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Stephen Fox-Portfolio-Harcourt Social Studies

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Social Studies Student Edition for Grades 3–4, with state specific for Oklahoma

Social Studies Student Edition for Grades 3–4, with state specific for Oklahoma


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  • 1. UNITOPENERS SXEOK07ASE4X_U1TM.indd 1 6/7/06 1:16:12 PM Unit 1 ■ 3 Oklahoma’s Geography and Early People Oklahoma’s Geography and Early People SXEOK07ASE4X_U1TM.indd 2 6/7/06 1:16:27 PM SXEOK07ASE4X_U3TM.indd 1 6/7/06 1:22:29 PM Unit 3 ■ 109 The Twentieth Century The Twentieth Century SXEOK07ASE4X_U3TM.indd 2 6/7/06 1:22:42 PM SXEOK07ASE4X_U2TM.indd 1 6/7/06 1:17:38 PM Settlement and Change Settlement and Change 53 SXEOK07ASE4X_U2TM.indd 2 6/7/06 1:17:52 PM StephenFox Digital Samples Portfolio foxdesigns@gmail.com HARCOURT SOCIAL STUDIES CLIENT  Harcourt Schools (2006) DESCRIPTION  Social Studies Student Edition for Grades 3–4, with state specific for Oklahoma MY ROLES WITHIN THIS PROJECT  • Project management • Page concept development • Page layout with input from Senior Design staff • Designimplementationandcontinuity • Template clean-up • Page composition • Direct input into image selection • Technical artwork • Image manipulation • Directing freelance Photoshop experts in image manipulation • Image scanning • Montage creation • Preflight and Prepress • Creation of final digital files (PDFs)
  • 2. LESSONOPENERS 32 ■ Unit 1 Lesson WHAT TO KNOW How did life change for the early people of Oklahoma? VOCABULARY ancestor p. 33 extinct p. 33 agriculture p. 34 earthwork p. 34 ceremony p. 34 PEOPLE Paleo-Indians Clovis people Mound Builders PLACES Stecker Spiro Mounds Le Flore Washita River Focus Skill MAIN IDEA AND DETAILS The Earliest People The hunter next to you raises his arm and points to a spot in the distance. You look where he is pointing and see a mammoth down in the canyon. For the first time in weeks, you have a source of meat. This animal will feed all of you for days. You and the other hunters move slowly toward it, spears in hand. ARE OU HERE YA O TTTH SXEOK07ASE4X_U1L4.indd 1 6/7/06 11:43:33 AM Unit 1 ■ 33 Early People of North America About 11,000 years ago, groups of hunters lived in Oklahoma. How did they get here? How did they live? Paleo-Indians Many scientists say that people first reached North America by cross- ing a land bridge that once connected North America and Asia. Those early people are now called Paleo-Indians, which means “old” or “first” Indians. Over thousands of years, these people spread throughout North and South America. They were the ancestors, or early relatives, of present-day Native Americans, or American Indians. Big Game Hunters The Clovis people were the first to leave signs in Oklahoma. They traveled the land, using long spear points to hunt. Some spear points were found in a mammoth skel- eton near Stecker, in southwestern Oklahoma. A mammoth was a huge elephantlike animal that is now extinct, or no longer living. Scientists tested the bones and found that they are about 11,000 years old. MAIN IDEA AND DETAILS What is an ancestor? MOVEMENT Groups of Paleo-Indians in what is now Caddo County used spears to hunt mammoths (below). From which continent might early people have walked to North America? SXEOK07ASE4X_U1L4.indd 33 6/8/06 8:58:09 AM 134 ■ Unit 3 Lesson Into Modern Times It’s 1964. Your mother is reading the newspaper. She says, “Congress has just passed the Civil Rights Act. This means that separating people by race is now illegal.” Your mother tells you that two Oklahoma women helped make this possible. You hope that one day you can make a difference in the world, too. WHAT TO KNOW How did Oklahoma change after World War II? VOCABULARY economy p. 135 migration p. 135 civil rights p. 136 segregation p. 136 dam p. 138 lock p. 138 PEOPLE Angie Debo Ralph Ellison Ada Lois Sipuel Clara Luper Robert S. Kerr PLACES McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System Focus Skill SUMMARIZE ARE OU HERE YA O TTTH SXEOK07ASE4X_U3L4.indd 1 6/14/06 2:25:01 PM Cities Grow After World War II, the Oklahoma economy kept growing. An economy is the way people in a state, a region, or a country make and use goods and services to meet their needs. Job Opportunities Before World War II, most people in Oklahoma lived on farms. After the war, there was a migration, or movement, of people to cities. People moved to cities in search of jobs. Thousands went to work for oil companies. Some drilled new wells. Some pumped oil. Others made sure the pumps and the oil pipelines worked. People worked in many industries. Some built and repaired airplanes. Others made machinery, electronic equipment, or food products. Some worked for natural gas companies. Angie Debo was an author and teacher from Marshall, Oklahoma. She wrote about what Oklahomans experienced during the twentieth