the NE side of the Kimberley Block by orthogonal extension. In eastern Australia widespread continental deposition of redbeds (eg in the Darling and Ardavale Basins) was linked to post-Pragian foreland basin loading associated with deformation and uplift of the Lachlan Fold Belt from the Tabberabberan Orogeny west of the Gilmore Fault (ie. areas mostly underlain by thinned Proterozoic crust). To the east of the fault zone, NE-SW back-arc extension along the PaleoPacific margin is evident by sinistra l reactivation of older N- to NW trending structures with the 363 Ma formation of volcanic rifts. 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 51. OZ SEEBASETM 115 Tectonic Evolution Kanimblan Early Carboniferous: 350-325 Ma E-W Compression After the Mid Devonian Tabberabberan Orogeny, a complex active margin evolved at the eastern, Paleo- Pacific margin of Australia. The margin included an accretionary prism, forearc basin, magmatic arc and ophiolites, that collectively form the New England Terrane (New England Orogenic Province of Scheibner 1998). During the early Carboniferous at ~345Ma (Veevers, 2000), renewed ~E-W compression in eastern Australia was caused by convergent subduction at the eastern Australian margin (Collins & Vernon, 1992), resulting in uplift and further deformation via reactivation of preexisting basement structures in the Lachlan Fold Belt lasting until ~325Ma (Scheibner 1998). In the southern Lachlan Fold Belt, the deformation is interpreted to have caused the regional formation of new conjugate strike-slip faults and some reverse reactivation of N- trending Early Silurian and Siluro-Devonian faults. In the Bass Strait region, major NE-trending dextral strike slip faults are postulated. The strike-slip zones appear to terminate in places against N-trending reverse faults that displace Upper Devonian sediments. 342 Ma 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 52. OZ SEEBASETM 116 Tectonic EvolutionMt Eclipse, MedaMid Carboniferous:325-310 MaNE-SW Compression An eastward shift in the subduction complex along the Paleo-Pacific margin during the mid Carboniferous, and far-field stresses with N-S contraction led to granite emplacement and the widespread development of a conjugate mega-kinks throughout the eastern Lachlan Fold Belt (Veevers, 2000). Reactivation of major structures during this deformation is interpreted to occur beneath the Cooper-Eromanga Basin, through central Australia, and north along the Halls Creek Mobile Belt to the Tethyan Margin (Teasdale et al., 2002) with transpressional reactivation of NE-trending structures along the NW Shelf Mobile Belt. In the Canning and basins along the NW shelf variable, but locally important, inversion (Meda Compression) of Devonian-Carboniferous faults took place concomitant with erosion and uplift. In Central Australia the event is known as the Mt Eclipse Movement (Haines et al., 2001), the final significant phase of convergent deformation in the Alice Springs Orogeny. Deformation was principally S-directed, with shortening mostly accommodated by coarse partitioning of strain in reworked Palaeoproterozoic shear zones within the southern margin of the Arunta Block, and folding and thrusting in the northeast portion of the Amadeus Basin. In the Arunta Block, shear zones were Subduction Zone active at medium-grade metamorphic conditions at ~340-320Ma (Cartwright et al., 1999) with New mylonitisation related to thrusting ceasing by about 310Ma (Dunlap et al., 1995). wE ng lan la dT No syn-orogenic sedimentation occurred in the Amadeus Te rr Basin during this phase of deformation, and the only ane a record of syn-orogenic Carboniferous sedimentation is found in the Ngalia Basin with the deposition of the Mt Eclipse sandstone (Haines et al., 2001). Late NW-SE trending folds in the Amadeus Basin, refold syn- Devonian folding, suggesting that the direction of 317 Ma compression in the Carboniferous was NE-SW (Stewart, 1993). 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 53. OZ SEEBASETM 117 Tectonic EvolutionEast AustralianLate Carboniferous:310-300 MaNNE-SSW TranspressionLate Carboniferous collision of the Lord Howe Risecontinental fragment into the trench complex along theeastern margin of Australia caused deformation and upliftof the accretionary prism, and thrusting of the fore-arcbasin (Yarrol-Tamworth Terrane) over the Connors-Auburn-Camboon-Baldwin Arc (Veevers, 2000). Affectsof the collision were limited to eastern Australia with theevent representing the final phase of Carboniferouscompressional episodes that resulted in cratonisation ofthe Lachlan and Thompson Fold Belts.NNE-SSW dextral transpression is interpreted along theuplifted deformed zone with limited associated E-Wopening of pull-apart basins at N-S right-steps within thestrike-slip system (eg. Denison Trough). The earlydepositional phase of the Bowen Basin was also driven byback-arc extension associated with the eruption ofintermediate volcanics (eg. Lizzie Creek Volcanics)(Korsch & Totterdell 1995) commensurate with dextralstrike-slip faulting at ~300Ma (Fergussen & Leitch 1993).Late Carboniferous-Early Permian (306-286Ma, Allen etal. 1998) plutons and N-trending felsic dykes wereemplaced marginal to, and along the length of, theConnors-Auburn-Camboon-Baldwin Arc . 