Henry Ford By: Paul Yamane


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Henry Ford By: Paul Yamane

  1. 1. Henry Ford <ul><li>By: Paul Yamane </li></ul>
  2. 2. Why is Henry Ford is one of the most important Americans of the 20 th century? <ul><li>He did not . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Invent the “horseless carriage” or automobile (Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot did in 1769) </li></ul><ul><li>Invent the internal combustion engine (Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoire patented it in 1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Invent the mass production of commodities through specialization and division of labor (see Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations in 1776) </li></ul><ul><li>Invent the automobile industry (Daimler and Benz did in 1885) </li></ul><ul><li>Invent the mass production of cars (Oldsmobile did in 1901) </li></ul><ul><li>Invent the use of interchangeable parts in the car assembly process (Cadillac did in 1904) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Henry Ford was an inventor . . . <ul><li>Was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 1982 for his invention of the “transmission mechanism” </li></ul><ul><li>Google Patent Search finds 50 patents under his name </li></ul>. . . but he is not best known for any particular invention.
  4. 4. Why Henry Ford Is Important <ul><li>He revolutionized production by implementing the moving assembly line </li></ul><ul><li>In doing so he made a car for the masses: the Model T </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>“ I will build a motor car for the great multitude.  It will be so low in price that no man making a good salary will be unable to own one – and enjoy with his family the blessings of hours of pleasure in God’s greatest open spaces.”  </li></ul><ul><li>--Henry Ford upon founding Ford Motor Company c. 1903 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Background <ul><li>Born July 30, 1863 </li></ul><ul><li>Loved tinkering with things as a kid </li></ul><ul><li>Idol was Thomas Edison </li></ul><ul><li>Did not go to college </li></ul><ul><li>Married Clara Bryant in 1888 </li></ul><ul><li>Died April 7, 1947 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ford Motor Company <ul><li>Founded June 17, 1903 </li></ul><ul><li>Founded in Dearborn, Michigan </li></ul><ul><li>Was Henry Ford’s third company </li></ul><ul><li>Current President/CEO is Alan Mulally </li></ul><ul><li>Current Chairman is William Clay Ford, Jr., Henry Ford’s great-grandson </li></ul><ul><li>In 2007, sold 2.4 million cars </li></ul><ul><li>Started making the Model T in 1908 </li></ul><ul><li>First moving assembly line was at Highland Park Assembly Plant (1913) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Assembly Line Basics <ul><li>Basic principle: the work moves and the workers stay put </li></ul><ul><li>It is based on a division of labor and specialization: many people work on a product and each person does a small task at a station </li></ul><ul><li>Parts must be standardized (interchangeable) </li></ul><ul><li>When a product reaches the end of the line it has gone through every station and is now a finished product </li></ul><ul><li>This is an old idea: perhaps used by Egyptians building pyramids, famous example of “pin factory” in Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations (published 1776) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Moving Assembly Line (Idea) <ul><li>Ford’s innovation was not the assembly line, but the MOVING assembly line </li></ul><ul><li>Idea of the moving assembly line is typically credited to a trip Ford employees made to the Swift meatpacking plant in Chicago, where they saw pigs being conveyed through a “disassembly” line of stations </li></ul><ul><li>“ Why don’t we assemble motors like they kill hogs in Chicago?”  </li></ul><ul><li>-- C. Harold Wills, Chief Engineering Assistant, Ford Motor Company, 1912 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Moving Assembly Line Implementation <ul><li>First moving assembly line at Ford Motor Co. produced magneto coils </li></ul><ul><li>Later, entire vehicles were assembled at Highland Park plant, beginning in 1913 </li></ul><ul><li>Moving assembly line was so efficient that Ford could only use type of paint (one that would dry fast enough), which only came in black </li></ul>
