Public Works D I G E S T                                                                               Volume XXIII, No. 5...
Public Works    D I G E S T                                            Energy and Water Management _______________________...
Energy and Water ManagementIMCOM moving forward with energy efficiency, security plans    by Joe CappsR       eliable acce...
(continued from previous page)                 •	 Implement	energy	and	water	saving	                able energy or from ge...
Corps offers expertise, solutions to support Army’s Energy Program    by Stacey K. HirataA       s the Army works to stren...
Army presents energy, water management awards     by David PurcellT       he 33rd annual Secretary of the Army          Sm...
Net-zero pilot installations meet    by Doug WatersT       he Army’s 17 net-zero pilot                  were held separate...
Energy awareness and conservation assessments identify quick fixes     by Ralph TotoricaE       ach year, Headquarters Ins...
Who wants free money?    by Clive RountreeT        he Energy Savings Performance                                          ...
Strategy for funding energy and utility projects    by Qaiser ToorT       he Installation Management                      ...
(continued from previous page)                dedicated to repair and modernization of         than 50 percent, this autho...
Achieving energy effectiveness, net zero – It takes a master plan    by Jerry ZekertI    nstallations are faced with huge ...
Moving toward net zero: Role of master planning    by Mark L. GillemA        t the August GovEnergy conference      a coll...
Not white, not black, but gray – water, that is     by Richard ScholzeC         ontingency bases categorize              s...
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Public Works Digest sept-oct11

  1. 1. Public Works D I G E S T Volume XXIII, No. 5 September/October 2011 This Issue: Energy and Water Energy and Water Management 3 Successes 18 Technical Support 26 Afghanistan Insights 32 Professional Development 36 Who’s Who 42 The solar panels at Sandhills Utility Services, one of several renewable energy initiatives at Fort Bragg, N.C., provide 6,500 kilowatt hours to the installation per year. Photo by Paul Hora. Page 23.
  2. 2. Public Works D I G E S T Energy and Water Management ________________________________________________________ Volume XXI, No.5, 3 IMCOM moving forward with energy efficiency, security plans, by Joe Capps Volume XXIII, No.5 September/October 2009 September/October 2011 5 Corps offers expertise, solutions to support Army’s Energy Program, by Stacey K. Hirata 6 Army presents energy, water management awards, by David Purcell 7 Net-zero pilot installations meet, by Doug Waters 8 Energy awareness and conservation assessments identify quick fixes, by Ralph Totorica 9 Who wants free money?, by Clive Rountree 10 Strategy for funding energy and utility projects, by Qaiser Toor 12 Achieving energy effectiveness, net zero – It takes a master plan, by Jerry Zekert U.S. Army Installation 13 Moving toward net zero: Role of master planning, by Mark L. Gillem Management Command 14 Not white, not black, but gray – water, that is, by Richard Scholze 2405 Gun Shed Road 15 Spend it like it’s yours, by Deborah Lamb-BoatwrightFort Sam Houston, TX 78234-1223 16 Army designs to sustainable standards for medical facilities, by Richard D. Grulich 17 Army holds energy manager training in Cincinnati, by David PurcellPublic Works Digest is an unofficialpublication of the U.S. Army Installation Successes _________________________________________________________________________________________Management Command, under AR 360- 18 Fort Benning tests small wind turbines to boost renewable energy, by Vince Little1, The Army Public Affairs Program.Method of reproduction: photo-offset; 19 Fort Sam Houston steps up to energy conservation, by Jerry McCallpress run: 1,600; estimated readership: 20 Fort Carson builds toward energy, water, waste goals, by Andrea Sutherland40,000. Editorial views and opinions 21 Fort Hood wins energy and water management award, by Christine Lucianoexpressed are not necessarily those of 22 Fort Buchanan’s islandwide approach for sustainability, by Anibal Negronthe Department of the Army. Mention 23 Fort Bragg draws on solar technologies for net-zero initiative, by Jonelle Thompsonof specific vendors does not constituteendorsement by the Department of the 24 Corps builds sustainable distribution center for DLA in Europe, by Jennifer H. AldridgeArmy or any element thereof. 25 Iowa Army Ammunition Plant welcomes steam plant upgrades, by Alessandra E. BrownAddress mail to:U.S. Army Installation Management Technical Support _____________________________________________________________________________Command 26 Tool supports master planning for net-zero installations, by Dana Finney2405 Gun Shed Road 27 Fort Bragg: Ozone levels pose no threat to prescribed burn program, by Dana FinneyFort Sam Houston, TX 78234-1223 28 Net zero offers chance for updated water model to show value added, by Paul LandgraffAttn: Editor, Public Works Digest 29 Bulletin provides help for managing winter annual grasses, by Ryan Busby 30 White paper explores challenges in achieving net-zero water, by Elisabeth JenicekTelephone: 202-761-0022 DSN 763FAX: 202-761-4169 31 Treating landfill leachate with microbial mats: Not recommended, by Gary Gerdese-mail:mary.b.thompson@usace.army.mil Afghanistan Insights _________________________________________________________________________Gregg Chislett 32 Improving power supply in southern Afghanistan: A project view, by Joan F. KiblerChief, Public Works Division 34 Managing construction in Afghanistan: A project manager’s experience, by Jenn Domashevich Installation Management Command 35 Developing Afghan facility engineering: A leadership perspective, by Lt. Col. Ted BernhardMary Beth ThompsonManaging Editor Professional Development _________________________________________________________________ U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 36 Career development: Breaking your own glass ceiling, part 3, by Jim Hearn 37 Directorate of Public Works training curriculum at a glance, by Gustavo (Gus) E. De Jesus 39 Federal planning organization to convene regional workshop, by Mark L. Gillem 40 Master Planning Institute announces 2012 course schedule, by Andrea Wohlfeld Kuhn Printed on recycled paper. 41 Training essential for energy and water efficiency planning, by Mark L. Gillem Who’s Who ______________________________________________________________________________________ 42 Toor is chief of Energy and Utilities, by Mary Beth Thompson 43 Army energy managers earn national certification, by Ralph Totorica 2 PUBLIC WORKS DIGEST • SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2011
  3. 3. Energy and Water ManagementIMCOM moving forward with energy efficiency, security plans by Joe CappsR eliable access to affordable, stable Acronyms and Abbreviations energy supplies is a significant IMCOM Installation Management Command challenge for the Army and the and Unit Energy Conservation Officernation. The Army relies on energy, and programs. Examples are at https://www.disruption of critical power and fuel us.army.mil/suite/doc/32993110.supplies would harm the Army’s ability toaccomplish its missions. The scarcity of • Provide at least quarterly energy train-low-cost energy poses a risk and exposes a ing and awareness for installation andvulnerability that must be addressed by a community personnel. Take advantagemore secure energy position and outlook. of opportunities to promote energy con- servation awareness through command The Army’s assumptions concerning channels and community activities duringfuture plans for power and fuel at home, Joe Capps annual Energy Awareness Month andoverseas and on the battlefield must U.S. Army photo Earth Week.account for such challenges. To address sustainable and resilient infrastructure and • Develop an energy security plan and these energy security challenges, the mission assurance. update plans annually based on a reviewsecretary of the Army issued the ArmyEnergy Security Implementation Strategy with local utility suppliers. A sample Garrison energy and water template is at https://www.us.army.mil/with five strategic energy goals: management programs suite/doc/32993146.