305 Ma 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 54. OZ SEEBASETM 118 Tectonic Evolution Westralian Late Carboniferous- Early Permian: 306-268 Ma NW-SE Extension During the Late Carboniferous to Early Permian (~305- 268 Ma) the northwestern and eastern margins of Australia underwent NW-SE extension and crustal thinning. The (Westralian) extension event was initiated in response to a major mid-Carboniferous thermal event and marks the first of two largely NW-directed extensional phases that produced the Exmouth Plateau and ultimately resulted in continental break-up and Neotethys Ocean sea-floor spreading along the western Australian margin. The Westralian event is the main phase of extension on the NW Shelf and in the Bowen, Sydney and Cooper Basins. Early Permian extension on the Exmouth Plateau exceeds 300%. Along the northwestern margin, major growth took place on largely reactivated, NE-trending normal faults accommodated by NW-trending relay zones (eg. Etheridge & O’Brien, 1994), compartmentalising the developing depocentres into sub-basins. Many of the active faults were reactivated Proterozoic and older Paleozoic structures. With the extension direction orthogonal to Mid-Late Devonian extension, the older NW-trending sinistral fracture and transfer zones were reactivated, controlling the development of primary growth faults. By comparison, along the eastern margin, NW-SE extension in the Bowen Basin was associated with dextral transtension. The ~N-trending suture between the New England and Lachlan Fold Belts and parallel structures within the adjacent Connors-Auburn-Camboon-Baldwin Arc, providing the principal controls on basin location and geometry. 288 Ma 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 55. OZ SEEBASETM 119 Tectonic EvolutionHunter-BowenLate Permian-Mid Triassic:255-230 MaE-W Compression The Hunter-Bowen ENE-WSW compression was a protracted event of folding and thrust faulting mostly confined to the Permian basins in eastern Australia. The compression occurred as a result of changed plate tectonic settings along the eastern margin of Australia with some volcanism and over-thrusting of New England Fold Belt terranes over the Gunnedah and Sydney basins. Basin sediments were partially uplifted and eroded, particularly along basin margins and on and around basement highs. In the Sydney Basin, a major N-trending fault zone was inverted, forming a basement high, that controlled development of the N-S trending foreland Gunnedah Basin and restricting sedimentation to the west. Durin g the final Mid Triassic phases of the deformation, the Lachlan Fold Belt was uplifted to the west with some reverse faulting of basin sediments and the probable initiation of N-S trending monoclines within the basin. In the Bowen Basin, the effects of the Hunter-Bowen compression were the strongest along the eastern margin where the Connors Arch was pushed up into a mountain chain, shedding wedges of coarse clastic sediments into the basin, and at the same time folding and faulting the sediments. The gravitational instability created by the uplift drove thin-skinned thrusts with detachment surfaces localising on the tops of coal seams. Overall, the intensity of deformation decreased dramatically to the west. 243 Ma 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 56. OZ SEEBASETM 120 Tectonic Evolution Fitzroy Late Triassic: 220-210 Ma N-S Compression The Fitzroy Movement (Forman & Wales, 1981), confined to the northwestern and western margins of Australia, is one of a series of Triassic movements that was associated with the beginning of the breakup of Pangea in the Norian (Veevers,1989) and global regression and uplift. A regional unconformity marks the Fitzroy event that involved reactivation of Devonian-Carboniferous structures, folding and the development of a series of new structures in response to N-S compression (Etheridge & O’Brien, 1994). ) Major fault reactivation and erosion is noted in the Petrel Sub-Basin, Canning, Carnarvon, Browse and Perth Basins during the Latest Triassic-earliest Jurassic. However, owing to poor preservation in the latter basin it is difficult to distinguish the Late Triassic inversion from other younger compressional events. In most areas, deformation was focused on NW- and NE-trending Early- to Mid-Paleozoic faults that were reactivated as dextral and sinistral transpressional wrench zones, respectively. In the Carnarvon Basin, sinistral transpression resulting in local development of Triassic pull-apart and pop-up structures. Along the NW Shelf reactivated faulting was mostly restricted to basin margins (AGSO North West Shelf Study Group,1994). In the Canning Basin, new fault extensions were also propagated into the graben-fill, detached from the extended Proterozoic basement forming a series of en echelon strike-slip zones within the Fitzroy Graben. In response to the overall dextral shear imposed on the NW-trending graben, a series of N-S trending normal faults and E-W trending folds also formed. Other parts of the onshore Canning Basin appear little affected by the deformation apart from minor N-S fracturing and regional warping. 