Weighted Slotted RuleML for Similarity Matching in ...

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  • 1. Weighted Slotted RuleML for Similarity Matching in AgentMatcher Information Agents Harold Boley , NRC IIT e-Business Virendra Bhavsar , UNB, Faculty of Computer Science 2 November 2002 Revised: 26 February 2005
  • 2. Slotted RuleML Via the Name-Giving Metarole slot (I)
    • Here is a self-explaining 'metarole' ( slot ) representation of the slotted, RDF-like Jess fact
    • (automobile ( make Ford) ( model Explorer) ( year 1999))
    • in Object-Oriented (OO) RuleML – part of RuleML 0.88 – with user slots named via the first subelement:
    • <Atom>
    • <opr><Rel>automobile</Rel></opr>
    • <slot><Ind> make </Ind><Ind>Ford</Ind></slot>
    • <slot><Ind> model </Ind><Ind>Explorer</Ind></slot>
    • <slot><Ind> year </Ind><Ind>1999</Ind></slot>
    • </Atom>
  • 3. Slotted RuleML Via the Name-Giving Metarole slot (II)
    • This 'Slotted RuleML' notation corresponds to the
    • 'positionalized' ruleml-datalog notation
    • <Atom>
    • <opr><Rel>automobile</Rel></opr>
    • <Ind>Ford</Ind>
    • <Ind>Explorer</Ind>
    • <Ind>1999</Ind>
    • </Atom>
    • if the 'roles' of the make , model , and year positions
    • are remembered somewhere else (signature declaration)
  • 4. Slotted RuleML Via the Name-Giving Metarole slot (III)
    • Note that a mix of an ordered sequence of args and role-unordered args will thus be possible in facts as well:
    • <Atom>
    • <opr><Rel>automobile</Rel></opr>
    • <Ind>Ford</Ind>
    • <Ind>Explorer</Ind>
    • <Ind>1999</Ind>
    • <slot><Ind> mileage </Ind><Ind>65000</Ind></slot>
    • <slot><Ind> color </Ind><Ind>white</Ind></slot>
    • </Atom>
    • Also, Ind elements can be replaced by (typed) Var elements in all of the positional, slotted and mixed notations
  • 5. Extending Slotted RuleML for Weighted AgentMatcher Keyphrases
    • AgentMatcher ’s weighted keyphrases as Jess-like role-weighted fact:
    • (automobile ( make 0.7 Ford) ( model 0.1 Explorer) ( year 0.2 1999))
    • Weighted Object-Oriented (WOO) RuleML – part of RuleML 0.88 – extends user slots by an XML attribute for such weight s:
    • <Atom>
    • <opr><Rel>automobile</Rel></opr>
    • <slot weight=&quot; 0.7 &quot;><Ind> make </Ind><Ind>Ford</Ind></slot>
    • <slot weight=&quot; 0.1 &quot;><Ind> model </Ind><Ind>Explorer</Ind></slot>
    • <slot weight=&quot; 0.2 &quot;><Ind> year </Ind><Ind>1999</Ind></slot>
    • </Atom>
  • 6. Role-Weighted Slotted RuleML Queries for AgentMatcher Similarity Matching
    • AgentMatcher agent can then use a Jess-like role-weighted query:
    • (automobile ( make 0.5 Ford) ( model 0.1 Explorer) ( year 0.4 Y))
    • RuleML 0.88 can use a corresponding query, and similarity matching with the above fact succeeds, binding Y = 1999:
    • <Atom>
    • <opr><Rel>automobile</Rel></opr>
    • <slot weight=&quot; 0.5 &quot;><Ind> make </Ind><Ind>Ford</Ind></slot>
    • <slot weight=&quot; 0.1 &quot;><Ind> model </Ind><Ind>Explorer</Ind></slot>
    • <slot weight=&quot; 0.4 &quot;><Ind> year </Ind><Var>Y</Var></slot>
    • </Atom>
  • 7. Flat Feature Terms in Slotted RuleML
    • The minimal 'metarole' (slot) representation of the slotted, RDF-like (untyped) feature term, similar to F-logic term,