century. Today, Debo is known as the First Lady of Oklahoma history. SUMMARIZE Why did people in Oklahoma move after World War II? TULSA Workers, shoppers, and theatergoers crowd the corner of Fourth and Boulder in downtown Tulsa. Unit 3 ■ 135 SXEOK07ASE4X_U3L4.indd 2 6/14/06 2:25:16 PM 66 ■ Unit 2 Lesson The Early 1800sWHAT TO KNOW How did the Louisiana Purchase affect what is now Oklahoma? VOCABULARY treaty p. 67 frontier p. 70 territory p. 71 PEOPLE Thomas Jefferson Napoleon Bonaparte Meriwether Lewis William Clark Richard Sparks Zebulon Pike James Wilkinson George C. Sibley Stephen H. Long John R. Bell PLACES Great Salt Plains Missouri Territory Arkansas Territory Focus Skill CAUSE AND EFFECT The sunrise wakes you. As you stretch, you look around. You see plants and animals that you have never seen before. For the past year, you have been exploring Louisiana, the land first claimed by La Salle. Yesterday, you reached the Red River. In your journal, you record what you see. You know that President Thomas Jefferson will be interested in learning about this land. ARE OU HERE YA O TTTH SXEOK07ASE4X_U2L2.indd 1 6/13/06 1:07:18 PM War over Land The French fought the Spanish for land west of the Mississippi. At the same time, the French struggled with the British for control of the land east of the Mississippi. The French and Indian War In 1754, the conflict between the French and the British led to war. This conflict became known as the French and Indian War. Many Native Americans fought as allies of the French. The Native Americans fought with the French because they were trading partners. Also, the French did not build as many settlements or farms on Native American land as the Spanish did. Near the end of the war, Spain joined France in the fight against Britain. To repay Spain for its losses in the war, France gave Spain most of its lands west of the Mississippi. France Loses the War After eight years, the French lost the war. In 1763, the French signed the Treaty of Paris with the British. A treaty is a written agreement between groups or countries. The Treaty of Paris gave Britain most of Canada, Spanish Florida, and all French lands east of the Mississippi. The French had lost nearly all their lands in North America. CAUSE AND EFFECT How did the Treaty of Paris affect France? THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR During the war, the only major battle fought in Oklahoma was the 1759 Battle of Twin Villages. SXEOK07ASE4X_U2L2.indd 2 6/13/06 1:07:36 PM StephenFox Digital Samples Portfolio foxdesigns@gmail.com HARCOURT SOCIAL STUDIES CLIENT  Harcourt Schools (2006) DESCRIPTION  Social Studies Student Edition for Grades 3–4, with state specific for Oklahoma MY ROLES WITHIN THIS PROJECT  • Project management • Page concept development • Page layout with input from Senior Design staff • Designimplementationandcontinuity • Template clean-up • Page composition • Direct input into image selection • Technical artwork • Image manipulation • Directing freelance Photoshop experts in image manipulation • Image scanning • Montage creation • Preflight and Prepress • Creation of final digital files (PDFs)
  • 3. Linking Oklahoma to the World Oklahoma is a landlocked state in the middle of the United States. Still, it is connected to the rest of the world by its rivers. McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System Before the Civil War, small boats traveled on the Arkansas River. However, large boats could not use the river or its connecting systems. The river also flooded its banks at times. Floods caused a lot of damage. In 1943, Robert S. Kerr became governor of Oklahoma. He wanted to connect Oklahoma with the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. He wanted to build a navi- gation system. In 1957, work began on a series of dams and locks called the McClellan- Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System. A dam is a structure that stops water from flowing. A lock is a part of a canal in which the water level can be changed to bring ships to the next section of the canal. Locks were needed because the land eleva- tion changes along the waterway. MOVEMENT The McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System follows the path of the Arkansas River. At which port does this system begin? The diagram below shows how a ship is raised or lowered in a lock. What causes a ship to lower when it is in a lock? 1 A ship enters the lock and gates close behind it. 2 Water is pumped into the lock to raise the ship or pumped out of the lock to lower the ship. SXEOK07ASE4X_U3L4.indd 138 6/14/06 2:23:55 PM Summary In 1970, the 445-mile navigation system was completed. It made transportation along the Arkansas River faster and more reliable. SUMMARIZE What is the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System? 1. WHAT TO KNOW How did Oklahoma change after World War II? 2. VOCABULARY Use the terms lock and dam in a sentence to explain the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System. 