215 Ma 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 57. OZ SEEBASETM 121 Tectonic Evolution NW Shelf Jurassic: 190-155 Ma NW-SE Extension Early to Late Jurassic NW-SE extension of the Gondwana Neothethyan margin resumed following rifting of the Lhasa and West Burma Blocks, culminating in the separation of Argoland from Browse-Bonaparte margin in the Oxfordian and the formation of the Argo and Cuvier oceanic basins. Extension was focused in localised depocentres in the north Carnarvon Basin, Vulcan Sub-Basin and Malita Graben with sinistral-normal reactivation of pre- existing NW-trending Devonian and older normal faults. The steps and bends in these faults occur within the original relay ramps, which are ultimately controlled by deeper Precambrian structures. A new set of NE-trending normal faults was created at this time with locally developed pull-apart basins and basement pop-up structures at steps within the NW-trending strike-slip faults. 173 Ma 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 58. OZ SEEBASETM 122 Tectonic Evolution Southern Margins Latest Jurassic- Early Cretaceous: 145-134 Ma NW-SE extension Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous ~NW-SE extension marks the initiation of the final episode of the break-up of Gondwana. Extension was initially focused in the north of the western margin of Australia. Intracontinental rifting propagated southwards then across the southern margin of the continent (e.g. Stagg & Willcox, 1992; Willcox & Stagg, 1990; Stagg et al, 1999) to the Bass Strait region through oblique reactivation of the Southern Australian Fracture Zone, This basin phase terminated with the breakup of Australia and Greater India in the Valanginian on a triple- branch rift system (e.g. Norvick & Smith, 2001). On the NW Shelf, anticlockwise rotation, resulting in dextral transtension on earlier Jurassic growth faults, occurred as the Indian Plate rifted along a more WSW direction in the Perth Basin, compared to the earlier NW-SE extension events. Along the Southern Margin, Proterozoic E-W-trending structures underwent oblique sinistral-normal reactivation and a set of major NW-trending, sinistral strike- slip fault zones formed between the E-W fault segments, separating the principal depocentres of the basins. Extension was accommodated by development of complex NE-trending half graben (e.g. Bremer Sub-basin, Eyre Sub- Basin, Ceduna Sub-Basin, Otway Ranges - Torquay Sub- basin area, parts of Robe Trough). and pull-apart basins (e.g. Bass Basin and parts of Sorell Basin). Early extension in the Otway and Gippsland Basins may have involved a number of different styles, including sinistral strike-slip movement on pre-existing NW trending basement structures, regular orthogonal normal/transfer rift geometries, and sinistral transtension on E-W trending basement structures. Major sinistral strike-slip deformation (up to 200km) occurred on the West Otway Fracture Zone (e.g. Drexel & Preiss, 1995), partitioning significant extension to the west in the Great Australian Bight and relatively minor extension to the east forming relatively narrow lacustrine basins in the Otway, Sorell, ?Bass and Gippsland Basins. The West Otway Fracture Zone exploited pre-existing basement structures such as the boundary between the Kimban Mobile Belt and Kanmantoo Fold Belt. West Otway Fracture 140 Ma Zone 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 59. OZ SEEBASETM 123 Tectonic EvolutionGippslandEarly Cretaceous: 120-100 MaNE-SW ExtensionEarly Cretaceous (~120-100Ma) NE-SW extension in GreatAustralian Bight, Otway, Bass and Gippsland Basins is indicatedby the development of major NW-trending growth faultsseparated by NE-trending transfer/ accommodation zones(Etheridge et al, 1987). Both sets of structures follow olderbasement structures that evolved during the Neoproterozoic,Paleozoic, and Late Jurassic basin phases. Published platetectonic reconstructions (e.g. Muller, 2000; Gaina et al, 1998) donot show any significant movement between Australia andAntarctica until after 115Ma when Antarctica movessoutheastward relative to Australia and India separates fromAntarctica. It is therefore probable that any NE-extension wasmost likely to have occurred prior to 115Ma. Only very minorEarly Cretaceous NE-SW extension is interpreted west of theGreat Australian Bight.The switch in extension direction from NW-directed to NE-directed in the Early Cretaceous introduced a new set ofstructures in SE Australia; NE-trending transfer faults and NW-trending normal faults. These faults largely followed oldstructural weaknesses.Widespread Late Early Cretaceous sag is interpreted to haveoccurred in response to Jurassic – Early Cretaceous rifting alongthe southern margin, most notably in the Great Australian Bightand outer Otway Basins. Major hinge zones developed at theedge of thinned crust (e.g. Sorell Fault), with great thicknessesof sediment deposited in many offshore areas.Early Cretaceous (~120-100Ma) NE-SW directed extensionformed a series of NW trending half graben in the Ceduna andDuntroon Sub-basins (Totterdell et al, 2000; Smith &Donaldson, 1995 with little or no extension west of the CedunaSub-basin and north of the Polda Basin. In the Otway and Sorell Basins, extension was focused along a~NW-trending fault zone that includes the Tartawup, Mussel andSorell Faults. Only minor rifting occurred inboard of this faultzone, and was accompanied by widespread regional sag,resulting in the deposition of the Eumeralla Formation(Chantraprasert et al, 2001).In the Bass and Gippsland Basins , thick syn-rift sequences weredeposited in deep, NW-trending half graben (Etheridge et al,1987; Power et al, 2001; Willcox et al, 1992) and additionally E- 110 MaW-trending half graben in the latter basin. 