    • auto[ make -> Ford; model -> Explorer; year -> 1999]
    • in RuleML 0.88 with user slots named via the first subelement:
    • <Cterm>
    • <opc>< Ctor> auto</ Ctor> </opc>
    • <slot><Ind> make </Ind><Ind>Ford</Ind></slot>
    • <slot><Ind> model </Ind><Ind>Explorer</Ind></slot>
    • <slot><Ind> year </Ind><Ind>1999</Ind></slot>
    • </Cterm>
    • Can also be used as an argument in facts
  • 8. Nested Feature Terms in Slotted RuleML
    • The representation of the nested (untyped) feature term
    • vehicle[ winter -> auto[ make -> Ford; model -> Explorer; year -> 1999]
    • summer -> cycle[ make -> Honda; model -> Magna; year -> 2002]]
    • in RuleML 0.88 with user slots named via the first subelement:
    • <Cterm>
    • <opc>< Ctor> vehicle</ Ctor> </opc>
    • <slot><Ind> winter </Ind>
    • <Cterm>
    • <opc>< Ctor> auto</ Ctor> </opc>
    • <slot><Ind> make </Ind><Ind>Ford</Ind></slot>
    • <slot><Ind> model </Ind><Ind>Explorer</Ind></slot>
    • <slot><Ind> year </Ind><Ind>1999</Ind></slot>
    • </Cterm>
    • </slot>
    • <slot><Ind> summer </Ind>
    • <Cterm>
    • <opc>< Ctor> cycle</ Ctor> </opc>
    • <slot><Ind> make </Ind><Ind> Honda </Ind></slot>
    • <slot><Ind> model </Ind><Ind> Magna </Ind></slot>
    • <slot><Ind> year </Ind><Ind> 2002 </Ind></slot>
    • </Cterm>
    • </slot>
    • </Cterm>
  • 9. Flat Weighted Feature Terms in Slotted RuleML for AgentMatcher Keyphrases
    • Representation of AgentMatcher ’s weights in an extended feature term:
    • auto[ make - 0.7 -> Ford; model - 0.1 -> Explorer; year - 0.2 -> 1999]
    • RuleML 0.88 user slots can again be extended by an XML attribute for capturing weight s:
    • <Cterm>
    • <opc><C tor >auto</C tor ></opc>
    • <slot weight=&quot; 0.7 &quot;><Ind> make </Ind><Ind>Ford</Ind></slot>
    • <slot weight=&quot; 0.1 &quot;><Ind> model </Ind><Ind>Explorer</Ind></slot>
    • <slot weight=&quot; 0.2 &quot;><Ind> year </Ind><Ind>1999</Ind></slot>
    • </Cterm>
    • Can also be used as an argument in facts
  • 10. Nested Weighted Feature Terms in Slotted RuleML for AgentMatcher Trees
    • Representation of AgentMatcher’s weights in a nested feature term:
    • vehicle[ winter - 0.6 -> auto[ make - 0.7 -> Ford; model - 0.1 -> Explorer; year - 0.2 -> 1999]
    • summer - 0.4 -> cycle[ make - 0.5 -> Honda; model - 0.2 -> Magna; year - 0.3 -> 2002]]
    • RuleML 0.88 with the XML attribute for capturing weight s:
    • <Cterm>
    • <opc>< Ctor >vehicle</ Ctor ></opc>
    • <slot weight=&quot; 0.6 &quot;><Ind> winter </Ind>
    • <Cterm>
    • <opc>< Ctor >auto</ Ctor ></opc>
    • <slot weight=&quot; 0.7 &quot;><Ind> make </Ind><Ind>Ford</Ind></slot>
    • <slot weight=&quot; 0.1 &quot;><Ind> model </Ind><Ind>Explorer</Ind></slot>
    • <slot weight=&quot; 0.2 &quot;><Ind> year </Ind><Ind>1999</Ind></slot>
    • </Cterm>
    • </slot>
    • <slot weight=&quot; 0.4 &quot;><Ind> summer </Ind>
    • <Cterm>
    • <opc>< Ctor >cycle</ Ctor ></opc>
    • <slot weight=&quot; 0.5 &quot;><Ind> make </Ind><Ind> Honda </Ind></slot>
    • <slot weight=&quot; 0.2 &quot;><Ind> model </Ind><Ind> Magna </Ind></slot>
    • <slot weight=&quot; 0.3 &quot;><Ind> year </Ind><Ind> 2002 </Ind></slot>
    • </Cterm>
    • </slot>
    • </Cterm>