Speech Therapy in the Public Schools


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Speech Therapy in the Public Schools

  1. 1. Speech Therapy in the Public Schools ~Questions & Answers~
  2. 2. What is the role of the Speech Therapist? <ul><li>A speech therapist may work with an individual on a multitude of problem areas. </li></ul><ul><li>These may include difficulty in the areas of: </li></ul><ul><li>Articulation </li></ul><ul><li>Language/Pragmatics </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Voice </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory skills  </li></ul>
  3. 3. How is it determined if a child needs help in speech or language? <ul><li>Either a parent or teacher may request that a child be screened for speech. </li></ul><ul><li>If it is determined that a child displays difficulty, then a Child Study meeting is called and the Child Study Team meets to determine a plan of action. </li></ul><ul><li>This may  include monitoring within the classroom, strategies for at home, or a request for evaluation. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Articulation The production of speech. <ul><li>Good articulation skills are required for verbal expression in all curricular areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple articulation errors can indicate a disordered phonological system which could impact on spelling and reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Noticeable differences in speech production can have a negative impact on: </li></ul><ul><li>Self-confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Peer relationships </li></ul><ul><li>vocational/career opportunities. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Language <ul><li>Language Form: </li></ul><ul><li>This refers to the grammatical structures present in connected speech.  </li></ul><ul><li>Language Content: </li></ul><ul><li>This refers to the meaning of language. This area looks at how a child organizes and  relates to language. </li></ul><ul><li>Language Use: </li></ul><ul><li>  This refers to how we use language in a social way. </li></ul><ul><li>* Another name for this is pragmatics . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Pragmatics Social Language Skills <ul><li>Good pragmatic skills include: </li></ul><ul><li>Social appropriateness of interactions </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to use nonverbal communication appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to make inferences </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to use executive functioning </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to use critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Deficits in these skills affect: </li></ul><ul><li>Listening skills </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving skills </li></ul><ul><li>Reading comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Study skills </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Oral and written language </li></ul><ul><li>Social relationships </li></ul>
  7. 7. Below is a general list of pragmatic behaviors you would expect most children to have: <ul><li>The child is able to appropriately: </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to greetings </li></ul><ul><li>Make requests </li></ul><ul><li>Describe events </li></ul><ul><li>Take turns </li></ul><ul><li>Follow commands </li></ul><ul><li>Make eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Attend to tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain a conversational topic </li></ul><ul><li>Initiate and ends conversations </li></ul>
  8. 8. Fluency (Stuttering)   <ul><li>This refers to children who display disruptions or breaks in their speech patterns.  </li></ul><ul><li>Dysfluency can: </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibit participation in classroom and extracurricular activities </li></ul><ul><li>Affect peer relationships </li></ul><ul><li>May limit Vocational/career choices despite </li></ul><ul><li>the individual’s competency levels in </li></ul><ul><li>non-speech areas. </li></ul>
  9. 9. If a child presents with any of the following types of stuttering behaviors, please refer them.  <ul><li>There are 7 types of stuttering found in children and adults: </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitions:  “What ta-ta-ta-time is it”? </li></ul><ul><li>Prolongations:   ” Ll-l-l-l-et me do it.” </li></ul><ul><li>Interjections:   “I had a well- you know- a problem this morning.” </li></ul><ul><li>Silent Pauses:   ”I was going to the ______ store. “ </li></ul><ul><li>Broken Words:   “It was won___________derful.” </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete Phrases:   “I don’t know how to. Let’s go guys.” </li></ul><ul><li>Revisions:  “I thought I would write a letter, card”…   </li></ul>
