Stephen Fox-Portfolio-Harcourt Horizons


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Stephen Fox-Portfolio-Harcourt Horizons

  1. 1. Chapter 1 ■ 45 Florida’s Climate When people hear the word Florida, they think of sun- shine. Florida is so famous for its sunshine that its nickname is “the Sunshine State.” Different parts of the state have different types of weather. The kind of weather a place has over a period of time is called . Temperature and Humidity The (TEM•per•cher) is a measure of how hot or cold something is. The temperature of a place depends on several things. One is its location. Florida is nearer to the equator than most other states. Most places near the equator have warm climates. Elevation affects temperature, too. The higher the elevation, the colder the air becomes. Florida is a low-lying state. Its highest point is only 345 feet (105 m) above sea level. Florida’s low elevation is another reason it has warm temperatures. temperature climate MAIN IDEA AND DETAILS As you read, look for the main ideas about Florida’s climate and the details that support the main ideas. BIG IDEA Florida’s location and geography affect its climate and the types of storms it gets. Focus Skill VOCABULARY climate temperature humidity precipitation drought hurricane tornado 82°W 26°N 28°N 30°N 84°W86°W 80°W ATLANTIC OCEAN Gulf of Mexico Apalachee Bay Tampa Bay Florida Bay Florida Keys Lake Okeechobee Tallahassee Pensacola Panama City De Funiak Springs Jacksonville Daytona Beach Orlando Ocala Gainesville Lakeland St. Petersburg Tampa West Palm Beach Fort Lauderdale Fort Myers Naples Belle Glade Miami Key West GEORGIA ALABAMA N S EW 0 75 150 Miles 0 75 150 Kilometers Albers Equal-Area Projection CentimetersInches More than 64 56–64 48–56 40–48 More than 163 142–163 122–142 102–122 Average Yearly Precipitation Precipitation in Florida Analyze Tables This table shows the average temperatures in January and July for several Florida cities. Which city has the highest average temperature in January? Humidity also affects how hot the air feels. is the amount of moisture in the air. When the air is humid, you feel hotter than when the air is dry. Distance from the sea affects tem- perature, too. Humid air from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean makes Florida’s coastal regions very humid most of the year. Breezes from these bodies of water cool the coastal plains. Wind affects how hot or cool the air feels, too. What things affect temperature? MAIN IDEA AND DETAILSFocus Skill Humidity Precipitation Any water that falls to Earth as rain, sleet, snow, or hail is (prih•sih•puh•TAY•shuhn). Florida gets more rainfall than most other states— about 53 inches (135 cm) every year. The rainy season begins in May and lasts through October. Thunderstorms bring most of Florida’s rainfall. There are so many thunderstorms in Florida that many people call it “the thunderstorm capital of the United States.” precipitation Place Different parts of Florida receive different amounts of precipitation. Which city usually receives less precipitation, West Palm Beach or Belle Glade? 44 ■ Unit 1 In Florida’s warm climate, people can enjoy the beach almost all year long. The People of Northern Florida The Apalachee Bay in northwestern Florida was named for a group of Native Americans who once lived in the area. This group was called the Apalachees. They were known as powerful warriors and successful farmers. A Farming People The Apalachees lived in the western Panhandle of Florida between the Aucilla and Ochlockonee (ah•KLAH•kuh•nee) Rivers. This tribe lived north and west of the Calusas, Tequestas, and Tocobagas. The Spanish explorer Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (AHL•var NOON•yes kah•BAY•sah day VAH•kuh), describing an Apalachee village, wrote, “The village contained forty small and low houses, reared [built] in sheltered places, out of fear of the great storms that continuously occur in the country. The buildings are of straw, and they are surrounded by dense timber, tall trees and numerous water-pools. . . . ”Unlike central and southern Florida, northern Florida had rich land. This made it possible for the Apalachees to grow most of their food. The Apalachees became excellent farmers of squash, beans, and corn. In fact, these vegetables grew so well together that the Apalachees called them the “Three Sisters.” Even though the Apalachees farmed more than other Native Floridians, they still hunted, fished, and gathered shell- fish for food. They also gathered wild plants, nuts, and berries to eat. Every native group in Florida had its own traditions. A is an idea or way of doing something that has been handed down from the past. One important Apalachee tradition was a ball game played during the summer. Players from different villages took part in the game, which could last for several days. Each tribe in Florida