• reduced energy consumption, In addition, IMCOM issued an energy • Enter accurate energy data monthly • increased energy efficiency across plat- Operations Order, 10-257, that puts in and water data quarterly into the Army forms and facilities, play a broad range of actions to move us Energy and Water Reporting System and• increased use of renewable and alternative toward achieving the objectives set for us conduct monthly quality-control checks. energy, by the secretary of the Army to improve Provide a quarterly certification of data our energy security posture. All IMCOM• assured access to sufficient energy sup- completeness to region energy manager. garrisons are implementing garrison plies, and • Submit a complete annual energy report Energy and Water Management programs,• reduced adverse impacts on the which include the following actions: each year in October. environment. • Nominate worthy projects, individuals • Appoint in writing full-time garrison These goals incorporate the fundamental and teams for Secretary of the Army Ener- energy managers and input contact infor-principle that the improvements achieved gy and Water Management Awards and mation in the Army Energy and Waterwill not lead to reductions in operational Federal Energy and Water Management Reporting System. Garrison command-capability or the ability to carry out awards. ➤ ers will ensure their energy managers areprimary missions. knowledgeable and trained. Army Energy Security VisionInstallation Management Campaign • Include energy and water conservation An effective and innovative ArmyPlan responsibilities in position descriptions energy posture, which enhances and The Installation Management of commanders, directors and other key ensures mission success and quality ofCommand is moving its energy program positions that impact energy manage- life for our Soldiers, Civilians and theirforward with implementation of the ment to ensure compliance with federal Families through leadership, partnershipInstallation Management Campaign legislation, executive orders, the imple- and ownership, and also serves as aPlan, which includes a specific Line of mentation strategy and the campaign model for the nation.Effort focused on energy to address the plan.overall Army energy security strategy. • Establish a garrison energy steering com- Army Energy Security MissionThe intent of the campaign plan’s energy mittee composed of energy managers Make energy a consideration forLine of Effort is to maintain energy- and and garrison organizations or units to all Army activities to reduce demand,water-efficient installations by holding meet quarterly, review energy and water increase efficiency, seek alternativeusers accountable, modernizing facilities, consumption activities, evaluate goals sources and create a culture of energyinstalling new technologies and leveraging and objectives, and develop improvement accountability while sustaining orpartnerships that will provide an increased strategies. enhancing operational capabilities.level of energy security leading to • Implement Building Energy Monitor PUBLIC WORKS DIGEST • SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2011 3
  4. 4. (continued from previous page) • Implement energy and water saving able energy or from geothermal water• Review all new construction and repair projects that have a simple payback of 10 sources. project plans and specifications for com- years or fewer. • Disposal is the final step and last resort pliance with appropriate energy policies. • Use alternate funding sources such as after the last drop of water, the last bit Projects must include life-cycle cost- Energy Savings Performance Contracts, of thermal energy and all other waste effective energy- and water-conservation Utility Energy Services Contracts and mitigation strategies have been fully measures. the Energy Conservation Investment exercised.• Ensure new construction and major Program to help fund at least one project Net-zero pilot installations repair and renovation projects greater that cannot be self-funded annually. The Army approach is to identify and than $7.5 million incorporate sustain- • Reduce vehicle fleet petroleum use 30 work with six installations to achieve net- able design principles to achieve a mini- percent by 2020 using 2005 as the base zero energy, six installations to achieve mum of the Silver level of Leadership year as required by Executive Order net-zero waste, six installations to achieve in Energy and Environmental Design 13514, Federal Leadership in Environ- net-zero water and two installations to certification. mental, Energy and Economic Performance. achieve all three by 2020. The Army goal is• Ensure all designs reduce energy con- Garrisons should develop a petroleum to have 25 net-zero -installations by 2030. sumption by 30 percent below the levels fuel reduction strategy that includes established by American Society of Heat- replacing fossil fuel vehicles with alterna- The net-zero pilot installations are: ing, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning tive fuel vehicles and electric vehicles, Net-zero energy: Fort Bliss, Texas; Fort Engineers’ Standard 90.1. maximizing use of mass transit and Carson, Colo.; Fort Detrick, Md.; Fort• Perform annual energy audits of at least shuttle buses, and installing alternative Hunter Liggett, Calif.; Kwajalein Atoll, 25 percent of the garrison facilities’ or renewable refueling infrastructure to Republic of the Marshall Islands; Parks total square footage to evaluate energy encourage alternative and electric vehicle Reserve Forces Training Area, Calif.; usage and determine the best locations use. Sierra Army Depot, Calif.; U.S. Military to incorporate energy savings measures. Academy, West Point, N.Y.; Oregon Army Army net-zero strategy Energy audit guidance can be found in National Guard. Another component of the Army’s the Department of Defense Energy Man- energy security strategy is to appropriately Net-zero water: Fort Bliss; Fort Carson; ager’s Handbook at http://www.acq.osd.mil/ manage our natural resources with a Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.; Camp ie/energy/mgr_support.shtml. net-zero strategy. A net-zero strategy Rilea, Ore.; Fort Buchanan, Puerto• Implement all no-cost and low-cost mea- addresses energy, water and waste at Army Rico; Fort Riley, Kan.; Joint Base Lewis- sures as detailed in https://www.us.army. installations and comprises five interrelated McChord, Wash.; Tobyhanna Army mil/suite/doc/32993193. steps: Depot, Pa. • Reduction includes maximizing Net-zero waste: Fort Bliss; Fort Carson; energy efficiency in existing facili- Fort Detrick; Fort Hunter Liggett; Joint ties, implementing water conservation Base Lewis-McChord; Fort Hood, Texas; practices and eliminating generation of Fort Polk, La.; U.S. Army Garrison unnecessary waste. Grafenwoehr, Germany. • Repurposing involves diverting IMCOM Headquarters, regions and energy, water or waste to a secondary garrisons are working together to develop purpose with limited processes. garrison action plans, staff energy teams, • Recycling or composting involves implement energy conservation projects management of the solid waste stream, and monitor project progress to achieve the development of closed loop systems energy goals and objectives set for us by to reclaim water or cogeneration with the secretary of the Army to improve our which two forms of energy — heat energy security posture. and electricity — are created from one Joe Capps is the executive director, IMCOM. source. • Recovery occurs from converting unusable waste to energy, from renew- 4 PUBLIC WORKS DIGEST • SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2011
