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Fire Fighting Theory

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Fire Fighting Theory

Fire Fighting Theory

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  • ASK “WHAT DO I DO IF I SEE A FIRE?” R ESCUE VICTIMS. A LARM ACTIVATION TO SUMMON HELP. C ONTAIN FIRE TO PREVENT SPREAD--CLOSE DOORS, WINDOWS, SHUT OFF EXHAUST, ETC. E XTINGUISH THE FLAMES--PUT THE FIRE OUT.
  • Transcript

    • 1.  
    • 2. Fire Safety Training
    • 3. What you will learn
        • What is Fire
        • Classes of Fire
        • - What to do in Case of Fire
        • Types of Extinguishers
        • How to Use an Extinguisher
        • Methods of Extinguishing
        • First Responder
        • Emergency Response team Development
    • 4. Fire is man’s best friend & worst enemy
    • 5. It is a source of heat and light It illuminates our homes, drives our automobiles, flies our aircraft, etc.
    • 6. Fire when out of control has no friends no moral values respects no barriers & recognizes no boundaries
    • 7. Definition of Fire
      • Exothermic chemical reaction followed by the evolution of heat and light
    • 8. Heat Fuel Air TRIANGLE OF FIRE
    • 9. Tetrahedron of Fire
    • 10.
      • Petrol
      • Kerosene
      Fire & its speed
    • 11. Chemical Chain Reaction
    • 12. Basic Definitions
          • Flammable Limit of a material is a
          • % by volume mixture of its vapours with air within which it will burn (explode)
    • 13.  
    • 14.  
    • 15. Flammable Limits Note: Oil will not burn if not vaporising or not having any space above its surface. LEL % UEL %
    • 16. PRINCIPLES OF EXTINCTION
    • 17. PRINCIPLES OF EXTINCTION 1. STARVATION Heat Air Removing or limitation of fuel
    • 18.
      • Heat
      Fuel PRINCIPLES OF EXTINCTION 2.SMOTHERING
          • limitation of oxygen
    • 19.
      • Air
      Fuel PRINCIPLES OF EXTINCTION 3.COOLING Removal of heat
    • 20.  
    • 21.  
    • 22. FIRE SPREADING (CONDUCTION)
    • 23. FIRE SPREADING (RADIATION)
    • 24. FIRE SPREADING- (CONVECTION)
    • 25. Classifications of Fire
    • 26. Solid
      • Wood
      • Cloth
      • Paper
      • Rubber
      • Plastic
    • 27. Liquid & Gases
      • Gasoline
      • Paints
      • Tars
      • Methane
      • Acetylene
      • Propane
      • Etc.
    • 28. Electric
      • Fire that involve energized electrical Equipment.
    • 29. Metals
      • Magnesium
      • Titanium
      • Zirconium
      • Sodium
      • Lithium
      • Potassium
    • 30. Classifications of Fire NFPA Wood , paper,cloth etc. Liquids (oils, paints etc.) & Gases Energized Electrical Appliances Metals ( like magnesium, aluminum etc.)
    • 31. Classifications of Fire BS/EN
    • 32. Common Causes of Fire
      • Physical Cause
      • Chemical Cause
      • Biological Cause
      • Radiological Cause
    • 33. Fire Protection Systems
      • Fire Extinguishers
      • Fire Alarm & Detection Systems
      • Fire Hydrants
      • Hose Cabinets & Risers
      • Fixed Installations (Powder, Gas, Foam etc.)
    • 34. Types of Extinguishers
      • Type of fire extinguishers are classified by the type of fires on which they may be used
    • 35.  
    • 36. FIRE EXTINGUISHER FOR CLASSES “A” “B” “C’ & ‘D’ FIRES
    • 37. Fire Extinguishers
      • Contents
      • Foam
      • Dry Chemical Powder
      • CO 2
      • Expelling Agents
      • CO 2 (Internal or External Cartridges)
      • Nitrogen
      Mechanism
    • 38. Stored Pressure Fire Extinguishers CO 2
    • 39. How to use a Fire Extinguisher Use the PASS System
    • 40. PASS
      • Pull
      • Aim
      • Squeeze
      • Sweep
    • 41. Pull
      • Pull the Pin
      • This will allow you to discharge the extinguisher
    • 42. Aim
      • Aim at the base of the fire. If you aim at the flames, the extinguishing agent will fly.
    • 43. Squeeze
      • Squeeze the top handle or lever.
        • This depresses a button that releases the pressurized extinguishing agent in the extinguisher
    • 44. Sweep
        • Sweep from
        • side to side until the fire is completely out.
    • 45. Fire Routine What to do in case of a Fire ?
    • 46. 1 Raise fire alarm or shout fire fire What to do in case of a fire?
    • 47. Telephone City Fire Brigade 16 2 What to do in case of a fire? 1. Raise Fire Alarm or Shout Fire Fire
    • 48. 3 Use appropriate Fire extinguisher What to do in case of a fire? 1. Raise Fire Alarm or Shout Fire Fire 2. Telephone City Fire Brigade 16
    • 49. What to do in case of a fire? 1. Raise Fire Alarm or Shout Fire Fire 2. Telephone City Fire Brigade 16 3. Use appropriate Fire Extinguishers 4 Shut / switch off necessary Valves / Switches
    • 50. Assemble at Muster Point 5 What to do in case of a fire? 1. Raise Fire Alarm or Shout Fire Fire 2. Telephone City Fire Brigade 16 3. Use appropriate Fire Extinguisher 4. Shut / switch off necessary Valves / Switches