also had its own , or system for decid- ing what is best for a group of people. A government has both leaders and rules. It is supposed to protect its people and settle their problems. government tradition SUMMARIZE As you read, summarize how each group of Native Floridians in northern Florida lived. BIG IDEA Native Floridians in northern Florida used the natural resources around them for many purposes. Focus Skill Gulf of Mexico ATLANTIC OCEAN St.JohnsRiver S uwanneeR. ApalachicolaRiver O chlock onee R.AucillaR. MAYACA TIMUCUA TIMUCUA TIMUCUA TIMUCUA TIMUCUA SAWOKLI CHATOT PENSACOLA TIM UCUA O C A LE APALACHEE GEORGIAALABAMA Present-day border N S EW 0 50 100 Miles 0 50 100 Kilometers Albers Equal-Area Projection Major Tribes in Northern Florida Location The Apalachees and the Timucuas were two tribes that lived in northern Florida. Did the Apalachees live east or west of the Timucuas? The Apalachees stored their food in raised buildings called garitas (guh•REE•tuhz). Apalachee Ball Game Two equal teams—sometimes with as many as 50 players on each team— played the Apalachee ball game. The object of the game was to score points with a small ball made of deerskin and stuffed with clay. On the playing field stood a tall, thick log with an eagle’s nest on top of it. A team received points for kicking the ball against the log or into the eagle’s nest. The game was part of the Apalachees’ religious ceremonies, and it was also played just for sport. Chapter 2 ■ 7978 ■ Unit 1 tradition government scarce cacique shaman One reason farmers succeed in Florida is the long growing season. The is the length of time the weather is warm enough for crops to grow. Farmers in central and southern Florida can grow crops all year, even in winter. Florida’s winter crops include vegetables such as beans, cabbages, celery, and tomatoes. Citrus fruits, such as oranges and lemons, are also grown in central and southern Florida. In fact, oranges are Florida’s most important crop. During some years, as much as three- fourths of all the citrus fruit grown in the United States comes from Florida. Northern Florida has a shorter growing season than the rest of the state. Farmers there grow cotton, tobacco, and peanuts. Houseplants are also grown in Florida. These plants growing season MAIN IDEA AND DETAILS As you read, look for the main ideas about Florida’s resources and the details that support the main ideas. BIG IDEA Florida’s many natural resources are used in several ways. Focus Skill Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote about the beauty of Florida in her book Palmetto Leaves. 48 ■ Unit 1 are sold all over the United States. Florida is second only to California in this business. The fertile soil of Florida also makes it a good place to farm. Some of the most fertile land is in southern Florida, where wetlands have been drained. Near Lake Okeechobee the land is so fertile that it has made Florida the top sugarcane grower in the country. Florida’s other important farm products are milk, poultry, eggs, and cattle and livestock. A is something people make, grow, or raise to be sold. The area near Ocala is known for its horse farms. How a does long growing season affect Florida farmers? MAIN IDEA AND DETAILSFocus Skill product Chapter 1 ■ 49 growing season product natural resource renewable resource nonrenewable resource phosphate petroleum habitat endangered Florida’s Resources In the 1860s writer Harriet Beecher Stowe and her family wanted to escape the cold winters of the North. They found a place near Jacksonville, Florida. In her book Palmetto Leaves, she wrote that it was wonderful “[to] be able to spend your winter out of doors, . . . to hear birds daily; to eat fruit from trees, and pick flowers from hedges. . . .” Early visitors to Florida discovered a land rich both in beauty and in resources. Fresh Water and Soil People need fresh water every day. They need it for drinking and cleaning, for example. In Florida this water comes from rivers, lakes, and wells drilled into aquifers. Many businesses and farms use large amounts of water. About one-third of Florida’s land is used for farming. Every day farmers use 3 billion gallons (11 billion L) of water on their crops. Oranges that are picked in Florida are shipped all over the United States. Orchids are one of the many kinds of houseplants grown in Florida. VOCABULARY LESSONOPENERS StephenFox Digital Samples Portfolio HARCOURT HORIZONS CLIENT  Harcourt Schools (2005) DESCRIPTION  A series of state- specific Social Studies textbooks for students in Grade 4 (800+ pages). MY ROLES WITHIN THIS PROJECT  • Project management • Page concept development • Page layout with input from Senior Design staff • Designimplementationandcontinuity • Template clean-up • Page composition • Technical artwork • Image manipulation • Directing freelance Photoshop experts in image manipulation and close cropping • Montage creation • Preflight and Prepress • Creation of final digital files (PDFs)