  5. 5. Corps offers expertise, solutions to support Army’s Energy Program by Stacey K. HirataA s the Army works to strengthen its Acronyms and Abbreviations commitment to energy and water USACE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers conservation, efficiency and security,as well as meet the numerous energy and posted a $5 billion sources-soughtand sustainability legislative mandates, solicitation to ascertain the level of privateexecutive orders and policies, it looks to sector interest. At the solicitation’s close,the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for USACE had heard from more than 150technical expertise and solutions. Whether firms.to deal with legislative requirements or Net-zero and other initiativesArmy policies, the Corps continues to step Although most of the legislativeup to the challenge. requirements have been incorporated in Stacey K. Hirata USACE projects, the Corps continuesEnterprise approach Photo by F.T. Eyre The requirement to conserve energy to work with the Office of the Assistantintertwines with today’s challenge to allows planners to provide direction on Secretary of the Army for Installations,build sustainable installations. Energy and repurposing existing facilities, reducing Energy and Environment, the Installationsustainability programs, like other broad energy distribution losses and minimizing Management Command and the Office ofefforts, require a comprehensive approach. the use of vehicles. the Assistant Chief of Staff for InstallationThe Corps’ holistic method supports the The planning effort is the first step in Management to enhance the Army’sArmy’s needs by first taking an enterprise a comprehensive approach to meeting energy posture.approach to master planning. From initial the Army’s goal — energy independence. Representatives from the Corps’planning and visioning efforts, the garrison Developing and incorporating renewable Headquarters, the Engineering andcommander and installation stakeholders energy sources into the Army’s energy plan Support Center Huntsville and theforge a broad vision and set planning will play a significant role in whether we Construction Engineering Researchprinciples that guide installation planning, can realistically reduce our dependence on Laboratory worked with the Office of theincluding energy planning. fossil fuel and foreign oil. Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army USACE and the Installation Since the beginning of fiscal 2011, the for Energy and Sustainability to developManagement Command make energy Army has worked to develop renewable criteria for identifying the Army’s net-conservation a major consideration energy projects where appropriate on its zero energy, water and waste installations.in installation master planning by installations. As the Army strengthens USACE representatives also helpedemphasizing energy-efficient building its renewable energy portfolio, the Corps provide training to installation energydesign and installation development. We continues to play a significant role in the managers from the net-zero installations.have established integrated planning and work. USACE is instrumental in implementingdevelopment practices for consistent, many other energy initiatives. For example,energy-efficient, sustainable development. Energy Initiatives Office Huntsville Center is installing smart On Aug. 10, Secretary of the Army John meters and working with the Network As the Department of Defense, McHugh announced that the Army is Command to ensure the connectivitythe Army and the other services are standing up an Energy Initiatives Office and net worthiness of the meters to theembracing sustainable energy-efficient Task Force, which will be responsible for central data system. Headquarters USACEplanning practices, USACE is assisting identifying industrial-scale renewable is actively working to establish regionalinstallations transition to more compact energy projects that will produce in excess energy centers of expertise to ensuredevelopment using area development of 200 megawatts of energy. USACE will technical and programmatic expertise existplans and more regulated land use. Area be instrumental in this effort by providing in every region. We issued an Engineeringdevelopment plans focus on designated technical, contractual and program Construction Bulletin directing districts todistricts on installations, define the built- management support. incorporate identified energy enhancementout development plans for the districts andidentify the specific planning pattern to The Corps assisted with the features into their projects if projectachieve energy efficiency and sustainability development of the Energy Initiatives schedules and life-cycle costs analyseswhile meeting both existing and unforeseen Office concept and is currently drafting indicate them to be an effective means formissions in an organized method. an acquisition strategy. Through Federal reducing energy consumption.Focusing on compact, regulated districts Business Opportunities, we developed ➤ PUBLIC WORKS DIGEST • SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2011 5
  6. 6. Army presents energy, water management awards by David PurcellT he 33rd annual Secretary of the Army Small group awards Energy Efficiency/Energy Management Energy and Water Management Energy Efficiency/Energy Management – – Bobby Lynn, Richard Strohl, Donald Awards were given out Aug. 11 Jeffery Presgraves and Keith Pomraning, Clary, Huey Keaton and Cody Tippit,at the Army Energy Manager Training Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. Fort Hood, TexasWorkshop in Cincinnati. Katherine Innovative/New Technology – Pat Walsh,Hammack, assistant secretary of the Army Installation award Pat Appelman, Warren Clifford, R.J. Water Conservation – Fort Stewart,for installations, energy and environment, Dyrdek and Steven Fries, Fort Knox, Ky.and Maj. Gen. Al Aycock, director of Ga., Denise Kelley, Randy Parks, Stanleyoperations, Office of the Assistant Chief Energy Efficiency/Energy Management – Thomas, Tressa Rutland and Matthewof Staff for Installation Management, Willimore Mack and Paul Lindemer, U.S, Bolenpresented the awards. Army Garrison Kaiserslautern, Germany Individual award Each winner received an engraved Renewable/Alternatives – John Hastings Innovative/New Technology – Reginaplaque, a certificate and a monetary award. and Thomas Comyack, National Guard Kranz, U.S. Army Garrison Ansbach,The categories and award winners are: Training Center, Sea Girt, N.J. Germany Exceptional performance award Energy Efficiency/Energy Management – Picatinny Arsenal, N.J., Lt. Col. Charles Koehler, John Costea, Richard Havrisko, Michael Maier and Thomas Struble POC is David Purcell, 571-256-9761, david. purcell@us.army.milThe Secretary of the Army Energy and Water Management Award awardees pose after the Aug. 11 ceremonywith Katherine Hammack, assistant secretary of the Army for installations, energy and environment, David Purcell is the chief, Army Energy and Utilityand Maj. Gen. Al Aycock, director of operations, Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Branch, Facilities Policy Division, OACSIM.Management. Photo by Terry Shoemaker, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory(continued from previous page) soared with the coming of subsidies and at which our finite water supplies cannot Energy-water nexus the spread of irrigation to previously meet our water demands. Addressing this Mechanical devices that employ water unfarmed areas. Economic development water-energy nexus — in the very near have been used to produce energy since led to more construction and more future — is critical to that future. ancient times, and that energy-water demand for energy and water resources. The Construction Engineering nexus continues today. Roughly 8 percent Today, water is involved in energy Research Lab developed a tool kit, found of fresh water withdrawals globally are production for thermoelectric cooling, at http://www.water-management-toolbox. used for energy, according to 2008 data hydropower, mineral extraction and com/, to help understand this issue. It