  11. 11. Assembly Line Efficiency <ul><li>One man hour with moving assembly line equaled four man hours without moving assembly line </li></ul><ul><li>Though it had 1,500 parts, one Model T could be assembled every three minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Made it possible for Ford to make lots of cars much more cheaply </li></ul>
  12. 12. Model T Facts <ul><li>Predated the moving assembly line at Ford </li></ul><ul><li>First introduced September 27, 1908 </li></ul><ul><li>Was $850 when introduced </li></ul><ul><li>Was produced until 1927 </li></ul><ul><li>Was the bestselling car for 20 years </li></ul><ul><li>Nicknamed the “Tin Lizzie” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Model T Cost: Pre- and Post-Moving Assembly Line <ul><li>1908-$850 </li></ul><ul><li>1913-$850 (pre-) </li></ul><ul><li>1915-$440 (post-) </li></ul><ul><li>1916-$360 </li></ul><ul><li>1924-$290 </li></ul><ul><li>A Ford worker could buy a Model T with four months of wage </li></ul>
  14. 14. Model T Innovations <ul><li>Had the steering wheel on the left </li></ul><ul><li>Engine and transmission were entirely enclosed </li></ul><ul><li>Cylinders were in a block </li></ul><ul><li>Suspension use two semi-elliptic springs </li></ul>
  15. 15. Model T Features <ul><li>Had a top </li></ul><ul><li>Had a windshield </li></ul><ul><li>Had a speedometer </li></ul><ul><li>Had headlamps </li></ul><ul><li>Had a generator for the headlamps </li></ul><ul><li>Engine was front mounted </li></ul>
  16. 16. Model T Features (cont.) <ul><li>Had a 2.9L engine </li></ul><ul><li>Engine had 4 cylinders </li></ul><ul><li>Had 20 horsepower </li></ul><ul><li>Tank held 10 gallons </li></ul><ul><li>Had rear wheel drive </li></ul><ul><li>Top speed was 40-45 miles/hour </li></ul><ul><li>Got 13-21 miles/gallon </li></ul><ul><li>Ran on gas or ethanol </li></ul>
  17. 17. Fordism <ul><li>Henry Ford’s success implementing the moving assembly line at Ford Motor Co. became a model for production generally. </li></ul><ul><li>This style of production became known as “Fordism” and spread throughout different industries and the world. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Significance of the Automobile <ul><li>By making the “horseless carriage” available to the average person, Henry Ford transformed American society (arguably) more than any other person in the 20 th century </li></ul><ul><li>80% of all U.S. households own at least one car and 30% own at least 2 </li></ul><ul><li>80% of all U.S. vacations are by car </li></ul><ul><li>Americans drive 2.66 trillion miles per year </li></ul><ul><li>Also, makes suburbanization, fast food, and strip shopping malls possible </li></ul><ul><li>Represents freedom and individuality – core American values </li></ul>
  19. 19. Bibliography <ul><li>Andrea, David J., and Michael S. Flynn. &quot;Automobile.&quot;  World Book Encyclopedia . Chicago: World Book, Inc., 2003. 946-74.   </li></ul><ul><li>Askin, Ronald G. &quot;Assembly Line.&quot;  World Book Encyclopedia . Chicago: World Book, Inc., 2003. 818.   </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Assembly Line&quot;. < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assembly_line >.  </li></ul><ul><li>Brinkley, Douglas. Wheels for the World: Henry Ford, His Company, and a Century of Progress, 1903-2003 . New York: Viking, 2003.  </li></ul><ul><li>Burgan, Michael. Henry Ford . Trailblazers of the Modern World. Milwaukee, WI: World Almanac Library, 2002.  </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Henry Ford (1863-1947).&quot;  Who Did What . Ed. Gerald Howat. New York: Crown Publishing, 1974. 114.   </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Ford Model T&quot;. < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Model_T >.  </li></ul><ul><li>Gourley, Catherine. Wheels of Time: A Biography of Henry Ford . Brookfield, CT: The Millbrook Press, 1997.  </li></ul><ul><li>Harris, Jacqueline L. Henry Ford . New York: Franklin Watts, 1984.  </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Inflation Calculator&quot;. < http://www.westegg.com/inflation/ >.  </li></ul><ul><li>Nevins, Allan. Ford: The Times, the Man, the Company . New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1954.  </li></ul><ul><li>Paradis, Adrian. Henry Ford . New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1968.  </li></ul><ul><li>Rubenstein, James. Making and Selling Cars: Innovation and Change in the U.S. Automotive Industry . Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.  </li></ul><ul><li>Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations . 1776.  </li></ul><ul><li>Sobel, Robert. &quot;Henry Ford.&quot;  World Book Encyclopedia . Chicago: World Book, Inc., 2006. 379-80. </li></ul>