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 60. OZ SEEBASETM 124 Tectonic Evolution SE Australian Mid Cretaceous: 100-90 Ma SSE-NNW compression A major global plate reorganisation in the Mid Cretaceous caused by a change direction in the Indian plate trajectory from NW to N (Veevers, 2000), had significant impact throughout the Australasian region. Induced SSE-NNW compression of the Australian plate resulted in extensive inversion and uplift in the Strzelecki and Otway Ranges (up to 3km), and possible minor ~100-95Ma inversion in the remaining parts of the Bremer, Mentelle, Ceduna, Otway, Gippsland and Bass Basins (Lowry & Longley, 1991; Totterdell et al, 2000). Extensive uplift also occurred in northern Tasmania, Bass Strait and onshore Victoria at this time (as evidenced by Fission Track data – Dumitru et al, 1991; Duddy & Green, 1992; O’Sullivan, 1994). Within the Ceduna Sub-basin, potential inversion structures have been noted (Totterdell et al, 2000), including positive flower structures above the WNW-trending Early Cretaceous growth faults. Cretaceous NW- trending and Jurassic NE-trending growth faults are likely to have been reactivated as oblique-slip reverse faults. The event produced significant structural traps throughout the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous rift basin system along the southern margin. 95 Ma 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 61. OZ SEEBASETM 125 Tectonic EvolutionTasmanLate Cretaceous: 90-85 MaN-S & ENE-WSW ExtensionBy the Late Cretaceous, eastern Australia’s active marginwas located east of proto-New Zealand and the LordHowe Rise. Back-arc extension occurred between ~95-84Ma, culminating in sea-floor spreading in the TasmanSea at ~84Ma (Gaina et al, 1998; Muller, 2000), orpossibly 80Ma (Geoscience Australia timescale; Young& Laurie, 1996). This basin phase occurred during thefinal phases of breakup between Australia, Antarctica andthe Lord Howe Rise between ~90 and 45Ma (Veevers etal, 1991; Royer & Rollet, 1997; Gaina et al, 1998;Norvick & Smith, 2001; Brown et al, 2001). Pre-breakupextension along most of eastern Australia was oriented~ENE-WSW, and included substantial crustal stretchingand thinning of the Lord Howe Rise, the Norfolk Ridgeand the westernmost parts of New Zealand (Lister &Etheridge, 1989). Extensive Late Cretaceous volcanism atthe main rift margins (e.g. to the east of the Bass Basin)was associated with the latest stages of extension and theonset of sea-floor spreading. Relatively minor extensionoccurred in the Bass and Gippsland Basins at this time. 87 Ma 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 62. OZ SEEBASETM 126 Tectonic EvolutionCoral SeaEarly Tertiary: 85-43 MaNE-SW ExtensionThe initiation of sea-floor spreading in the Tasman Sea causedAustralia to become decoupled from New Zealand/Antarctica.On the NE Australian margin, NNE-SSW extension predatedthe opening of the Northern Tasman and Coral Seas .Slow, NNW-directed extension occurred between Australiaand Antarctica along the southern margin, culminating in sea-floor spreading in the Southern Ocean during the Eocene at~43Ma. This interpreted age is significantly younger than the~80-90Ma age proposed by Veevers (1986), Muller (2000),Norvick & Smith (2001),and Sayers et al (2001). The Earlytertiary age is preferred as the E-W-trending gravity andmagnetic “quiet zone” along the southern margin representstransitional crust composed of highly attenuated continentalcrust with abundant oceanic mafic intrusives and extrusives,evolved episodically from the Late Jurassic to the EarlyTertiary. Such crust is probably of similar thickness and hassimilar thermal properties to true oceanic crust. However, thetransitional zone is likely to evolve during slow, ductileextension of continental crust, rather than true sea-floorspreading. Hence true sea-floor spreading probably did notcommence until the early Eocene at ~43Ma, coincident withthe onset of rapid separation between Australia and Antarctica.This time also corresponds to a major global platereorganisation, that included a cessation of spreading in theTasman Sea, a substantial change in spreading direction in thenorthern Pacific (i.e. Hawaii-Emperor seamount bend), asignificant plate rearrangement in the southernmost Pacificsouth of New Zealand (Veevers, 2000), and continent-continent collision between India and Eurasia.Along the entire southern margin, the Early Tertiary extensionwas accompanied by significant thermal subsidence,significantly increasing accommodation space. Large hingesformed along the margin, localised by pre-existing basementstructures. Most structural development was localised in thincrust offshore (e.g. Recherche Sub-basin, Diamatina FractureZone, Outer Otway Basin). Thick sediment piles accumulatedin some areas fed by major river systems such as the OuterOtway Basin and Ceduna Delta. 