from the World Economic Forum. Energy mining, and fossil and nonfossil fuel and provides laws, regulations, policies and can account for 60 to 80 percent of water biofuel production and emission controls. federal guidelines on water management. transportation and treatment costs and 14 Energy is used in potable water systems Also, Huntsville Center, as a part of its percent of total water utility costs. to pump, transport, treat and desalinate. energy program, supports installations Energy and water production are About 40 percent of water use in the with developing integrated energy and clearly interconnected, but water’s effect United States goes for energy production, water management plans. on energy and energy’s effect on water, the No. 2 use behind agriculture, When it comes to energy and water historically, have been ignored. That view according to a 2005 U.S. Geological issues, USACE continues to be a source of is rapidly changing. Survey report. both technical and programmatic expertise Our country developed most of its Water and energy demands continue that provides solutions for our Army. infrastructure, including its water and to increase, but water supplies are limited Building Strong! energy resources, during the 20th century, and will be affected by degradation and when the costs of water and energy climate change over time. If we remain Stacey K. Hirata is the chief, Installation Support, remained low. Water use for agricultural on our current path, we will reach a point Headquarters USACE. 6 PUBLIC WORKS DIGEST • SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2011
  7. 7. Net-zero pilot installations meet by Doug WatersT he Army’s 17 net-zero pilot were held separately for the installations participated in a energy, water and waste training event at Fort Detrick, Md., installations. Each installationJune 14-16. This workshop provided a made a short presentationvenue for the pilot installations to share describing its net-zero strategyideas and resources. and what assistance would On April 19, at the Association of the be needed. RepresentativesU.S. Army’s Installations Symposium from Department of Energy’sin San Antonio, Assistant Secretary Pacific Northwest Nationalof the Army for Installations, Energy Laboratory and Nationaland Environment Katherine Hammack Renewable Energy Laboratory,identified the pilot installations that will and the U.S. Army Corps ofstrive to achieve net-zero energy, water, Engineers’ Engineering andwaste or all three by 2020. Support Center, Huntsville, A map displays the Army net-zero pilot installations. Graphic by and Construction Engineering Pacific Northwest National Laboratory The Net Zero Program’s goal is to Research Laboratory presented considerations and will assist in developingensure that the Army of tomorrow has ideas and information on sustainable information to support a site-specificaccess to the fuel, water and land that it best practices and net-zero tools and NEPA analysis.needs to execute its mission at a price it approaches.can afford. This effort will improve the Net-zero energy installations are: Fortenergy security and sustainability of Army As part of the effort, the Office of Detrick; Fort Hunter-Liggett, Calif.; U.S.installations and ensure the continuation the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Army Kwajalein Atoll; Parks Reserveof vital military missions in the event of Installations, Energy and Environment Forces Training Area, Calif.; Sierra Armyenergy or water utility grid disruptions. established a collaboration website Depot, Calif.; and the U.S. MilitaryThe net-zero approach unifies all Army to allow pilot installations access to Academy, West Point, N.Y. Although notactions to achieve multiple goals related technical resources, request assistance an installation per se, the Oregon Nationalto energy, waste, water and environmental and share successes. In addition, monthly Guard is also a net-zero energy participantprotection. coordination calls will be held with the for its statewide faclities. net-zero pilot installations to provide Net-zero water installations are: A net-zero energy installation will information on specific topics, training andproduce as much energy on site as it uses Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.; Camp approaches, and to share ideas. Rilea, Ore.; Fort Buchanan, Puertoover the course of a year. A net-zero waterinstallation limits fresh water consumption Each installation is unique. No one-size- Rico; Fort Riley, Kan.; Joint Base Lewis-while returning the water to its source so fits-all net-zero solutions exist. Installations McChord, Wash.; and Tobyhanna Armyas to not deplete the quantity or quality of will use a variety of net-zero strategies and Deport, Pa.regional ground and surface water systems. will not be forced into a specific method. Net-zero waste installations are: FortA net-zero waste installation reduces, Instead, the pilot installations will be Detrick; Fort Hood, Texas; Fort Hunter-reuses and recovers solid waste, removing encouraged to present at conferences and Liggett; Fort Polk, La.; Joint Base Lewis-the need for landfill. symposia about their journey to achieve McChord; and U.S. Army Garrison net zero, sharing their strategies, successes, Grafenwoehr, Germany. During the plenary session at Fort challenges and lessons learned for use byDetrick, attendees saw presentations from other Army installations. Net-zero energy, water and wasteArmy staff, other federal agencies and installations are: Fort Bliss, Texas; and Fortindustry counterparts. Field trips were A programmatic National Carson, Colo.conducted at locations on Fort Detrick to Environmental Policy Act Environmentalhighlight examples of sustainable practices Assessment is underway. The assessment POC is Kristine Kingery, Office of the Deputyin energy, water and waste. will evaluate the various behaviors, Assistant Secretary of the Army for Energy and processes and technologies that can Sustainability, 703-614-5883, kristine.kingery@ On the second day, breakout sessions be used to achieve net zero and their us.army.mil.Acronyms and Abbreviations associated environmental impacts andNEPA National Environmental Policy Act mitigation. This effort will provide scoping Doug Waters is the renewable energy and net-OACSIM Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for and development of environmental zero portfolio manager, Army Energy and Utility Installation Management team, Facilities Policy Division, OACSIM. PUBLIC WORKS DIGEST • SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2011 7
  8. 8. Energy awareness and conservation assessments identify quick fixes by Ralph TotoricaE ach year, Headquarters Installation commander and director of Public Works. Acronyms and Abbreviations Management Command centrally Following discussion with the installation DPW Directorate of Public Works funds about 12 energy awareness energy manager about objectives and IMCOM Installation Management Commandand conservation assessments at IMCOM expectations, the contractor reviews utility at the POC information below.installations. The assessments help cost and consumption data, and identifiesIMCOM garrisons identify no-cost and buildings to be surveyed with the energy POC is Ralph Totorica, 210-466-0598, ralph.low-cost energy-savings opportunities and manager. The contractor then conducts totorica@us.army.mil.provide energy conservation awareness four days of building surveys, including atraining for the garrison leadership and night assessment, looking for energy-saving Ralph Totorica is a general engineer, Energy andcommunity. opportunities with a focus on low-cost Utilities Branch, Public Works Division, measures and operations and maintenance Headquarters IMCOM. The intent is to capture quick winsthrough energy-saving efforts that the improvements that can be easily implemented with in-house resources.garrison can execute immediately with littleto no investment costs. Following the surveys, the contractor Top 10 no-cost or low- The assessments furnish garrisons