    • 51.
        • 1. Raise Fire Alarm or shout fire fire
        • 2. Telephone City Fire Brigade 16
        • 3.Use appropriate Fire Extinguisher if Safe
        • 4. Shut / Switch off (necessary valves / switches)
        • 5. Assemble at Muster Point
      What to do in case of a fire?
    • 52. Fire Emergency Response R escue A larm C ontain E xtinguish R A C E
    • 53. Fire Fighting Hints
      • Always “Size Up” the fire
      • Select the proper Extinguishing Agent
    • 54.
      • Work on side of fire where it is
      • extending
      • Do not use Fire Extinguisher/
      • Water until fire is seen
      Fire Fighting Hints
    • 55.
      • Attack the fire until it “Dies – Out”.
      • Hit it again if it rekindles
      Fire Fighting Hints
    • 56.
      • Do not hit hot glass with water unless you want
      • to break it
      • Use all available means for personal protection
      • Check carefully all possible avenues of fire travel
      Fire Fighting Hints
    • 57.
      • If you have to force open a door, smash a panel near the lock, so you may be able to get a hand to unlock the door from inside
      • Don’t enter a burning building or room without Extinguishing media or Proper cover
      Fire Fighting Hints
    • 58.
      • Feel door handles or knobs with the back of an ungloved hand before opening the doors. A hot handle is a good indicator of fire on the other side.
      • Don’t stand in front of the door stay to one side, keep low, and open the door. this will allow the heat and smoke to pass overhead
      Fire Fighting Hints
    • 59. Keep close to the walls, when moving across a room or down stairs, which may have been weakened by the effects of fire Fire Fighting Hints
    • 60.
      • When having to crawl down stairs; come
      • backwards, with feet first
      Fire Fighting Hints
    • 61. If a burning room gets too hot for you, shut the door as you retreat; it restricts the air supply Fire Fighting Hints
    • 62. Self Survival
    • 63. Smoke, heat and gases can choke and kill you after a few breaths If you are caught in smoke, get down and crawl
    • 64. Stop, Drop and Roll!
    • 65. Another enemy is the Elevator Never use in case of fire
    • 66.
      • Have a prepared escape plan showing your escape routes
      • Close doors behind you
      Self Survival
    • 67. Self Survival
      • If you are trapped
      • Think
      • Seal off cracks around doors and vents with cloth or rug. Soak them if water is nearby
      • Shut off fans and air conditioners
      • Be calm. Rescue may be moments away
    • 68. Safely lower yourself like this If your escape route is blocked
    • 69. Signal at the window Self Survival If there is a phone, call the fire department and tell them where you are, even if they are already on the scene
    • 70. Casualty Handling & Transportation Techniques
    • 71. Pick a Back To carry light weight casualties
    • 72. Cradle To carry children
    • 73. Removal Down Stairs / Dragging Unconscious casualty
    • 74. Fireman’s Crawl To bring an unconscious casualty from a smoke filled room
    • 75. Fore & Aft Carry To carry an unconscious casualty
    • 76. Two Handed Seat To carry an unconscious casualty
    • 77. Three Handed Seat To carry a casualty with one leg injured
    • 78. Four Handed Seat To carry a heavier and conscious casualty
    • 79. Preparing the Stretcher
    • 80. Orthopaedic Stretcher This scoop stretcher is used to lift the casualty who must be moved in the position he/she is found Not to carry the casualty
    • 81. Blanket Lift To lift the Casualty from ground & To load the casualty on stretcher
    • 82. Lifting & Carrying the Stretcher
    • 83. Improvised Stretchers Use of door and other planks
    • 84. Improvised Stretchers Use of blanket
    • 85.  
    • 86.  
    • 87.  
    • 88. Fire Risk Screening
    • 89. ACCIDENTS DURING THE LAST 20 YEARS NUMBER OF ACCIDENTS Technical Measures Process Safety Measures Human Factors Measures
    • 90.  
    • 91. Electrical Safety
    • 92. Clean up
    • 93. Clean up all spillages
    • 94. Dispose off rubbish safely
    • 95. Keep fire exits clear
    • 96. Keep equipment clean & well maintained
    • 97. Don’t use more then one appliance from one socket
    • 98. While leaving the office, switch off all electrical appliances
    • 99. Get Fire Safety Training
    • 100. Keep flammables in tightly closed containers
    • 101. Keep your place neat and tidy
    • 102. Plan two ways to escape
    • 103. Don’t smoke in ‘No Smoking’ Areas
    • 104. Know the location of Mains, Gas Valves & Fire Point
    • 105. Follow the Checklist Before any Hot Work
    • 106. Housekeeping & Fire Safety
    • 107.  
    • 108.  
    • 109. A place for every thing And everything at its place
    • 110.  
    • 111.
