Low Emissions IC Engine Development at Ford Motor Company

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  • 1. Low Emissions IC Engine Development at Ford Motor Company George Davis Powertrain Research and Advanced Engineering ERC Symposium University of Wisconsin at Madison June 8-9, 2005 Research and Advanced Engineering Ford Motor Company 1 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 2. Presentation Overview Emission Standards Evolution PZEV PFI/DI Engine Development Electric-Gasoline Hybrid Vehicle HCCI Engine Development H2ICE Engine Development Summary Ford Motor Company 2 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 3. HC Emission Standards Evolution of Hydrocarbon Emission Standards - USA HC REDUCED BY 96% 98% ADDITIONAL REDUCTION 7 MODE FTP 10 0.41 Hydrocarbons (grams per mile @ 50K) 100% 8 40% 6 0.25 1st CLEAN AIR ACT 80 MODE FTP 50% 4 0.125 C/H 110 MODE FTP 40% 2 0.075 46% 0.04 75% 0.01 0 '66 '70 '75 '77 '80 '93 '93 Base Tier I TLEV LEV ULEV SULEV 99.9% REDUCTION OVERALL Ford Motor Company 3 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 4. NOx Emission Standards Evolution of Nitrogen Oxide Emission Standards USA - NOx REDUCED BY 90% 95% ADDITIONAL REDUCTION 5 Oxides of Nitrogen (grams per mile @ 50K) 100% 0.4 1st NOx STA NDA RD C/H 110 MODE FTP 4 50% 3 0.2 2 75% 1 60% 0.05 0.02 0 '66 '70 '73 '75 '77 '80 '93 CAA TLEV LEV ULEV ULEV II SULEV Base 99.5% REDUCTION OVERALL Ford Motor Company 4 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 5. National Medal of Technology • Haren Gandhi wins for his work in automotive exhaust catalyst technology • Ford executives salute Gandhi's breakthrough accomplishment • Today's automobiles are more than 96 percent cleaner – due in part to Gandhi's efforts • First time ever that auto industry researcher has been awarded Medal of Technology • Past winners include Bill Gates, Steve Wozniak, and Edwin Land of Polaroid Ford Motor Company 5 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 6. IC Engine Technology Roadmap Cost E Gasoline ffectiv e Performance Fuel Economy nt s Emissions n s trai o s io ns C is y Em B Diesel Lim ited Time Ford Motor Company 6 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 7. Gasoline IC Engine Technology Spectrum Now Future Boosted/ PFI FE, P DI FE, P Downsizing Fixed Cam lift HCCI FE, P FE, E Cam /phasing High EGR Ford Motor Company 7 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 8. Presentation Overview Emissions Standards Evolution PZEV PFI/DI Engine Development Electric-Gasoline Hybrid Vehicle HCCI Engine Development H2ICE Engine Development Summary Ford Motor Company 8 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 9. Emissions Example •Minimize emissions before Cat light-off Catalyst Light-off 4 4 •Minimize time to Cat light-off 140 Catalyst Light-off •Maximize Cat efficiency (AFR Control) 2 2 HC 120 HC Cumulative Emissions NMHC Cumulative Emissions 0 0 100 Vehicle Speed 8 8 NMHC 80 6 6 NOx 60 Vehicle NOx Speed 4 4 40 2 2 20 0 0 0 200 0 40 80 120 160 200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Time (s) Time (s) Ford Motor Company 9 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 10. PZEV with Improved Aftertreatment DISI enables late VCT ignition for improved CC catalyst light-off. Close Couple Catalyst Underbody Catalyst Ford Motor Company 10 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 11. PZEV PFI Engine: Improved AFR Control Injector Targeting Process 2 3 1 4 MESIM CFD Injector Targeting Four Puddle Fuel Evaporation Model 20 19 18 17 16 AFR 15 14 13 12 11 10 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Time (s) Simulated S_Type98 Transient Test Ford Motor Company 11 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 12. Injector Targeting Optimization for AFR Control Injector Rotation Injector Up/Down offset Cone Angle Tricky Spots Angle between Cones Ford Motor Company 12 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 13. Injector Targeting Optimization for AFR Control AFR Response Nominal Vs Worst Case Nominal 20 Worst Design 19 18 Case 17 16 AFR 15 14 13 12 AF_Worst_cert AF_Nominal_cert 11 10 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Time (s) Ford Motor Company 13 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 14. Direct Injection Engine For Low Emissions Ford Motor Company 14 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 15. Reducing Smoke at Part-Load Operation DI Engine 60 deg Injector 70 deg Injector u f 25 1.5 Measured Engine d i 0 60 spray Computed Piston u 20 Wetting History Smoke Number q 0 70 spray 1.2 i l 0.9 15 FSN d e 0.6 z 10 i l 0.3 a m 5 r 0 o N 60 deg 70 deg 0 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 Crank angle (degree) Ford Motor Company 15 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 16. Ford Focus PZEV Ford Motor Company 16 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 17. Presentation Overview Emissions Standards