64 Ma 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 63. OZ SEEBASETM 127 Tectonic Evolution South Australia Eocene: 43-21 Ma N-S compression Significant Southern Ocean sea-floor spreading between Australia and Antarctica began in the Eocene at ~43Ma. This, combined with the collision of the Indo-Australian plate with Eurasia, significantly changed the horizontal stresses in the Australian Plate. Ridge push forces developed, placing the southern margin in compression. At this time and during another plate reorganisation at 21Ma these stresses became sufficient to cause inversion on appropriately oriented, “weak” structures. The Eocene rapid increase in the Southern Ocean spreading rate corresponded to a cessation of spreading in the Tasman Sea, a substantial change in spreading direction in the northern Pacific (i.e. Hawaii-Emperor seamount bend), and a significant plate rearrangement in the southernmost Pacific south of New Zealand (Veevers, 2000). In SE Australia, it led to a short episode of compression and inversion, producing the many potential inversion traps. The resulting compression caused minor inversion of some preexisting structures along the entire Southern Margin (e.g. Willcox & Stagg, 1990). Very thin, condensed sedimentation occurred during the Tertiary in the Ceduna Sub-basin (Drexel & Preiss, 1995) where sediments were largely derived from proximal sources, mainly from the Gawler Craton. Erosion of the Gawler occurred via a network of Paleochannels that often followed old basement structures. Ongoing deltaic to shallow marine sedimentation occurred throughout the Tertiary in the Otway, Sorell and Gippsland Basins, largely due to thermal subsidence that followed continental breakup between Australia and Antarctica. Pulses of intraplate compression and volcanism associated with hotspots dominated the Late Paleocene to Middle Eocene in the Bass Strait region and Ceduna Sub- basin (Sutherland, 1991). 32 Ma 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 64. OZ SEEBASETM 128 Tectonic Evolution SE Asia Miocene: 21-5 Ma Compression Miocene to Recent collision of SE Asian microcontinental fragments with the NW and N margins of Australia has resulted in complex fault reactivation during pulses of deformation in the Early Miocene, Late Miocene, and Late Early Pliocene. Normal reactivation of Jurassic growth structures along the NW Shelf occurred within a flexure zone on an underthrust plate within an overall sinistral transtensional convergent margin. To the southwest along the extended NW Shelf Mobile Belt, older growth faults were inverted in the Browse and Carnarvon Basins within a dextral transpressional regime. In the southeast, ~ENE-directed intraplate stresses (Coblentz et al, 1995, 1998; Sandiford et al, 1995; Dickinson et al, 2001) have reactivated “weak” basement structures in the Adelaide Fold Belt, Otway Ranges, Strzelecki Ranges and Eastern Highlands. This compression led to uplift which accentuated the present- day topography (Kohn et al, 2002). Uplift continues today, as evidenced by recent seismicity. Up to 1km of uplift has occurred on major structures (M Sandiford pers. comm., 2001). Minor inversion in the Southern Margin basins may have occurred at this time. Volcanic activity in SE Australia has been fairly continuous throughout the Tertiary to Recent, with a peak Plio-Pleistocene (Sutherland, 1991). This volcanism has been caused by the Australian plate moving over mantle hotspots, and continues today in the Mt Gambier region of South Australia. 13 Ma 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 65. OZ SEEBASETM 129 Basin ArchitectureThe SEEBASETM Workflow – SEEBASETM Production and Basin Architecture “BOTTOM-UP” DOCUMENTATION STATE-OF-THE-ART INTEGRATED PETROLEUM PRESENTATION PROJECT SEEBASE™ DATA PROCESSING INTERPRETATION PLAY VISUALISATION INITIATION PRODUCTION & COMPILATION & CALIBRATION INTEGRATION DELIVERY Magnetics Magnetic Enhancement Depth to Pr ocessing Basement Modelling Ev ent & Matur ity + Gravity Hydrocarbon Response Rock Maps for Generation Pr operty Each Basin & DEM/ Crustal-scale Calibration Basin Phase Bathy metry gravity modelling Total Sediment Landsat/ Thickness Report Radarsat Plate Basin-scale SEEBA SE™ Migration Pr oject Setup Data Surface Construct Tectonic Structural SEEBA SE™ Basin Pathw ays/ SRK QC Deliv ery Ongoing & Compilation Geology GIS Base & Ev ents, Interpretation Construction Architecture Fluid Workshop Workshops Support Management & Pr ocessing Metadata Kinematics using all & Evolution Focusing datasets Publications & Reports Final GIS Interpret Pr epar ation Basement Reservoir & Terranes, Seal Quality Wells Composition, Gravity/ 2D & 3D Fabric Magnetics/ Seis mic DEM Image calibration Seis mic Trap Timing, Pr ocessing Navigation Size & Distribution Interpret Other Data Salt & Volcanics 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 66. OZ SEEBASETM 130 Basin ArchitectureBasin Architecture: SEEBASE™ *What is SEEBASE™? The SEEBASE™ basement model is constrained by depths extracted from modelled profiles of magnetic line data, basement penetrations in wells and seismic-based depth estimates. The geometry of the basementSEEBASE™ is a depth-to-basement model that represents the culmination of a number of calibration contours, from which the final grid is produced, is also constrained by a structural model developed fromand integration steps: interpretation of all available data. • Integrated structural/kinematic interpretation In the deeper parts of the basins, there are limited data to constrain absolute depths. Relative changes in depth • Geophysical modeling are real, but in areas where the basement is very deep and depth constraints are rare, the absolute depth has been estimated. Deep seismic reflection and refraction data, where available, may provide more accurate • Seismic & well calibration estimation of depth in basin depocentres. Even without absolute depth constraints, however, the