prepares site-specific presentations and cost energy savingswith a valuable tool to evaluate theircurrent energy consumption patterns and presents observations at training sessions for building energy monitors, commanders opportunities:increase energy awareness throughout the and staff, and DPW personnel. A good 1. Validate building daily occupancyinstallation community. In addition, the turnout from the installation community and weekend occupancy schedules,assessments assist garrisons with meeting at the presentations is key to the effort’s plus, where possible, program holiday,the requirement to perform energy audits success. deployment and training schedules.on 25 percent of building inventory each In addition to identifying specific energy 2. Adjust the occupied and unoccupiedyear. Headquarters IMCOM’s goal is to get conservation measures, the assessment also heating and cooling temperature set-each garrison on a four-year rotating cycle. offers a great opportunity for the energy points. The assessment consists of a one- manager to increase energy awareness 3. Reduce unnecessary exterior lighting,week site visit by a representative from through the garrison’s Public Affairs Office. e.g., parking lot and entry lighting forHeadquarters IMCOM and an energy The energy awareness and conservation unoccupied buildings.consultant under contract for technical assessment concludes with an out-brief to the garrison commander and directors. 4. Reduce unnecessary interior lightingsupport. Representatives from IMCOM in areas with sufficient daylighting,regions are also encouraged to attend and The assessments are conducted at e.g., foyers and lobby lighting.participate in the assessments. no cost to the installation; however the host installation must provide support to 5. Delamp over-lit areas and rooms, e.g., Typically, the week starts with four-lamp hallway fixtures.introductory meetings with the garrison escort the contractor and provide access to facilities to be surveyed. 6. Make simple lamp and ballast upgrades, e.g., CFLs for incandescent. To request an energy awareness and conservation assessment, contact the author 7. Install lighting controls, motion sen- sors, light switches; and simply turn off lights at night. 8. Clean dirt and debris from or replace air filters, exhaust fan grilles and air intake louvers. 9. Replace weather-stripping, repair door closers or close windows at night to reduce heat losses and infiltration 10. Install low-flow faucets and show-Energy awareness and conservation assessments erheads to reduce hot water use, e.g.,identify quick fixes to be made like the lack ofweather stripping edge seals and bottom sweeps Unnecessary lighting such as this exterior lights on WaterSense fixtures and Energy Star-on entry doors. Photos by Lyman Parkhurst, during daytime hours can be corrected for little of rated appliances and equipment.Sain Engineering Associates no cost. 8 PUBLIC WORKS DIGEST • SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2011
  9. 9. Who wants free money? by Clive RountreeT he Energy Savings Performance Acronyms and Abbreviations Contract program is a source of ECM energy conservation measure money to accomplish energy projects ESCO energy services companyat the garrison. The program, authorized ESPC Energy Savings Performance Contractby the Energy Policy Act of 1992, allows IMCOM Installation Management CommandArmy agencies to use financing provided M&V measurement and verificationby energy services companies. Additional O&M operations and maintenancelegislation extended and enhanced the OACSIM Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff forESPC program to offer numerous benefits Installation Managementto the Army. SSR site survey report UESC Utility Energy Savings Contract Federal mandates require Army garrisonsto reduce energy intensity by 3 percent peryear from 2006, using 2003 as a baseline. Clive Rountree Courtesy photoThey also require a 2 percent reduction peryear in water intensity beginning in 2008, forward. After the garrison has decidedusing 2007 as a baseline. to do an ESPC project, it hires a project Intensity is defined as consumption per facilitator, a third party who acts as aarea. In the case of energy, the intensity champion for the project and a centralis measured in million British thermal point of contact for all concerned. Theunits used for every 1,000 square feet, or garrison hires its facilitator from a list of After the SSR has been reviewed andas commonly seen, MBtu/ksf. Water is approved individuals maintained by the the garrison has selected the ECMs andmeasured in gallons per square foot, or Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff buildings to be included, the ESCOgal/sf. for Installation Management. Then, the proceeds with an investment-grade audit. ESCO selection process is started. This audit results in a proposal with very With ESPCs, as in real life, there isn’t exact ECM descriptions, cost, savings,any such thing as a free lunch. The process The potential ESCOs that respond to the advertised project do a walk-through M&V plan and O&M plan.can be daunting. There are numerous stepsto take and hoops to jump through, but with garrison personnel. Each develops This proposal is reviewed by thethe end result is a significant energy project a brief proposal of about 20 pages. From garrison, region, contracting agency, projectdeveloped, financed, designed, constructed these proposals, one ESCO will be chosen. facilitator and Headquarters, Installationand maintained by an ESCO. The selection committee comprises Management Command. Each reviewer individuals from the contract agency and develops questions and comments that are The garrison has some financial burden. forwarded to the ESCO for resolution.It is responsible for hiring the project the garrison, the project facilitator andfacilitator and engaging the contracting others who may be involved. The proposals The ESCO incorporates the commentsvehicle. This cost can be as much as are reviewed and rated by individual and questions in a final proposal. This final$75,000, which is a very small percentage members. Then the committee discusses proposal is reviewed by same team that didof the total potential project. the points, good and bad, of each proposal, the initial review to ensure all questions and a selection is made by unanimous and comments have been incorporated or The garrison also has other answered. consent.responsibilities. Operational Order 11-313requires garrisons with ESPC projects to The selected ESCO returns to the Now, the project is ready for higherhave an ESPC program manager, assigned installation and does a more in-depth headquarters approval and the contractin writing, to serve as the point of contact survey. The ESCO representatives ask a to be issued to the ESCO. Headquartersbetween the garrison and the ESCO. lot of questions of their escorts and make IMCOM puts together a project summaryThe garrison needs to provide utility data, suggestions. After the visit, the ESCO and supporting documents, and forwardsescort services, points of contact in the develops its site survey report. The SSR is a it up the chain of command through theDirectorate of Public Works and shops, broad look at potential energy conservation OACSIM for final approval by the deputydrawings and other survey data the ESCO measures and buildings, and includes assistant secretary of the Army for energymay request. rough savings and cost estimates, and and sustainability. When final approval is early measurement and verification and obtained, the contracting agency issues the The ESPC process is fairly straight contract. ➤ operations and maintenance plans. PUBLIC WORKS DIGEST • SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2011 9