      • Are the premises kept clear of combustible waste and refuse?
    • 112.
      • Are metal
      • receptacles
      • with closely
      • fitting lids
      • available for
      • waste such
      • as floor
      • sweepings?
    • 113.
      • Are separate clearly labeled containers provided for
      • waste with special hazards - flammable liquids, swarf, paint rags, oily rags?
      OILY RAGS
    • 114.
      • Are waste
      • containers
      • removed from the
      • building at the
      • end of each
      • working day
      • or more
      • frequently if
      • necessary?
    • 115.
      • Is waste put out in a
      • safe place awaiting
      • disposal?
    • 116.
      • Are cupboards, lift shafts, spaces under benches, gratings, conveyor belts and behind radiators, and similar places kept free from dust and rubbish?
    • 117. Are areas in and around the buildings kept free from accumulated packing materials and pallets?
    • 118. L.P.G Cylinders
      • Are liquefied petroleum
      • gas (LPG) cylinders
      • safely preferably in a
      • fenced compound
      • outdoors at least 2m
      • away from any boundary
      • fences?
    • 119.
      • Is the store
      • used only for
      • cylinder
      • storage?
    • 120. Are empty cylinders treated in the same manner, but kept separate and labeled empty?
    • 121.
      • Are permanent
      • warning notices
      • prominently
      • displayed
      • prohibiting
      • smoking
      • and naked lights?
    • 122. Are cylinders stored with their valves uppermost?
    • 123.
      • Are storage
      • areas
      • accessible to
      • fire fighters?
    • 124.
      • Are stack sizes kept as
      • small as
      • practicable
      • in the
      • circumstances?
    • 125.
      • Are stacks stable
      • and not
      • liable to
      • collapse
      • easily?
    • 126.
      • Are stocks of material arranged so
      • that Fire detectors
      • are not impeded
      • and the required
      • clearance beneath
      • this equipment
      • maintained?
    • 127.
      • Are stock kept well clear
      • of
      • light fixtures
      • and hot
      • service
      • pipes?
    • 128.
      • Are all outside contractors
      • supervised while on the
      • premises and their work is
      • authorized by hot work
      • permit schemes?
    • 129.
      • Are all stock of
      • flammable liquids
      • kept in purpose
      • built flammable
      • liquid stores?
    • 130.
      • Is the flammable
      • liquids store kept
      • un-congested and
      • tidy?
    • 131.
      • Are flammable liquids
      • carried in specially
      • designed safety containers
      • and not open cans and
      • buckets etc.?
    • 132.
      • Are flammable
      • liquids kept
      • away from
      • possible
      • source of
      • ignition?
    • 133.
      • Are suitable spark
      • reducing tools provided for
      • use in places where
      • there may be
      • Flammable vapours?
    • 134.
      • Are all
      • Machines
      • subjected
      • to
      • Scheduled
      • Maintenance
    • 135.
      • Is machinery located so as to avoid
      • congestion among machines and materials?
    • 136.
      • Are motors and all moving parts of
      • Machinery kept clean to avoid overheating?
    • 137.
      • Are drip trays used where necessary and emptied regularly?
    • 138. Are there restrictions on using unauthorized heaters?
    • 139. Are combustible materials at a distance of 3 ft from heater?
    • 140. Are portable heaters securely guarded and placed where they cannot be knocked over or ignite Combustibles?
    • 141. Do not put the toys or other things over the heater
    • 142. Is smoking prohibited in all areas where it is particularly, dangerous such as: *Production areas, workshops and other places where materials and waste produced is readily combustible? * Store rooms and warehouse? *Packing and unpacking areas? *Loading and unloading areas? *Infrequently visited areas?
    • 143.
      • Are these
      • receptacles
      • emptied at
      • least once a
      • day?
    • 144.
      • Are drains provided
      • and are they kept
      • clear of blockages by
      • routine inspection
      • and cleaning?
    • 145. Are hydrants, fire extinguishers, fire alarm and sprinkler systems regularly maintained by qualified people?
    • 146.
      • Are fire and
      • smoke doors
      • kept closed
      • Whenever
      • possible
      • and always after
      • working hours?
    • 147. FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Are routine checks made to ensure equipment has not been obscured, moved or damaged?
    • 148. Join hands to save our people and property from the ferocity of ruthless fires

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