  2. 2. LESSONOPENERS Chapter 3 ■ 101 Travel to and from the Indies was filled with danger. Most trade routes were over land. Merchants had to cross mountains and deserts and face rain, snow, wind, and sandstorms. They were robbed and sometimes killed during their travels. Because travel was difficult, most European and Asian traders went only part of the way. They met each other and exchanged goods at cities in Southwest Asia and North Africa. This trading region came to be called the Middle East. In 1453 the last European city in the Middle East fell to the Turks, a people who ruled a large part of the area. Under the Turks, many routes between Asia and Europe were closed. Europeans wanted to continue trading, so they searched for ways to reach Asia by water. A water route would make trading faster and safer. A new, smaller and faster ship called a helped Europeans sail on the oceans. Its special sails let it sail into the wind and travel on rough seas. Another invention called the astrolabe changed sailing, too. The helped sailors figure out where they were by using the position of stars. What events made Europeans look for new ways to Asia? SEQUENCEFocus Skill astrolabe caravel 100 ■ Unit 2 European Exploration By the 1400s some Native American groups were living in highly developed societies. In areas of present-day Mexico and South America, native peoples had built cities in which thou- sands of people lived. Across the Atlantic Ocean in Europe, large cities had also developed by that time. These cities, like those in the Americas, were centers of government, learning, and trade. Europe, Asia, and the Americas Europeans were interested in Asia, especially China, Japan, and southeastern Asia, then known as the Indies. European countries fought for wealth and power by trying to control trade in this area. This was because many beauti- ful and costly goods, such as jewels, gold, silk, and spices, came from Asia. Many of these were not made or found in Europe, and Europeans paid high prices for them. SEQUENCE Read to learn about the events that led Europeans to explore lands in the Americas. BIG IDEA The arrival of Europeans in the Americas changed world history. Focus Skill VOCABULARY caravel astrolabe convert claim expedition colony conquistador 1450–1550 1450 1650 1850 Henricus Martellus drew this world map in 1489, before Europeans came to the Americas. Camels were used to carry goods and supplies across the desert because they can go without water for more than two weeks. Europeans used many spices from Asia. They used cloves and nutmeg to make food taste better. Other spices were used as medicines and to keep foods from spoiling. The astrolobe helped sailors figure out their location. Chapter 4 ■ 141 British were both helped by their Native American allies, the war became known as the French and Indian War. At first Spain was not part of this war. Spain became afraid of Britain controlling all of North America. So Spain joined France and its Native American allies to fight the British. In response, the British captured Havana—the capital of Cuba and one of Spain’s most valuable ports. Britain eventually won the war. In 1763 the war officially ended when Britain, France, and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris. A is an agree- ment between groups or countries. treaty This treaty gave Britain almost all of the French colonies in North America. France also gave up its claim to most of the lands between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River. To get Cuba back, Spain gave the Florida colony to Britain. Florida was a challenge for its British rulers. One problem was getting settlers to stay. Many Spanish settlers did not want to live under British rule. They decided to move to Havana with their slaves. Many free Africans and even some Native Americans went as well. How did Spain lose its claim to Florida? Spain gave Florida to Britain in exchange for Cuba.A Native American tomahawk from the French and Indian War A man dressed as a British soldier shows how cannons were fired during the French and Indian War. 140 Florida Under British Rule The Spanish built Castillo de San Marcos in St. Augustine to stand up against the biggest guns of the time. The fort survived two major attacks by the British. In 1763 the people of St. Augustine would learn that some things could be stronger than the walls of their fort. Britain Wins Florida After James Oglethorpe’s raid on St. Augustine in 1740, British attacks against Florida mostly ended. This did not lead to a long-lasting peace, however. In 1754 France and Britain went to war in Europe. As had happened before, the war spread to the colonies in North America. Both countries wanted control of the lands west of the Appalachian Mountains. Because the French and