  10. 10. Strategy for funding energy and utility projects by Qaiser ToorT he Installation Management Acronyms and Abbreviations Campaign Plan includes a specific E&U energy and utility line of effort focused on energy and ECM energy conservation measurewater efficiency and security. By achieving FSM Facilities Sustainment Modelenergy conservation, efficiency and security FY fiscal yeargoals, IMCOM will better position the IMCOM Installation Management CommandArmy to accomplish its missions in a more ISR Installation Status Reportcost-efficient manner regardless of the NIST National Institute of Standards andenergy challenges in the future. Technology OPORD operations order To expand on the line of effort, PPS Project Prioritization SystemIMCOM issued Operations Order 10-257, R&M Restoration and Modernizationwhich requires a broad range of actions, SRM Sustainment, Restoration andincluding, Qaiser Toor Modernization Photo by Mary Beth Thompson• establishment of a garrison compre- • replacing motors and pumps with high- hensive energy and water conservation Specific low-cost and no-cost ECMs efficiency Energy Star equipment when program, targeted for funding in fiscal 2011 replacements are required instead of• accomplishment of campaign plan goals, included: rewiring inefficient motors; and • replacing incandescent bulbs with CFLs • installing timing controls for pump • enhancement of an energy posture across or LED lamps; motors during high-use or high-demand IMCOM. • replacing exit lights with LED lighting times, allowing them to be off duringIMCOM’s strategy fixtures; low-use times; and The Energy OPORD directed specific • installing programmable thermostats; • recommissioning buildings.actions and energy conservation measures • replacing T12 fluorescent lamps that have In FY 2011, IMCOM funded $112.3to help achieve mandated energy goals standard ballasts with T8 or T5 lamps million in garrison energy and utilitywith an emphasis on low-cost and no-cost that have electronic ballasts, and install- infrastructure projects. This fundingECMs, and identification and development ing occupancy sensors; included $16 million for low-cost andof all cost-effective energy- and water- • installing or replacing weather stripping no-cost energy projects, $41.4 million forefficiency projects with a payback of on entry ways where gaps are visible and Installation Status Report red- or black-less than 10 years. IMCOM’s strategy caulking joints, window frames, door condition utilities projects and $54.9is to focus on return on investment and jambs and wall penetrations; million for energy and water efficiencyto initially target low-cost and no-cost projects with less than a 10-year payback. • rewiring indoor lighting, except LED projects for funding to “buy out” these exit fixtures, that are wired on 24/7 to be Garrisons’ roleprojects at all garrisons and then to focus turned on either by switches or motionon projects with less than a 10-year Garrisons need to take advantage of this sensors; Headquarters IMCOM Restorationpayback. ➤(continued from previous page) finance and construct the project and O&M savings and should not be used for will receive payment from the savings those purposes. In a short time, the garrison has new, realized by the garrison. Unlike the ESPC, For further information on the program, energy-efficient equipment, reducing its the UESC does not require competitive refer to the Army Energy Program consumption and putting it on the road bidding. The approval process for a UESC Policies and Regulations, and ESPC to meeting its mandated goals, all paid for is similar to the ESPC process. Guidance at http://army-energy.hqda. with other people’s money and paid back from guaranteed savings. Remember, the ESPC and UESC pentagon.mil/policies/guidance.asp. programs are for energy savings. It takes Utility Energy Savings Contracts are POC is Clive Rountree, 210-466-0596, clive. planning and looking forward at the another source of funding. The UESC is rountree@us.army.mil. garrison equipment to put together a a direct partnership between the garrison good project. They are not well suited for Clive Rountree is the ESPC program manager, and its utility provider. Like the ESPC, broken equipment replacement or massive Headquarters IMCOM. the utility acting as an ESCO will develop, 10 PUBLIC WORKS DIGEST • SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2011
  11. 11. (continued from previous page) dedicated to repair and modernization of than 50 percent, this authority rests utilities infrastructure are also included and with the deputy assistant secretary ofand Modernization Program funding prioritized according to ISR ratings Q3 the Army for installations and housing.to augment their local Sustainment, and Q4 and solid project justification. These projects require that a DD FormRestoration and Modernization and 1391, Military Construction Project Data,Military Construction funds for energy Achieving success also be submitted through Headquartersand utilities projects. The first step for Taking certain steps will set your IMCOM for approval. The proceduresenergy managers should be to work with garrison up for success with the R&M for submission of the SRM DD1391their Master Planning, Engineering Program. are available on Army Knowledgeand Business Operations divisions to First, ensure that all E&U projects are Online at https://www.us.army.mil/suite/identify and plan for requirements using documented on a DA Form 4283, Facilities doc/30120912.the garrison master plan to develop theirannual work plans. Engineering Work Request, and entered into Garrison commanders have the authority the Project Prioritization System available for repair projects up to $5 million if the Garrison’s should fund the resulting at http://pps.hqda.pentagon.mil. Currently, repair-to-replacement ratio is less than 50projects using sustainment funds from PPS does not have the capability to capture percent. All SRM projects greater thantheir local SRM budgets to the maximum savings-to-investment ratio or payback, so $5 million require submission throughextent possible. In concert with local SRM a companion Excel spreadsheet template Headquarters IMCOM for deputyfunds, the execution strategy can also is being used to solicit this critical data assistant secretary of the Army approval.include use of centralized Restoration and and enable prioritization and consolidationModernization Program funds. Projects over $7.5 million require into a Headquarters IMCOM master congressional notification. These projects To take advantage of the R&M project list. It is important to ensure that must be submitted to HeadquartersProgram, it helps to have an understanding the project numbers and the project titles IMCOM no later than the first week ofof how it is funded. Sustainment funds in PPS exactly match their counterparts on August to obtain congressional approvalfor IMCOM garrisons are derived from the Excel template. The PPS fix is in the before the end of that fiscal year. Submitthe Office of the Secretary of Defense’s works and should be completed prior to only projects that will be ready forFacility Sustainment Model, which is built the next data call. execution by the end of the fiscal year.from the real property inventory at each Second, follow the PPS Energy andgarrison. In recent budgeting cycles, the Utilities Business Rules, available on the Project executionArmy funded sustainment at 90 percent help tab, and include a properly completed When a project is centrally funded, itof the FSM model, and IMCOM, in life-cycle cost analysis worksheet. To aid must be executed and data updated in PPS.turn, funded its garrisons at 75 percent of in preparing the worksheet, the National Any changes or substitutions need to bethe FSM model, while withholding the Institute of Standards and Technology approved by Headquarters IMCOM.difference for use in key aspects of the developed Handbook 135, available atR&M Program, to implement the Army’s Projects can be executed a number http://www.nist.gov/customcf/get_pdf. of different ways – by using the localFacility Investment Strategy and to fund cfm?pub_id=907459. NIST annuallyE&U projects. contracting office, through your local updates the energy price indices and Corps of Engineer district or through Regions and garrisons will be asked for discount factors for economic