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  • 1. ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS Chapter 3
  • 2. Today’s lecture will:
    • Define market economy .
    • Compare and contrast socialism with capitalism.
    • Describe how businesses, households, and government interact in a market economy.
    • Summarize the advantages and disadvantages of various types of businesses.
  • 3. Today’s lecture will:
    • Explain why much of the economic decision making is done by business and government.
    • State six roles of government.
    • Explain why global issues differ from national policy issues.
  • 4. The Market Economy
    • The U.S. economy is a market economy – an economic system that gives private property rights to individuals and relies on market forces to coordinate economic activity.
    • Markets work through a system of rewards and payments.
    • Individuals are free to do whatever they want as long as it is legal.
    • Fluctuations in prices coordinate individuals’ wants.
    • Most economists believe the market is a good way to coordinate economic activity.
  • 5. Capitalism and Socialism
    • Capitalism is an economic system based upon the market.
      • The means of production are owned by a small group of individuals (capitalists).
    • Socialism is an economic system based on individuals’ good will toward others, not their own self-interest.
      • Everyone contributes what each can and gets what each needs.
  • 6. Capitalism and Socialism
    • Socialism in practice involved central planning.
    • China calls itself a socialist country, even though it relies heavily on markets.
    • Venezuela is trying out a “21 st century socialism.”
    • Most economies are differentiated by the degree to which they rely on markets, not whether they are a socialist or capitalist economy.
  • 7. Evolving Economic Systems Feudalism – an economic system based on tradition – dominated the Western world from the 8 th to the 15 th century. Mercantilism – an economic system in which the government controls economic activity by doling out the rights to undertake economic activities. Industrial Revolution – technology and machines rapidly modernized industrial production. Capitalism
  • 8. The U.S. Economy
  • 9. Business
    • Businesses produce what they believe will sell and make a profit.
    • By channeling the desire to make a profit for the general good of society, the U.S. economic system allows the invisible hand to work.
    • Consumer sovereignty means that consumers’ wishes determine what is produced by businesses.
  • 10. Forms of Business Sole proprietorships (72%) Corporations (84%) Corporations (20%) Partnerships (8%) Partnerships (12%) Sole proprietorships (4%) By Numbers By Receipts
  • 11. Forms of Business
    • Legal hassle to organize
    • Possible double taxation of income
    • Monitoring problems
    • No personal liability
    • Increased ability to get funds
    • Ability to avoid personal income taxes
    Corporation
    • Unlimited personal liability
    • Limited ability to get funds
    • Ability to share work and risks
    • Relatively easy to form
    Partnership
    • Limited ability to get funds
    • Unlimited personal liability
    • Minimum regulatory hassle
    • Direct control by owner
    Proprietorship Disadvantages Advantages
  • 12. Forms of E-Commerce (buying and selling over the Internet) C2C (Consumer-to-Consumer) Individuals buying and selling goods to one another online. C2B (Consumer-to-Business) An individual offering goods and services to firms online. B2C (Business-to-Consumer) Firms selling goods and services to consumers through online catalogs and shopping cart software. B2B (Business-to- Business) Firms exchanging goods and services through online sales and auctions.
  • 13. Households
    • Households supply the labor with which businesses produce and government governs.
    • The largest source of household income is wages and salaries.
    • In the economy, households vote with their dollars to determine what businesses produce.
  • 14. Government
    • Government plays two general roles in the economy:
      • An actor – collects money in taxes and spends the money on its own projects, such as defense and education.
      • A referee – sets the rules that determine relations between businesses and households.
  • 15. Government as an Actor
    • All levels of government consume about 20% of the nation’s total output and employ about 21 million people.
    • State and local governments employ 18 million workers and spend nearly $2 trillion per year.
  • 16. Income of State and Local Government
  • 17. Expenditures of State and Local Government
  • 18. Income and Expenditures of the Federal Government Social security taxes and contributions (38%) Corporate income taxes (15%) Excise taxes and other (6%) Individual income taxes (41%) National defense (20%) Interest (10%) Health and education (27%) Income security (31%) Other (12%)
  • 19. Government as a Referee
    • Government sets the rules of interaction between households and businesses.