the COMPARE AND CONTRAST As you read, look for ways West Florida and East Florida were similar and different. BIG IDEA British rule brought changes for people living in Florida. Focus Skill VOCABULARY treaty land grant plantation planter indentured servant descendant 1450 18501450 1650 1750–1780 This powderhorn is engraved with a map showing some of the major battles of the French and Indian War, including the battles of Fort Ticonderoga. Chapter 3 ■ 107 reached the shores of Florida near what is now the city of Melbourne. After reading Ponce de León’s journal, Spanish historian Antonio de Herrera (day er•RAIR•ah) wrote: “. . . They sailed along the coast looking for a harbor, and at night they anchored near the land. . . . And thinking that the land was an island, they called it La Florida because . . . [it had] many blossoming trees. . . . ”Ponce de León also may have chosen La Florida because he had arrived during Pascua Florida. This is Spanish for “Flowery Easter.” Ponce de León claimed La Florida for Spain. In time, most of what is today the southeastern part of the United States was called La Florida by the Spanish. Neither Ponce de León nor anyone else at the time knew how big this area was. Ponce de León sailed along Florida’s Atlantic and Gulf coasts. He and his crew stopped from time to time to get fresh water and firewood and to explore the coast. At a bay on the Gulf coast they met the Calusas. These Native Americans thought that the newcomers wanted to invade their lands. So the Calusas attacked the ships. The Spanish soon sailed back to Puerto Rico. In 1521 Ponce de León returned to the Calusas’ lands. This time he brought 200 settlers, cattle, horses, tools, and seeds for crops. He planned to build a colony there, but he was unsuccessful. The Calusas kept attack- ing the Spanish. After Ponce de León was wounded, the Spanish decided to leave and sailed to Cuba. Ponce de León died from his injury. Where did Ponce de León first reach the shores of the land he called La Florida? SEQUENCEFocus Skill Spanish Explorers Claim Florida Europeans continued into the 1500s to explore lands in the Western Hemisphere unknown to them. These voyages were full of danger and mystery. The explorers never knew what would happen to them. They could never be sure of ever going home again. But the promise of adventure and riches often kept them going. The First Spanish in Florida In 1513 Juan Ponce de León (WAHN PAHN•say day lay•OHN) became the first known Spanish explorer to arrive in Florida. The king of Spain sent Ponce de León to explore an area north of Cuba called the Island of Bimini (BIH•muh•nee). Ponce de León set out from Puerto Rico. Historians believe that his ships first SEQUENCE Read to learn the sequence of Spanish explorations in Florida. BIG IDEA Spanish explorations in the Americas changed the lives of Native Floridians. Focus Skill The Gulf Stream Understanding Physical Systems Ponce de León became one of the first explorers to experience the Gulf Stream, one of the strongest ocean currents in the world. A current is a faster-flowing part of a body of water. The Gulf Stream starts in the Gulf of Mexico and flows through the Straits of Florida. It then travels north in the Atlantic Ocean. Spanish treasure ships returning from North America “rode” the Gulf Stream back to Europe. 1500–1550 1450 1650 1850 ATLANTIC OCEAN Gulf of Mexico Caribbean Sea Straits of Florida GULFSTREAM UNITED STATES CANADA MEXICO CUBA FLORIDA Newfoundland 0 400 800 Miles 0 400 800 Kilometers N S E W VOCABULARY slave resist 106 ■ Unit 2 In Europe younger sons in noble, or high- ranking, families did not inherit much money. Many of them became conquistadors. They hoped to get rich on a successful expedition. StephenFox Digital Samples Portfolio HARCOURT HORIZONS CLIENT  Harcourt Schools (2005) DESCRIPTION  A series of state- specific Social Studies textbooks for students in Grade 4 (800+ pages). MY ROLES WITHIN THIS PROJECT  • Project management • Page concept development • Page layout with input from Senior Design staff • Designimplementationandcontinuity • Template clean-up • Page composition • Technical artwork • Image manipulation • Directing freelance Photoshop experts in image manipulation and close cropping • Montage creation • Preflight and Prepress • Creation of final digital files (PDFs)