analysis in an Engineering and Support Center,submissions of R&M projects by way of a an interagency report, NISTIR 85-3273- Huntsville indefinite delivery-indefiniteHeadquarters IMCOM operations order 21, found at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/ quantity contract.in early FY 2012. These funds become femp/pdfs/ashb10.pdf. The report providesavailable for distribution to IMCOM discount factors for life-cycle analysis. In the future, IMCOM will also lookgarrisons at various times throughout the to tracking and verifying energy and cost Third, be aware of restrictions on savings of projects.fiscal year. funding arising from work classifications Headquarters IMCOM awards R&M regulations. For maintenance and repair POC is Qaiser Toor, 210-466-0604, qaiser.toor@funds earmarked for E&U projects on projects of more than $750,000, a repair- us.army.mil.a competitive basis. Projects are ranked to-replacement cost analysis determinesaccording to savings-to-investment ratio, who has the authority to approve the Qaiser Toor is the chief, Energy and Utilitiespayback and energy saved as well as project. Branch, Public Works Division, Headquarters, IMCOM.garrison and region priorities. Projects For projects that have a ratio of more PUBLIC WORKS DIGEST • SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2011 11
  12. 12. Achieving energy effectiveness, net zero – It takes a master plan by Jerry ZekertI nstallations are faced with huge and goals and objectives state challenges to meet federal goals for requirements for achieving net- energy efficiency and achieve the zero, every proposal must follownet-zero vision. The Army assessed its suit.physical plant and identified many projects Area development planning isthat range from enhancing the ability to where their planning becomesmeasure consumption, increasing heating reality. During these efforts,and air conditioning systems’ efficiency installations focus on distinctand improving buildings’ insulation to areas and forge a comprehensiveleveraging the best technologies for development plan for each.renewable energy. However, the Army still The ADP cites requirements,has a ways to go to achieve its goals. At how they will be designedthe same time, it is seeing on the horizon and, within the district, how Jerry Zekert (right), the author, and Cindi Skinner, master plannerreal world budget constraints, as well as at Fort Hunter Liggett, Calif., discuss energy-efficient solutions the physical plant is going to during an ADP work effort. Photo courtesy of Jerry Zekertno let-up on rapid changes in mission provide energy and water andrequirements. handle waste. ensure all investments meet the goals of All these issues can be constraints on the ADPs, the IDG and, ultimately, the The ADP integrates the holistic energycapabilities for success. The importance installation vision. The CIS ensures that all supporting requirements into the masterof energy efficiency and attaining net zero Military Construction and Sustainment, plan, including leveraging renewablefor installations and the nation is obvious. Restoration and Modernization sources for energy, aligning the ADPHow to accomplish it all is less evident. initiatives, including infrastructure and areas appropriately to most effectively use energy requirements, are incorporated as Achieving success requires stepping solar energy, considering more narrow well. Through the CIS, all projects areback and taking a broad enterprise configurations and proposing district synchronized and vetted based on theapproach, using the installation master energy plants. Further, the ADP develops installation’s planning principles.planning process to create a synchronized an investment strategy for insertingdevelopment plan that enables installations these technologies into Sustainment, Using an enterprisewide approach toto meet current and projected mission Restoration and Modernization; Military installation master planning can ensurerequirements while achieving goals for Construction; nonappropriated funds or energy considerations are prime principlesenergy and leveraging constrained funding other funding opportunities. This strategy in the installation’s development of goalsstreams. leverages existing revenue streams to ensure and objectives. These steps provide the energy considerations are embedded into means for any installation to achieve these Installations around the world are seizing investment actions. goals.this opportunity to synchronize theirmaster plans with achieving their energy Installation design guides enforce their The goals for energy efficiencyefficiency goals while meeting mission planning standards. The IDGs document are very high, and without a broadneeds now and tomorrow. Here’s how they planning standards for activities that are enterprise approach, they cannot beare doing it. providing construction, modernization achieved. Using the principles of master or repair and replacement services on the planning, installations can ensure energy Visioning is their key rubric. If your installation. considerations are included.installation is relooking its master plan,consider using the visioning phase to The new IDG structure is much less As Benjamin Franklin stated, “If you failintegrate energy and net-zero goals into prescriptive and reflects only the planning to plan, you are planning to fail.”the installation’s planning principles. standards required to comply with the master plan. Since the IDG is part of the POC is Jerry Zekert, 202-761-7525, This integration is so important. jerry.c.zekert@usace.army.mil.These principles guide all installation master plan, and all projects must be siteddevelopment; therefore, if your vision according to the master plan, the IDG can Jerry Zekert is the chief, Master Planning Team, provide the associated energy planning Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.Acronyms and Abbreviations standards needed to meet the goals of anADP area development plan energy-effective installation master plan.CIS capital investment strategy Capital investment strategy synchronizesIDG installation design guide their installation development activities to 12 PUBLIC WORKS DIGEST • SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2011
  13. 13. Moving toward net zero: Role of master planning by Mark L. GillemA t the August GovEnergy conference a collaborative in Cincinnati, exhibitors and process that presenters focused on building engaged hundredsenergy reduction to achieve energy of stakeholdersmandates. Innovative mechanical systems, on and off thebuilding energy recover techniques and installation tofacility-based energy production tools were create a plan thatfeatured strategies. While these and many could accommodateother solutions are essential in the drive short- and long-to reduce Department of Defense energy term growth.use, another strategy that must be included Natick’s planningin the conversation is the way we plan our vision is, “To be ainstallations. sustainable research When we place a few energy-efficient and developmentbuildings within a landscape of sprawl community thatthat requires automobile trips and adds fosters missionpavement, the benefits at the building excellence throughlevel are undone by the energy used in state-of-the-arttransportation to get to and from those buildings organized A rendering demonstrates the Natick Soldier System Center’s vision of becoming a walkable campus that integrates strategies for water, energy and waste reduction.buildings. into a walkable Graphic by The Urban Collaborative LLC campus.” To address the role of planning, U.S. 17 million kWh per year. In addition,Army Corps of Engineers planners are As part of the process, the team a trigeneration district energy solutionworking to integrate energy, water and incorporated many strategies at the is planned. When coupled with userwaste reduction at the installation scale planning scale to move toward net zero. reduction, which is not factored in at thewithin the context of the Army’s Net-Zero The team developed metrics to track