Evolution PZEV PFI/DI Engine Development Electric-Gasoline Hybrid Vehicle HCCI Engine Development H2ICE Engine Development Summary Ford Motor Company 17 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 18. Hybrid Vehicle Technology – Ford Hybrid Escape 2005 North American Truck of the Year 2.3 L Atkinson Engine High FE vehicle at low emission levels E-CVT Fuel efficient driving Regenerative braking captures over 90% of braking energy on EPA city cycle Ford Motor Company 18 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 19. Presentation Overview Emissions Standards Evolution PZEV PFI/DI Engine Development Electric-Gasoline Hybrid Vehicle HCCI Engine Development H2ICE Engine Development Summary Ford Motor Company 19 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 20. HCCI Combustion System Concept Flame Kinetics Diffusion Propagation Spark Spark Ignition Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Wall Guided Compression Ignition Ignition (HCCI) (Gasoline) (Spray Guided) (Diesel) (Gasoline & Diesel) Stratified Requirements: (Gasoline) •Homogenization •Temperature of ~1100 K Low temperature combustion… •Cycle-to-cycle control parameter Ford Motor Company 20 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 21. Gasoline HCCI Technology Controlled Auto Ignition Optimized Kinetics Process (CAI) (OKP) to exhaust to radiator heat heat exchanger exchanger TCV air in exhaust intake engine coolant out Negative Valve Overlap and Intake air heating & pilot fuel injection is the key fast intake T control for controlled ignition timing Ford Motor Company 21 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 22. HCCI Significantly Reduces CO2 Emission 1500 rpm Engine Speed 270 PFI 5.4L V8 260 PFI 4.0L V6 AVL PFI CAI (HCCI) SC-DISI 250 CSI CAI (HCCI) OKP in HCCI NSFC (g/kWh) 240 (70 kPa) 230 220 (85 kPa) PFI throttling 210 200 190 Diesel 180 OKP (HCCI) 170 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 NMEP (bar) Ford Motor Company 22 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 23. Presentation Overview Emissions Standards Evolution PZEV PFI/DI Engine Development Electric-Gasoline Hybrid Vehicle HCCI Engine Development H2ICE Engine Development Summary Ford Motor Company 23 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 24. Why Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine? Ford Motor Company is dedicated to the realization of Fuel Cell powertrains in mass produced consumer vehicles Fuel cell powertrains are not ready for mass production in the near term H2ICE is regarded as a transition or “bridging” strategy to stimulate the hydrogen infrastructure, and related hydrogen technologies: On-board hydrogen fuel storage Hydrogen Fuel dispensing Hydrogen safety sensors Ford Motor Company 24 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 25. H2 Focus Breaks SULEV NOx Barrier NOx CO NMHC (g/mi) (g/mi) (g/mi) SULEV Standard 0.02 1 0.01 H2ICE – Test 1 << 0.02 0.0036 0.006 H2ICE – Test 2 <<< 0.02 0.00317 0.008 Ford Motor Company 25 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 26. Hydrogen DI Provides Further Opportunities Power density improvement Air is not displaced by H2 during intake stroke Elimination of backfire H2 injection after intake valve closing Higher CR & improved thermal efficiency opportunity due to charge cooling Optimized injection strategy may provide: Reduced pre-ignition tendency Reduced NOx Increased fuel efficiency (less unburned H2) Ford Motor Company 26 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 27. Volumetric Efficiency Comparison Gasoline H2 H2 H2 H2 Fuel PFI PFI Cryogenic DI PFI Positive PFI Displacement Supercharger Base 70% ~115% 102% 125+% Vol. Effy. (Source: HyICE) Ford Motor Company 27 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 28. CFD-Based Engine Upfront Design Methodology Modeling Up-front Design Optimization Design Thermo Engine Optical Engine Design Evaluation/ Models/Design Confirmation Validation Ford Motor Company 28 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 29. Injector Included Angle Optimization A/F Cutting plane 60 45 t Included angles 30 15 (ms) 60° 90° 120° 150° 0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 Ford Motor Company 29 ERC Low Emission Symposium
  • 30. H2ICE Vehicle/Application Programs 2.0L I4 2.3L Supercharged I4 2001 - P2000 2003 – NAIAS Model U 2003 – H2ICE Focus 6.8L Boosted V10 2004 – H2ICE C-Max 2003 – Centennial H2RV 2006 – H2ICE Demo/Fleet 2004 – H2ICE Generator (Generac) 2005 – H2ICE Hybrid Bus (Designline) 2004 – H2ICE Hybrid Bus (ISE) 2004 – H2ICE Rotary (Mazda) 2005 – Airport Tractor Ford Motor Company ERC Low Emission Symposium 4.2L V-6 30
  • 31. Summary Ford has been recognized among the leaders in environmental stewardship. Ford will continue developing a spectrum of vehicle technologies to meet and/or exceed environmental regulations and customers needs. Ford Motor Company 31 ERC Low Emission Symposium