  3. 3. LESSONPAGES Chapter 8 ■ 263 They built bridges, roads, and railways, and some started their own businesses. As the demand for Florida goods increased, the supply needed to increase. A is an amount of a good or service that is offered for sale. A supply usually rises or falls to meet a demand. This means that a business will make more of something if people want to buy more of it. If there is not much demand for some- thing, a business will make less of it. supply Immigrants from the same country often settled together. In the late 1800s Danish immigrants formed Dania, a town south of Fort Lauderdale. Dania was known for its tomatoes, which were shipped to other states by railroad. Yamato, near Boca Raton, was a town started by Japanese immigrants. Many of the immigrants there grew pineapples, that were shipped north, like Dania’s tomatoes. 262 ■ Unit 4 The Cities Grow Many people moved to Florida in the early 1900s. Some came as tourists and decided to stay. Others came because they could find work. At that time, a place was called a city if it had at least 2,500 people. In 1880 there were only three cities in Florida—Pensacola, Jacksonville, and Key West. By the early 1900s Florida had 19 cities. Railways helped many Florida com- munities grow. As railroads were built, new towns grew along their paths. Older towns, such as St. Petersburg, grew into cities after the railroads reached them. St. Petersburg had settlers as early as the 1840s, but it did not become a city until the railroad arrived in 1888. Industries, both old and new, also helped Florida cities and towns grow. Tampa, for example, became even larger when the phosphate mining industry brought workers and their families to the nearby Bartow area. By 1910 Florida’s total population had grown to about 750,000. The state’s population had tripled in only 30 years. What two facts about cities show that the population of Florida grew quickly between 1880 and the early 1900s? FACT AND OPINION New Immigrants In the late 1800s thousands of immi- grants began arriving in Florida. These people hoped to make a better life for themselves and their families. Some immigrants came to Florida to escape difficult times in their homelands. Others came for their health. Many were poor and came to find work. Workers were needed to meet the rising demand for Florida goods. A is a desire for a good or service among people willing to pay for it. Immigrants worked in the fields, tending and harvesting crops. demand Focus Skill Analyze Graphs The populations of Jacksonville and Key West grew quickly between 1880 and 1910. Which city’s population grew, got smaller, and then grew again? Morikami Museum and Japanese Gardens George Sukeji Morikami was a member of the Yamato Colony. In the 1970s he gave 200 acres in Delray Beach to Palm Beach County. He wanted to honor the Yamato colonists and Japan, his native country. The Morikami Museum and Japanese Gardens are the result of his gift. This statue is one of many artifacts at the Morikami Museum. KEY WEST = 1,000 persons YEAR 1880 1890 1900 1910 = 5,000 persons = 10,000 persons Populations of Two Florida Cities, 1880–1910 JACKSONVILLE Chapter 11 ■ 389 Federal taxes also pay for the mili- tary forces that defend the country. In Florida the United States Coast Guard helps boaters and cleans up after oil spills. Federal tax dollars are used to build military bases and other government sites in Florida, such as Eglin Air Force Base, the Pensacola Naval Air Station, and the John F. Kennedy Space Center. In turn, those government sites employ thousands of Floridians. 388 ■ Unit 5 The President selects a , or group of people who advise the President. Each Cabinet member heads one government department. The President and the Cabinet decide on the best ways to solve national problems. The President is also the commander in chief of the military. The judicial branch is made up of the federal courts and the United States Supreme Court. The Supreme Court decides if the laws Congress has passed and the President’s actions agree with the Constitution. It also makes sure that state laws and courts follow the Constitution. Supreme Court decisions apply to everyone in the United States. What are the main jobs of each branch of the federal government? CATEGORIZEFocus Skill Cabinet The Federal Government in Florida Floridians take part in the federal government by electing the President, the Vice President, and United States senators and representatives. Floridians also take part in the fed- eral government by paying federal taxes. Federal tax money is used to pay for the federal government’s programs and agencies. One of these is the Social Security program, which pays money to people who can no longer work. Other programs include Medicare, which helps senior citizens pay for health care, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). FEMA helps Floridians rebuild after natural disasters, such as hurricanes. Daniel Robert“Bob”Graham 1936– Character Trait: Citizenship Floridian Bob Graham served in Florida’s legislature before becoming the state’s governor in 1978. In 1986 Florida voters chose Graham to be one of their two United States senators. In 2003 Senator Graham tried to become a candidate for President. Graham liked to stay connected with people in Florida. For about 30 years, he spent 12 days each year doing different kinds of jobs. His “workdays” at such jobs as police