planning level, Natick could get to net-zeroInitiative. While the Army has selected compliance and focus efforts on the most energy use.several installations to be prototypes for beneficial strategies. Waste – When current recyclingachieving net-zero use in water, waste and Water – Natick’s projected water programs are applied to the master planenergy, all installations should be working requirement is 26 million gallons annually. build-out, the waste stream can be reducedtoward that goal. Using rainwater catchment and storage by 60 percent. Another 12 percent can be The Natick Soldier Systems Center near systems, the installation can capture up to achieved by using compost and diversionBoston is one location where planners are 14 million gallons, or roughly 53 percent of techniques resulting in a total reductionaddressing the issue at the installation and its requirement. Net-zero water use can be of 72 percent. When coupled with userbuilding scales. Achieving net zero requires achieved in part by adding aquifer recharge reduction, which is also not factored in ata holistic approach to addressing Natick’s through on-site stormwater mitigation. the planning level, Natick may be able toenergy, water and waste. By reducing impervious surfaces through get to net-zero waste, too. a variety of master planning strategies, the Planning can play a significant role Master planning plays a key role in installation would be able to mitigate thein achieving these goals, but for the the Army’s movement toward achieving remaining 12 million gallons.installation to attain a net-zero status, net-zero energy, waste and water. Mastersustainable strategies must be incorporated Energy – The projected annual energy planning strategies should be incorporatedinto existing and new buildings, and requirement using standard planning at the earliest stages and used to guidereduction and conservation must be methods is 22 million kilowatt hours. future development.implemented at the individual user level With appropriate master planning, up toas well. This holistic approach allows the a 40 percent reduction can be achieved POC is Mark L. Gillem, 510-551-8065, mark@Army to be stewards of the environment, using narrow wings, cool roofs and other urbancollaborative.com.reduce resource use and provide a strategies. Another 36 percent can be supplied by photovoltaic panels if used. Mark L. Gillem, Ph.D., AIA, AICP, a principal withsustainable future for Soldiers, Civilians The Urban Collaborative, is a consultant, Masterand Families. These changes could result in a net Planning Team, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. energy reduction of 76 percent or almost Natick’s master plan emerged out of PUBLIC WORKS DIGEST • SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2011 13
  14. 14. Not white, not black, but gray – water, that is by Richard ScholzeC ontingency bases categorize systems effectively increases the capacity water as “white,” “black” and of the wastewater system and treatment “gray,” with variations on the gray. plant.Respectively, those terms mean “potable,” Potential disadvantages exist:“sanitary wastewater” and “all other.” In • Gray-water use may be more costly, an the continental United States, however, issue in areas where price is more impor-gray water has a more focused definition: tant than water quantity.the effluent from laundry and bathingor shower use in residential or similar • Gray-water use may decrease flow to the facilities. Gray water has a variety of sewage plant, a concern in areas that are A CERL research assistant sets up an experimentalchemical, microbiological and physical required to deliver a certain amount of gray-water treatment system, one of several ongoing return flow to existing streams. studies seeking ways to make more use of gray water.contaminants that require care in its use, Photo courtesy of CERLbut it is a resource that can augment the • Gray-water use has a small potential for disease transmission if proper han- Gray water has been receiving increasedwater supply of water-short areas when dling and treatment procedures are not interest as a supplemental water resource,used for a purpose requiring a lower quality. followed. and research and development programs Water resources are receiving increased and a number of demonstrations areattention throughout the nation and the Some states do not actively promote or under way with government or academicArmy. Executive orders, legislation and ban gray-water use, and other states and oversight. For example, the Constructioninitiatives demand increased efficiency communities have differing requirements. Engineering Research Laboratory isin water use and consumption, including Consultation with local authorities is conducting a demonstration project thatEO 13514, the Energy Independence and essential prior to initiating a program. will collect gray water, harvested rainwaterSecurity Act and, most recently, the Army’s Proponents nationwide are actively and air handling unit condensate and,Net-Zero Water Initiative. working to enact supportive ordinances, following appropriate treatment, use it for develop appropriate building codes, address Augmentation of existing water supplies fixture flushing, cooling towers, irrigation user issues and develop a standardizedby up to 40 gallons per day per person has or aquifer recharge. testing protocol for manufactured units.been estimated for gray water, which can CERL, under Headquarters, U.S.be reused for fixture flushing or irrigation For military applications, the best time Army Corps of Engineers’ sponsorship,with minimal treatment. Gray water to use and design for gray-water use is prepared a Public Works Technicalis not the same as reclaimed water, the during new construction. After estimating Bulletin available at http://www.wbdg.highly treated product from very complex potential production, a decision can be org/ccb/browse_cat.php?o=31&c=215. Thewastewater treatment facilities found reached whether to incorporate. Buildings bulletin describes the pros and cons ofprimarily in purple pipe systems in Florida, such as a barracks would be the most gray-water use, a brief review of legal andCalifornia, Georgia, Arizona and Texas. logical choice. Life-cycle cost-effectiveness health considerations, lessons learned fromReclaimed water is used for a variety of should be addressed along with local water gray-water applications in other arenaspurposes, primarily irrigation. restrictions. and appropriate Army scenarios for toilet The advantages of using gray water are Determining the end use will impact flushing, landscape irrigation or otherseveral: system design. Fixture flushing requires a acceptable uses. This bulletin will enable higher level of treatment than subsurface installations to determine the potential• Less potable water is consumed. irrigation, for example. Systems designed for gray-water recycling or application• Less discharge occurs, reducing wastewa- for larger buildings are available at their facilities as part of a sustainable ter, which usually costs more to treat than commercially and include more complex water program, as a supplemental water potable water. treatment processes. They may also be supply source or to meet net-zero water• Less energy and fewer chemicals are used capable of handling other sources of requirements. by the water provider. nonpotable water such as rainwater, air• Less hydraulic load to existing sewer handling unit condensate and even black POC is Richard Scholze, 217-398-5590, water (sewage). Treatment is then through richard.j.scholze@usace.army.mil. Acronyms and Abbreviations a membrane bioreactor or similarly sophisticated system rather than simple Richard Scholze is a senior project manager CERL Construction Engineering Research Laboratory specializing in water management, reuse and filtration and disinfection. EO Executive Order conservation, CERL, Champaign, Ill. 14 PUBLIC WORKS DIGEST • SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2011

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