  10. 10. V oice   This refers to abnormality in pitch, quality or loudness. <ul><li>Many times, these children will be diagnosed medically rather then educationally. </li></ul><ul><li>Noticeable differences in vocal pitch, quality, and volume can affect self-confidence and peer relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor vocal hygiene can lead to lasting physical changes of the vocal folds. </li></ul><ul><li>Voice differences can be a symptom of medical concerns. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Auditory Skills <ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory memory </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Sound blending, & sequencing. </li></ul><ul><li>Deficits in these skills can affect performance in all academic areas that involve auditory reception and processing of curricular material and the following of oral directions. </li></ul><ul><li>Spelling and reading may be affected by difficulty analyzing and applying the phonemic code. </li></ul>
  12. 12. GRADE LEVEL EXPECTATIONS <ul><li>Kindergarten </li></ul><ul><li>The child should have all vowels plus: </li></ul><ul><li>P, M, H, N, W,B, K, G, D, F, & Y – The child is intelligible at least 50% of the time. </li></ul><ul><li>The child should be speaking in complete sentences with an average sentence length of 4 words. </li></ul><ul><li>On average a child in Kindergarten is beginning to: </li></ul><ul><li>Use prepositional phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Use Plurals, present progressive (-ing), </li></ul><ul><li>Use Regular past tense (-ed) </li></ul><ul><li>Use Possessive nouns & pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>Use Future tense verbs The kindergartener is able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Ask yes/no questions. Indicate the functions of objects </li></ul><ul><li>Label all common objects in familiar environments </li></ul><ul><li>Understand basic positional, quantity and time concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence 2 steps visually/verbally. </li></ul>
  13. 13. First Grade Age 6-7   <ul><li>The first grade child should be able to articulate the T & NG sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>(The child is intelligible at least 65% of the time.) </li></ul><ul><li>The child is able to understand and begin to use: </li></ul><ul><li>Noun-verb agreement (is, are) </li></ul><ul><li>Possessive pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>Negatives </li></ul><ul><li>Infinitive complements (“wants to go’, “wants to climb”) </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunctions (because) </li></ul><ul><li>Participles and simple “wh” questions . </li></ul><ul><li>The child can make associations and categorize. </li></ul><ul><li>The child is able to verbalize how 2 objects are the same and different. </li></ul><ul><li>The child is able to understand complex positional, quantity and time concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>The child is able to sequence 3-4 steps visually and verbally. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Second Grade Age 7-8 : <ul><li>  The child should be able to articulate the </li></ul><ul><li>L, SH, CH, & J sounds.  </li></ul><ul><li>The child should understand and begin to use: </li></ul><ul><li>Past tense copulas (was, were) </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular past tense </li></ul><ul><li>Co- joined sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Complex “WH” questions. </li></ul><ul><li>The child should understand and begin to categorize within a defined set. </li></ul><ul><li>The child should understand and begin to can sequence 4-5 steps visually and verbally.  </li></ul>
  15. 15. Third Grade Age 8-9 <ul><li>The child should be able to articulate R, S, Z, V, TH. </li></ul><ul><li>The child should understand and begin to use: </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular past tense verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Passives with “was’ or “got” </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexive pronouns (himself) </li></ul><ul><li>Negative “WH” questions </li></ul><ul><li>The child has a beginning understanding of multiple meaning words and uses attributes in complete thoughts to define words. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Fourth Grade Ages 9+ <ul><li>Articulation & Language should not contain any errors. </li></ul><ul><li>Organization should be evident in work. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Caseload considerations include: <ul><li>SEVERITY of the speech or language problem </li></ul><ul><li>EFFECT of the problem on a student’s school performance and social skills </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>RELATIONSHIP OF THE PROBLEM to other conditions ( e.g. hearing loss, mental retardation, learning disabilities, physical or other health impairments) </li></ul><ul><li>TYPE OF SERVICE individual, small or large group, consultation, classroom support </li></ul>
  18. 18. Please note: <ul><li>With the new special education laws, </li></ul><ul><li>a Speech and Language disorder is only recognized in the school if it </li></ul><ul><li>impacts the child’s ability to access their education.   </li></ul><ul><li>  If a child has a mild articulation delay but it doesn’t </li></ul><ul><li>impact their ability to read, spell or interact with peers socially, </li></ul><ul><li>then they will not be eligible for services.  </li></ul>
  19. 19. &quot; Speech or language impairment” <ul><li>“ means a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired </li></ul><ul><li>articulation, language impairment, or a voice impairment, that </li></ul><ul><li>adversely affects a child's educational performance.&quot; </li></ul>