3. ECONOMICS How does the McClellan- Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System help people in Oklahoma sell what they make? 4. CRITICAL THINKING Why do you think Clara Luper and Ada Lois Sipuel took part in the Civil Rights movement? 5. WRITE A PERSUASIVE LETTER Imagine that you have just joined a civil rights group. Write a letter persuading a friend to join you. 6. Focus Skill SUMMARIZE On a sheet of paper, copy and complete this graphic organizer. After World War II, many people in Oklahoma moved from farms to cities, looking for jobs. People, such as Ada Lois Sipuel and Clara Luper, worked for civil rights. The McClellan- Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System improved transportation in Oklahoma. 139 3 Gates open in front of the ship, and it leaves the lock. SXEOK07ASE4X_U3L4.indd 139 6/14/06 3:24:28 PM The Fur Trade The Spanish came to Oklahoma looking for gold. The French wanted fur to sell in Europe. Becoming Partners In the 1600s, fur was popular in Europe. People there used fur to make hats and clothing. The French explorers knew that the Native Americans were skilled hunters. The French wanted the fur of the animals that the Native Americans hunted, such as buffalo and beaver. In exchange, the French gave the Native Americans iron, tools, cloth, paints, mirrors, guns, and other goods from Europe. Setting Up Trading Posts The French set up trading posts along Oklahoma’s rivers. The French and the Native Americans exchanged goods at these trading posts. In 1796, Major Jean Pierre Chouteau set up Salina, the first permanent European settlement in what is now Oklahoma. A settlement is a new community. A person who lives in a settlement is called a settler. The French did not want to trade with only the Native Americans. They also wanted to trade goods with the Spanish who had built settlements along the Rio Grande. The French used Oklahoma’s rivers to reach the Spanish settlements in the Southwest. FUR TRADE Native Americans in Oklahoma traded goods with Europeans. Usually, the two groups traded along the riverbanks. 62 ■ Unit 2 SXEOK07ASE4X_U2L1.indd 5 6/7/06 1:50:51 PM Summary Conflict over Land The Spanish did not want the French moving onto Spanish land. As a result, the Spanish and the French began to fight. Some Native Americans fought as allies of the Spanish. An ally is a friend or partner, especially in times of war. Other Native Americans sided with the French. CAUSE AND EFFECT What caused the conflict between Spain and France? The Spanish were the first Europeans to explore Oklahoma. The French came later to trade with the Native Americans and with the Spanish. Conflicts over land led to fighting between Spain and France. 1. WHAT TO KNOW Why did the Spanish and the French explore what is now Oklahoma? 2. VOCABULARY How are the words explorer and expedition related? 3. GEOGRAPHY In which part of North America were the earliest French settlements? 4. CRITICAL THINKING How do you think European goods changed the daily lives of Native Americans in Oklahoma? 5. WRITE A LETTER Imagine that you are an early European explorer in Oklahoma. Write a letter to a friend back home in France or Spain describing what you have seen. 6. Focus Skill CAUSE AND EFFECT On a sheet of paper, copy and complete this graphic organizer. SXEOK07ASE4X_U2L1.indd 63 6/7/06 4:18:09 PM Regions in Eastern Oklahoma Eastern Oklahoma has grasslands, hills, mountains, and lakes. The soil and climate there make much of the area ideal for farming. There are five natural regions in eastern Oklahoma. Sandstone Hills The Sandstone Hills region is named for its hilly land and sandy soil. Most of the Sandstone Hills are covered with Cross Timbers wood- lands. This region has farms. Oil, gas, and coal are found underground in some parts of the region. Prairie Plains The Prairie Plains region lies to the east of the Sandstone Hills. A plain is a large area of flat or rolling land. In 1832, the author Washington Irving described the prairie as “rolling country, with here and there a clump of trees, dimly seen in the distance like a ship at sea. ” The mostly level land has fertile, or rich, soil. Many farms that produce hay are in the Prairie Plains region. There are also many cattle ranches. 