    • Some examples are:
      • Businesses must comply with equal opportunity and labor laws.
      • Government regulates working conditions, such as safety, wage, and hours of work rules.
      • Businesses cannot meet with each other to set prices.
  • 20. Six Roles of Government in a Market
    • Provide a stable institutional framework.
    • Promote effective and workable competition.
    • Correct for externalities – the effect of a decision on a third party not taken into account by the decision maker.
  • 21. Six Roles of Government in a Market
    • Ensure economic stability and growth.
    • Provide for public goods – a good that if supplied to one person must be supplied to all and whose consumption by one individual does not prevent its consumption by another individual.
    • Adjust for undesirable market results.
  • 22. Market Failures and Government Failures
    • Market failures are situations in which the market does not lead to a desired result.
    • Government failures are situations where government intervention makes things worse.
    • Policy makers must decide which is the least problematic – market failure or government failure.
  • 23. Global Institutions
    • The U.S. economy makes up 20% of world output and consumption, but only 6% of the world’s land mass and less than 5% of the world’s population.
    • U.S. economic institutions, such as global corporations, are integrated with the world’s economy.
  • 24. Global Corporations
    • Global corporations – corporations with substantial operations in both production and sales in more than one country.
    • Global corporations create jobs, bring new technologies, and provide competition for domestic companies.
    • There is no global government to regulate global corporations.
  • 25. Coordinating Global Issues
    • United Nations – an organization designed to achieve international cooperation but having no power to tax or enforce its policies on its members.
    • World Bank – a multinational, international financial institution that works to secure loans for developing countries.
  • 26. Coordinating Global Issues
    • International Monetary Fund ( IMF ) – a multinational international financial institution concerned with monetary issues.
    • Group of Five – Japan, Germany, Britain, France, and the U.S. – meets to promote negotiations and coordinate economic relations among nations.
    • Group of Eight – includes the Group of Five plus Canada, Italy, and Russia – does much the same work as the Group of Five.
  • 27. Summary
    • The U.S. economy is a market economy, capitalism, which gives private property rights to individuals.
    • A market economy relies on prices to solve the what, how, and for whom problems.
    • Socialism is an economic system in which society, based on individual goodwill, rather than self-interest, to solve the what, how, and for whom problems.
    • In practice socialism was an economic system based on government ownership of production, with economic activity governed by central planning.
  • 28. Summary
    • The circular flow diagram of the U.S. market economy shows the 3 sectors:
      • Businesses – decide what, how much, and for whom in producing goods and services. The 3 main forms are proprietorships, partnerships, and corporations.
      • Households – supply labor in the factor market and influence business decisions through consumer sovereignty.
      • Government – serves as a referee and actor in the economy.
  • 29. Summary
    • Six roles of government are to
      • provide a stable set of institutions and rules
      • promote effective and workable competition
      • correct for externalities
      • ensure economic stability and growth
      • provide public goods
      • adjust for undesirable market results
    • Because there is no world government, governments enter voluntary organizations that regulate international markets.
  • 30. Review Question 3-1: Discuss the differences be- tween capitalism and socialism. Capitalism gives property rights to individuals and relies on market forces through prices to answer the what, how, and for whom economic problems. In socialism society answers the what, how, and for whom economic problems in the best interest of the individuals in society. Government usually owns the means of production and coordinates economic activity with central planning.
  • 31.
    • Review Question 3-2: Which sectors and markets are
    • involved and what is their role in the following transactions?
    • Susie works her first month for Dell Computers as an
    • engineer and receives a check for $10,000 (her salary).
    Susie is a household who has sold her resources (labor and human capital) in the factor market to Dell, a business.
    • Tom pays $18,000 to Ford Motor Company for a new
    • F150.
    Tom is a household who has purchased a product in the goods market. Ford is a business who supplied the product for sale in the goods market.