SEEBASE™ • Integration of tectonic events & responses image provides a geologically constrained, predictive model of the basin’s shape and structural architecture for petroleum exploration.The SEEBASE™ image is a semi-quantitative model of basement topography that is consistent withthe structural evolution of the basin. SEEBASE™ defines basin architecture, and forms the basis forthe systematic evaluation of exploration strategies. SEEBASE™ can be updated to reflect all new * SEEBASE™ = Structurally Enhanced View of Economic Basementinformation as additional data are acquired that allow more precise calibration.SEEBASE™ provides a foundation for petroleum systems evaluation, including play elementdistribution (source/reservoir/seal), migration pathways, zones of structural complexity, trapdistribution, trap type & integrity, Paleogeography, oil vs. gas distribution, etc.3D Image of OZ SEEBASE™ 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 67. OZ SEEBASETM 131 Basin Architecture SEEBASE™ Methodology The “Magic Ingredient” Well depths Interpreters’ mental image of basin shape. Basement well penetrations “Hard data” Magnetic profile Structural interpretation selection Interpretation of main basement-involved Profiles selected to cover structures + event-response history key magnetic anomalies, oriented at high angle to Seismic depth-to-basement anomaly strike Top- Top-basement interpretation, depth conversion using available velocity data 2D magnetic depth modeling 1 00 0 Depth models to top magnetic 50 0 0 basement, obtained from profiles - 50 0 across selected magnetic anomalies 3 D efo rm ed Sed im en t (r =2 .6g/ cm3) Wat er (r =1. 05g/ cm ) A A’ Intra-basinal S 0 Se dim en t (r = 2.5 g/cm 3) 0 N Volcanics 10 Upp er Cru st (r =2. 72g /cm ) 3 Tu rb id ite s ( r =2 .5g/ cm3 ) r = 2.8 g/cm 3 3 10 r =2 .9g/ cm 20 20 M an tle ( r =3 .2g/ cm3 ) L owe r Cru st (r = 2.95 g/cm 3) 30 30 Top-Basement Sources 40 40 Man t le ( r =3 .2g/c m3 ) O cean ic Cru st ( r = 2.9g /cm3 ) 20 0000 4 0000 0 6000 00 8000 00 2D gravity models Final SEEBASE grids + images Crustal- Crustal-scale gravity models constrain top- top- Gridding CPS- Gridding in CPS-3 or TIN produced in basement “shape” shape” ARCGIS, 2D & 3D image processing in ERMapper Σ Cultural Source classification Integration 3D magnetic depth modeling Attribution of source type to depth Top-basement surface is “hand-crafted” in 2D Iterative combination of 2D depth models estimates. Selection of “top and 3D using GIS + 3D modelling software. to constrain source geometry in 3D. Input basement” depths Dykes of real structural constraints Volcanics Lithic seds Top basement ModelVision™ outputs Deep crustal 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 68. OZ SEEBASETM 132 Basin ArchitectureBasin OutlinesSedimentary basins in Australia have a Arafurarange in basement age. The oldest basinsincluded in the SEEBASETM areNeoproterozoic Centralian Basins with abasement age of 1Ga. The PetrelMesoproterozoic McArthur Basin has Carpentariabeen considered basement in this studyevent though it may still contain someviable sediments.The age of basement chosen for younger NW Shelfbasins was based on the last tectonic or Canningmetamorphic event considered to havedestroyed the sedimentary character or Georginapotential petroleum systems present at the Wisotime of the event. CarnarvonIn general the age of basement decreases Amadeusoutwards from central Australia to the Cooper-margins. Eromanga Bowen-Basins in the east have been affected by Surat Officer Gunnedahmajor compressional events; the PerthDelamerian (Cambrian), Tabberaberan(Devonian), Kanimblan (Carboniferous), Euclaand Hunter-Bowen (Triassic) Orogenies.On the NW Shelf, the basement is the Sydneybase of the Westralian Superbasin Murray- Ceduna Darling(Carboniferous). BremerThe Arafura and Carpentaria Basins havethe North Australian Craton as basementand are therefore most likely to have Basement Age GippslandMesoproterozoic McArthur Basinsediments as basement. Otway- Sorrel an ic us ic ic ic Pa rian ss zo zo zo ro ni ia b eo ro ro vo fe m Tr te te ni la De Ca bo ro ro op op rl y ar es Ea Ne -C M id M 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 69. OZ SEEBASETM 133 Basin ArchitectureMajor StructuresControlling BasinArchitecture•In general, the geometries of all the basins in Australia arecontrolled by basement structures that were introduced intothe basement terranes during the Proterozoic. Many of thestructures in Western Australia may date back as far as earlyArchaean. These structures, once introduced, are reactivatedrepeatedly during subsequent tectonic events with similarstress directions.