officer, firefighter, garbage collector, and factory worker helped him understand Florida’s citizens. MULTIMEDIA BIOGRAPHIES Visit The Learning Site at to learn about other famous people. Military pilots, Coast Guard workers, and postal employees work for the federal government. In 1972 the first group of Haitian (HAY•shuhn) refugees made the dan- gerous trip to Florida in small boats. Over time Haitians have continued to come to Florida. During the 1980s, civil wars in two nations, Colombia and Nicaragua (nih•kuh•RAH•gwah), killed thousands of people. Many Nicaraguans and Colombians came to Florida to escape the fighting. From 1990 to 2000, Mexicans made up the fastest-growing Hispanic group in Florida. By 2000 there were more than 360,000 Mexicans in the state. That was more than twice the number that had been living in Florida in 1990. Florida’s new Hispanic arrivals also come from Venezuela, the Dominican Republic, and the United States territory of Puerto Rico. Most people who come to live in Florida from other countries are legal immigrants. This means they have permission from the government to live in the United States. Some people, however, have found ways to enter the country illegally, or without permission. Why did many people move to Florida from Haiti, Colombia, and Nicaragua? Many people come to Florida to enjoy the state’s sunny, warm climate and find a better way of life. 343 Many New Arrivals People from other countries have also added to Florida’s popu- lation. About 90,000 immigrants move to Florida every year. Some come from Central America and South America. Others are from the island nations of Haiti and Jamaica in the Caribbean Sea. Still others come from Africa and Asia. The Cuban population of Florida continues to grow. For many years Cuban president Fidel Castro would not let people leave Cuba. But in 1980 he let 125,000 Cubans come to the United States. The migration was called the Mariel (mah•ree•EL) Boatlift because most of the immigrants sailed from the city of Mariel. Today many Cuban refugees also try to reach the United States by boat, which is very danger- ous. Cuban refugees who enter the United States have special status— they can ask to live legally in this country no matter how they arrived. Like Cubans, other immigrants to Florida have come to the United States seeking freedom and safety. In Haiti, people feared they would be killed for speaking out against the government. Florida’s new arrivals come from all over the United States and the world. 342 A Cuban father and son in Miami. StephenFox Digital Samples Portfolio HARCOURT HORIZONS CLIENT  Harcourt Schools (2005) DESCRIPTION  A series of state- specific Social Studies textbooks for students in Grade 4 (800+ pages). MY ROLES WITHIN THIS PROJECT  • Project management • Page concept development • Page layout with input from Senior Design staff • Designimplementationandcontinuity • Template clean-up • Page composition • Technical artwork • Image manipulation • Directing freelance Photoshop experts in image manipulation and close cropping • Montage creation • Preflight and Prepress • Creation of final digital files (PDFs)
  4. 4. FEATUREPAGES Orlando is located in Florida’s Central Highlands. 32 ■ Unit 1 Florida’s largest wetland is the Everglades, in the southernmost part of Florida. It has been nick- named “river of grass” because the water flows through the grass like a river. Marjory Stoneman Douglas described the Everglades this way: “The grass and the water together make the river as simple as it is unique [one of a kind]. There is no other river like it. ”Douglas spent her life protecting the Everglades. In 1947 a great part of this wetland became Everglades National Park. The park was the first to protect the birds and animals that live there. What is Florida’s largest wetland? Highlands Not all of Florida is flat. There are three highland areas that are very differ- ent from the lowland and wetland regions. In low- lying Florida, highlands does not mean that there are tall mountains. The Central Highlands region is Florida’s largest high- land region. It lies between the two coastal plains and runs south from Georgia to north of Lake Okeechobee. This region has gently sloping hills and lakes. The major cities here are Gainesville, Lakeland, Ocala, and Orlando. The Panhandle has a mixture of lowlands and highlands. The Tallahassee Hills lie east of the Marianna Lowlands. The area is made up of valleys lying Pine forests and citrus groves grow in Florida’s different regions. Marjory Stoneman Douglas Chapter 1 ■ 33 MAIN IDEA AND DETAILS How is Florida different today from the way it was millions of years ago? 1 BIG IDEA How are the Western Highlands, the Tallahassee Hills, and the Central Highlands alike? 2 VOCABULARY Write a paragraph that includes the terms and . 3 GEOGRAPHY What kinds of islands are found in Florida? 