16 ■ Unit 1 Sandstone bluffs above the Cimarron River Bison grazing on the Prairie Plains SXEOK07ASE4X_U1L2.indd 3 6/13/06 12:54:43 PM Ozark Plateau In the northeastern corner of the state is the Ozark Plateau. A plateau (pla•TOH) is an area of high, flat land with lower land around it. The Ozark Plateau has hills and steep bluffs, or cliffs, that are cut through by several streams. Small farms in this region grow mostly fruits and vegetables. Many people visit this part of the state to enjoy the outdoors. Ouachita Mountains The Ouachita Mountains are in southeastern Oklahoma along the border with Arkansas. This region has the most mountainous land in the state. It is also the most rugged. Lumber from the mountain forests is an important product of this region. Coal is found here, too. Red River Region The Red River Region forms part of the border between Oklahoma and Texas. The sandy soil of these flat plains is good for growing vegetables and peanuts. This region is where the lowest point in Oklahoma is located. It is about 287 feet high and near a bend in the Little River. COMPARE AND CONTRAST How is the Prairie Plains region different from the Ouachita Mountains? Unit 1 ■ 17 Osage Hills and Sand Creek on the Ozark Plateau Sandy soil along the Red River Talimena scenic byway in the Ouachita Mountains SXEOK07ASE4X_U1L2.indd 4 6/13/06 12:56:12 PM LESSONPAGES StephenFox Digital Samples Portfolio foxdesigns@gmail.com HARCOURT SOCIAL STUDIES CLIENT  Harcourt Schools (2006) DESCRIPTION  Social Studies Student Edition for Grades 3–4, with state specific for Oklahoma MY ROLES WITHIN THIS PROJECT  • Project management • Page concept development • Page layout with input from Senior Design staff • Designimplementationandcontinuity • Template clean-up • Page composition • Direct input into image selection • Technical artwork • Image manipulation • Directing freelance Photoshop experts in image manipulation • Image scanning • Montage creation • Preflight and Prepress • Creation of final digital files (PDFs)
  • 4. FEATUREPAGES 148 ■ Unit 3 http://www.harcourtschool.com/ss1 FIND READ ABOUT The Oklahoma City National Memorial honors the lives changed by the bombing of the Murrah Federal Building on April 19, 1995. On the fifth anni- versary of the bombing, President Bill Clinton dedicated the Outdoor Symbolic Memorial. The Memorial Museum was dedicated on February 19, 2001. Its exhibits retell the events leading up to and after the bombing. Written in ten chapters, the sto- ryline ends with “hope.” The memorial serves both as a reminder and as a challenge to never let such an event happen again. THE REFLECTING POOL stretches the length of the memorial. The calm water symbolizes the healing of wounds and provides a quiet place for visitors to think. SXEOK07ASE4X_U3FT.indd 1 6/13/06 1:17:29 PM Unit 3 ■ 149 For more resources, go to www.harcourtschool.com/ss1 A VIRTUAL TOUR The Survivor Tree is a 90-year-old tree that survived the bombing. The Children’s Area has tiles hand-painted by children in response to the bombing. Visitors leave notes and other items at the Survivor Wall to remember those who died. In the Field of Empty Chairs, each of the 168 chairs bears the name of a person who died in the bombing. Visitors enter and exit the memorial through the Gates of Time, which represent the moment before and after the bombing. SXEOK07ASE4X_U3FT.indd 2 6/13/06 1:17:45 PM 132 ■ Unit 3 Will Rogers Memorial Museum Background The Will Rogers Memorial Museum is in Claremore, Oklahoma. Opened in 1938, the museum houses a collection of artifacts and objects from the life and career of Will Rogers. Rogers is known for his work as an actor, author, reporter, and humorist. Document-Based Question Study these primary sources, and answer the questions. TYPEWRITER As an author and news reporter, Rogers spent much of his time working on this typewriter. How are typewriters similar to the computers you use today? MOVIE POSTER Will Rogers starred in the comedy In Old Kentucky in 1935. What do you think the movie was about? SXEOK07ASE4X_U3PS.indd 1 6/13/06 1:23:23 PM Unit 3 ■ 133 For more resources, go to www.harcourtschool.com/ss1 What does each of these items tell you about the life of Will Rogers? Write a paragraph describing how each item was a part of his career. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH AND LASSO Will Rogers performed amazing rope tricks with his lasso. What can you tell about Will Rogers by studying this photograph? CLOTHING Will Rogers often dressed as a cowhand, wearing a hat and boots such as these, during performances. As a star of western movies, what other items do you think Rogers wore? SXEOK07ASE4X_U3PS.indd 2 6/13/06 1:23:31 PM 56 ■ Unit 2 Cattle drives The Land Run of 1889 SXEOK07ASE4X_U2PL.indd 1 6/13/06 1:14:19 PM Unit 2 ■ 57 The Trail of Tears Civil War begins at Fort Sumter, 1861 SXEOK07ASE4X_U2PL.indd 2 6/13/06 1:14:35 PM StephenFox Digital Samples Portfolio foxdesigns@gmail.com HARCOURT SOCIAL STUDIES CLIENT  Harcourt Schools (2006) DESCRIPTION  Social Studies Student Edition for Grades 3–4, with state specific for Oklahoma MY ROLES WITHIN THIS PROJECT  • Project management • Page concept development • Page layout with input from Senior Design staff • Designimplementationandcontinuity • Template clean-up • Page composition • Direct input into image selection • Technical artwork • Image manipulation • Directing freelance Photoshop experts in image manipulation • Image scanning • Montage creation • Preflight and Prepress • Creation of final digital files (PDFs)