•The main tectonic events recognised as important forintroducing new crustal structures from oldest to youngestare: • Paleoproterozoic Barramundi NE-SW Extension – At least two pulses of extension introducing NW-SE moderately dipping normal and NE-SW vertical transfer structures mainly in the North Australian Craton also prominent in the basement to the Amadeus Basin. This event may be responsible fro setting the controlling structures on the Centralian Superbasin. • Paleoproterozoic Barramundi EW Compression – Introduced (or reactivated, eg. Darling Fault) major regional NS-trending moderately E or W dipping reverse faults. • Paleoproterozoic Leichardt NNE-SSW Extension – Introduced a set of NNE-SSW trending vertical structures that have subsequently acted as major structural boundaries, eg. Pasca Ridge in the Papuan Basin. • Paleoproterozoic Strangways NS Extension – Introduced E-W N or S dipping normal and N-S vertical transfer structures. This event is probably responsible for structures controlling the Musgraves and Arunta inversion in Central Australia. • Paleoproterozoic McArthur NNW-SSE Extension – introduced a set of NNW-SSE vertical strike slip structures. • Mesoproterosoic Musgravian NW-SE Extension – Major extension in southern and eastern Australia focused in the Albany-Fraser and Musgrave Terranes and controls the location of the “Tasman Line” 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 70. OZ SEEBASETM 134 Basin ArchitectureSediment ThicknessThis Sediment Thickness dataset andimage were created by subtracting theSEEBASETM from the Digital ElevationModel (Sandwell & Smith, 1997) 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 71. OZ SEEBASETM 135 Basin ArchitectureCrustal ThicknessCrustal Thickness was generated by subtracting Moho from the SEEBASE surface.The moho grid used was generated with a 10km grid cell size from scattered refraction data points supplied by Geoscience Australia (2005). Crustal thickness could also be generated from the refractiondata and the resulting grid can be seen for comparison (bottom right) 110°E 1 20°E 13 0°E 140°E 1 50°E S S S S Contours Crustal Thickness (km) 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 -5 0 5 -1 -2 -2 -3 -3 -4 -4 -5 -5 -1 0 35 40 10 15 20 25 30 45 50 5 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 72. OZ SEEBASETM 136 References References Abbott LD, Silver EA, and Galewsky J, 1994. Structural evolution of a modern arc-continent collision in Aleksandrowski P, Inderhaug OH, and Knapstad B, 1992. Tectonic structures and wellbore breakout Papua New Guinea. Tectonics 13(5): p.1007-1034. orientation. In: Tillerson JR and Wawersik WR, Rock mechanics; Proceedings of the 33rd U.S. symposium. 33. A.A. Balkema, United States: p.29-37. Abeysinghe PB, 2002. Mineral occurrences and exploration potential of the Arunta-Musgrave area, Western Australia. Record 2002/9, Geological Survey of Western Australia, Perth, Western Alexander E, 2002. Petroleum exploration and development in South Australia: Eastern Warburton Australia. Basin., Primary Industries and Resources South Australia. http://www.pir.sa.gov.au/pages/petrol/prospectivity/prospectivity_warburton.htm Aburas AN and Boult PJ, 2001. New insights into the structural development of the onshore Otway Basin. In: Hill KC and Bernecker T (editors), Eastern Australasian basins symposium 2001; A Alexander E, 2002. Petroleum exploration and development in South Australia: Pedirka Basin.Primary refocused energy perspective for the future. Petroleum Exploration Society of Australia Special Industries and Resources South Australia. Publication, 1. Petroleum Exploration Society of Australia, Sydney, N.S.W., Australia: p.447-453. http://www.pir.sa.gov.au/pages/petrol/prospectivity/prospectivity_pedirka.htm Adamides NG, 1998. Geology of the Doolgunna 1:100 000 sheet. GSWA 1:100 000 Geological Series Alexander E, 2002. Petroleum exploration and development in South Australia: Stansbury Basin Primary Explanatory Notes Geological Survey of Western Australia, Perth. Industries and Resources South Australia. http://www.pir.sa.gov.au/pages/petrol/prospectivity/prospectivity_stansbury.htm Adams CJ, 1996. A Queensland provenance for New Zealand Permo-Triassic Torlesse metagreywacke terranes; a review of the age and isotopic evidence. In: Anonymous, Mesozoic geology of the Alexander E, 2003. Petroleum exploration and development in South Australia: Arrowie Basin., Primary Industries and Resources South Australia. eastern Australia Plate conference. Abstracts - Geological Society of Australia, 43. Geological http://www.pir.sa.gov.au/pages/petrol/prospectivity/prospectivity_arrowie.htm Society of Australia, Sydney, N.S.W., Australia: p.1-6. Alexander RR, Kagi R, Cumbers M, and Hartung B, 1985. Petroleum geochemistry of the Canning Agrali B, 1999. Roof rolls, clay dykes and related features in the Bulli Seam, Burragorang Valley Mines, Basin. WAMPRI Report 20. NSW. In: Diessel CFK, et al (editors), Proceedings of the Thirty third Newcastle Symposium on Advances in the study of the Sydney Basin. 33. University of Newcastle, N.S.W., Department of Allen PA and Allen JR, 1990. Basin Analysis: Principles and Applications. Blackwell Scientific Geology, Newcastle, N.S.W., Australia: p.107-114. Publications, Oxford. AGSO and GeoMark Research, 1996. The Oils of Western Australia. Unpublished proprietary report, Allen SR, Simpson CJ, McPhie J, and Daly SJ, 2003. Stratigraphy, distribution and geochemistry of Canberra and Houston. widespread felsic volcanic units in the Mesoproterozoic Gawler Range Volcanics, South Australia. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 50(1): p.97-112. AGSO North West Shelf Study Group, 1994. Deep reflections on the North West Shelf. In: Purcell PG and Purcell RR (editors), The Sedimentary Basins of Western Australia: Proceedings of the Allen SR and McPhie J, 2002. The Eucarro Rhyolite, Gawler Range Volcanics, South Australia; a >675 Western Australian Basins Symposium, Perth, WA, PESA. p.63-76. km (super 3) , compositionally zoned lava of Mesoproterozoic age. Geological Society of America Bulletin 114(12): p.1592-1609. Aitchison J, Clarke GL, Meffre S, and Cluzel D, 1995 . Eocene Arc-Continent Collision in New Caledonia and Implications for Regional Southwest Pacific Tectonic Evolution. Geology 23(2): Amadeus Energy, 2003. http://www.amadeusenergy.com p.161-164. Ambrose G, Kruse P, and Putnam P, 2001. Geology and Hydrocarbon Potential of the Southern Aitchison JC, 1993 . Evolution of the eastern margin of the Australian plate: Possible correlatives in Georgina Basin, Australia. The APPEA Journal: An Oil and Gas Odyssey 41(1): p.139-163. Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand. In: NEO 93 Conference Proceedings. p.665-669. Amity Oil, 2003. http://www.amityoil.com.au Aitchison JC, Ireland TR, Blake MCJ, and Flood P, 1992. 530 Ma zircon age for ophiolite from the New Anderson G, 1991. Organic maturation and ore precipitation in Southeast Missouri. Economic Geology England orogen: Oldest rocks known from Eastern Australia. Geology 20: p.125-128. and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists 86(5): p.909-926. Aitchison JC, Ireland TR, Clarke GL, Cluzel D, and Meffre S, 1998. Regional implications of U/ Pb Anfiloff V, McDougall I, Maboko MAH, Symonds PA, McCulloch MT, Williams IS, and Kudrass HR, SHRIMP age constraints on the tectonic evolution of New Caledonia. Tectonophysics 299(4): 1995. Dampier Ridge, Tasman Sea, as a stranded continental fragment; discussion and reply. p.333-343. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 42(2): p.228-229. Aitchison JC and Landis CA, 1990. Sedimentology and tectonic setting of the Late Permian; Early Apache Energy, 2003. http://www.apachecorp.com Triassic Stephens Subgroup, Southland, New Zealand; an island arc-derived mass flow apron. Apak SN, 1996. Depositional history of the Lower Permian Carolyn Formation and Poole sandstone in the Sedimentary Geology 68(1-2): p.55-74. northern Canning Basin: Implications for hydrocarbon potential. GSWA/DME Record 8. Aitchison JC, Landis CA, and Turnbull IM, 1988. Stratigraphy of Stephens Subgroup (Maitai Group) in Apak SN and Backhouse J, 1999. Stratigraphy and petroleum exploration objectives of the Permo- the Countess Range-Mararoa River area, northwestern Southland, New Zealand. Journal of the Carboniferous succession on the Barbwire Terrace and adjacent areas, Northeast Canning Basin, Royal Society of New Zealand 18(3): p.271-284. Western Australia. GSWA Report 68, Geological Survey of Western Australia, Perth, Western Alder J, Hawley S, Mullard B, and Shaw R, 1998. Origin of the Sydney Basin; a new structural model. Australia. In: Boyd RL and Winwood SJ (editors), Proceedings of the thirty second Newcastle symposium on Apak SN, Ghori KAR, Carlsen GM, and Stevens MK, 2002. Basin development with implications for Advances in the study of the Sydney Basin. 32. University of Newcastle, N.S.W., Department of petroleum trap styles of the Neoproterozoic Officer Basin, Western Australia. In: Keep M and Moss Geology, Newcastle, N.S.W., Australia: p.1-11. SJ (editors), The Sedimentary Basins of Western Australia: Proceedings of Petroleum Exploration Alder JD, Bembrick C, Hartung-Kagi B , Mullard B, Pratt DA, Scott J, and Shaw RD, 1998. A re- Society of Australia Symposium. 3. Petroleum Exploration Society of Australia. Perth, Western assessment of the petroleum potential of the darling basin: A discovery 2000 initiative. APPEA Australia, Australia. 2002: p.913-927. Journal 38(1): p.278-313. 6/50 Geils Court Tel: +61 2 6283 4800 The conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material represent the opinions of the authors based on the data av ailable to them. The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
  • 73. OZ SEEBASETM 137 References Apak S and Backhouse J, 1998. Re-interpretation of the Permo-Carboniferous succession, Canning Baillie PW and Gilleran PA, 2001. Townsville Trough non-exclusive 2D seismic survey. APPEA Journal Basin, Western Australia. Purcell P and Purcell R, The Sedimentary Basins of Western Australia 2: 41. Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association, Canberra, Australia: p.128-130. Proceedings of Petroleum Exploration Society of Australia Symposium. Petroleum Exploration Baillie PW and Jacobson E, 1995. Structural evolution of the Carnarvon Terrace, Western Australia, The Society of Australia: p.683-694. APEA Journal, 35. Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association, Canberra, Apak S and Carlsen G, 1996. A compilation and review of data pertaining to the hydrocarbon prospectivity Australia: p.321-332. in the Canning Basin. GSWA/DME 10. Baillie P and Pickering RL, 1991. Tectonic evolution of the Durroon Basin, Tasmania. 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The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
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The opinions and Deakin West ACT 2600 Fax: +61 2 6283 4801 recommendations prov ided from this information are in response to a request from the client and no liability is accepted for commercial decisions or actions resulting from them. Canberra URL: www.frogtech.com.au Please cite this work appropriately if portions of it are copied or altered for use in other documents. The correct citation is OZ SEEBASE™ Study 2005, Public Domain Report to Australia Email: tloutit@frogtech.com.au Shell Develo pment Australia by FrOG Tech Pty Ltd. FrOG Tech Pty Ltd ACN 109 425 621
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