4 CIVICS AND GOVERNMENT What was Everglades National Park the first to do? 5 CRITICAL THINKING—Synthesize What makes Big Cypress Swamp a swamp instead of a marsh? PERFORMANCE—Riddles Write three riddles—one about Florida’s lowlands, one about its highlands, and one about its wetlands. An example might be “I am land that includes both marshes and swamps. What am I?” Write each riddle on a separate card. Ask a classmate to answer your riddles. continental shelf coastal plain Focus Skill between pine forests. Tallahassee, Florida’s capital city, is in this area. West of the Marianna Lowlands are the hills and pine forests of the Western Highlands region. The highest point in Florida is in this region, near Lakewood in Walton County. At only 345 feet (105 m) above sea level, it is the lowest high point of any state. What is Florida’s largest highland area? Visit The Learning Site at to research other primary sources. Design a Dinner Imagine that you are hosting an elegant dinner party in the 1890s. Think about what foods you might serve, whom you might invite, and the dishes and flatware you might use. Plan and decorate your menu, and write an invitation. Share your work with a classmate. Chapter 7 ■ 233 FROM THE HENRY B. PLANT MUSEUM, TAMPA, FLORIDA 232 ■ Unit 3 Elaborate place settings, including silver flatware, were used in the 1890s. Cheese scoop (left), jelly spoon (center), and butter pick (right) In the late 1800s many Americans had more money than people ever had before. More people could afford nice things. For example, some people took vacations at the resorts that Henry Flagler and Henry Plant built in Florida. There, wealthy guests enjoyed the finest goods and services of the time. They also dined in style. At about the same time, large amounts of silver were discovered in some western states and Mexico. This meant that costly silver objects could be made more cheaply. Soon the dinner tables of wealthy Floridians sparkled with silver spoons, knives, and forks, called flatware. Analyze the Primary Source What differences do you notice between the meat patty server and the cucumber server? Why do you think the cucumber server is shaped as it is? Why do you think people set their tables in such an elaborate way in the late 1800s? Do you think everyone did this or just those with a lot of money? How is the place setting on page 232 similar to the place setting you use for everyday meals? How is it different? 3 2 1 Meat patty server (below) and cucumber server (bottom) Dining in StyleDining in Style Visit The Learning Site to research other primary sources. Write a News Story Imagine that you were present when one of the artifacts shown was found. Write a news story that tells where and how the artifact was found. Be sure to include a detailed description of the artifact and what it tells about the Spanish colonies. Chapter 3 ■ 123 These gold and emerald rings (below) and this cross strung on five feet of gold chain (left) were found inside of a solid gold box (above). Gold and silver coins (below) were known as pieces of eight. Their markings allowed them to be split into pieces easily. Analyze the Primary Source In what ways are pieces of eight different from coins in use today? Which of these artifacts do you think is the most valuable? Why? Think about the things that you treasure. What do those things say about you? 3 2 1 Wealthy Europeans prized gold jewelry. This pendant (far left) was most likely worn by a man. The pin (left) and earrings (below) may have been made for Queen Isabella to wear. Both are decorated with diamonds. FROM MEL FISHER’S TREASURE MUSEUM, SEBASTIAN, FLORIDA Colonies in the Americas were an important source of wealth for the rulers of Spain. Ships that carried gold and other riches from Central America and South America across the Atlantic Ocean made a long and dangerous journey. In 1715, a hurricane destroyed a group of Spanish treasure ships off the eastern coast of Florida. These ships were carrying gold, jewelry, and other valuables for King Philip V of Spain. He planned to give treasures like these to his new wife, Queen Isabella, as wedding gifts. People often had bars of gold (below) made into long chains to avoid paying tax. Bars of gold were highly taxed, but jewelry was not. 122 ■ Unit 2 Spanish TreasureSpanish Treasure StephenFox Digital Samples Portfolio HARCOURT HORIZONS CLIENT  Harcourt Schools (2005) DESCRIPTION  A series of state- specific Social Studies textbooks for students in Grade 4 (800+ pages). MY ROLES WITHIN THIS PROJECT  • Project management • Page concept development • Page layout with input from Senior Design staff • Designimplementationandcontinuity • Template clean-up • Page composition • Technical artwork • Image manipulation • Directing freelance Photoshop experts in image manipulation and close cropping • Montage creation • Preflight and Prepress • Creation of final digital files (PDFs)