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Henry Ford By: Paul Yamane
Henry Ford By: Paul Yamane
Henry Ford By: Paul Yamane
Henry Ford By: Paul Yamane
Henry Ford By: Paul Yamane
Henry Ford By: Paul Yamane
Henry Ford By: Paul Yamane
Henry Ford By: Paul Yamane
Henry Ford By: Paul Yamane
Henry Ford By: Paul Yamane
Henry Ford By: Paul Yamane
Henry Ford By: Paul Yamane
Henry Ford By: Paul Yamane
Henry Ford By: Paul Yamane
Henry Ford By: Paul Yamane
Henry Ford By: Paul Yamane
Henry Ford By: Paul Yamane
Henry Ford By: Paul Yamane
Henry Ford By: Paul Yamane
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Henry Ford By: Paul Yamane

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  • 1. Henry Ford
    • By: Paul Yamane
  • 2. Why is Henry Ford is one of the most important Americans of the 20 th century?
    • He did not . . .
    • Invent the “horseless carriage” or automobile (Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot did in 1769)
    • Invent the internal combustion engine (Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoire patented it in 1860)
    • Invent the mass production of commodities through specialization and division of labor (see Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations in 1776)
    • Invent the automobile industry (Daimler and Benz did in 1885)
    • Invent the mass production of cars (Oldsmobile did in 1901)
    • Invent the use of interchangeable parts in the car assembly process (Cadillac did in 1904)
  • 3. Henry Ford was an inventor . . .
    • Was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 1982 for his invention of the “transmission mechanism”
    • Google Patent Search finds 50 patents under his name
    . . . but he is not best known for any particular invention.
  • 4. Why Henry Ford Is Important
    • He revolutionized production by implementing the moving assembly line
    • In doing so he made a car for the masses: the Model T
  • 5.
    • “ I will build a motor car for the great multitude.  It will be so low in price that no man making a good salary will be unable to own one – and enjoy with his family the blessings of hours of pleasure in God’s greatest open spaces.” 
    • --Henry Ford upon founding Ford Motor Company c. 1903
  • 6. Background
    • Born July 30, 1863
    • Loved tinkering with things as a kid
    • Idol was Thomas Edison
    • Did not go to college
    • Married Clara Bryant in 1888
    • Died April 7, 1947
  • 7. Ford Motor Company
    • Founded June 17, 1903
    • Founded in Dearborn, Michigan
    • Was Henry Ford’s third company
    • Current President/CEO is Alan Mulally
    • Current Chairman is William Clay Ford, Jr., Henry Ford’s great-grandson
    • In 2007, sold 2.4 million cars
    • Started making the Model T in 1908
    • First moving assembly line was at Highland Park Assembly Plant (1913)
  • 8. Assembly Line Basics
    • Basic principle: the work moves and the workers stay put
    • It is based on a division of labor and specialization: many people work on a product and each person does a small task at a station
    • Parts must be standardized (interchangeable)
    • When a product reaches the end of the line it has gone through every station and is now a finished product
    • This is an old idea: perhaps used by Egyptians building pyramids, famous example of “pin factory” in Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations (published 1776)
  • 9. Moving Assembly Line (Idea)
    • Ford’s innovation was not the assembly line, but the MOVING assembly line
    • Idea of the moving assembly line is typically credited to a trip Ford employees made to the Swift meatpacking plant in Chicago, where they saw pigs being conveyed through a “disassembly” line of stations
    • “ Why don’t we assemble motors like they kill hogs in Chicago?” 
    • -- C. Harold Wills, Chief Engineering Assistant, Ford Motor Company, 1912
  • 10. Moving Assembly Line Implementation
    • First moving assembly line at Ford Motor Co. produced magneto coils
    • Later, entire vehicles were assembled at Highland Park plant, beginning in 1913
    • Moving assembly line was so efficient that Ford could only use type of paint (one that would dry fast enough), which only came in black
  • 11. Assembly Line Efficiency
    • One man hour with moving assembly line equaled four man hours without moving assembly line
    • Though it had 1,500 parts, one Model T could be assembled every three minutes
    • Made it possible for Ford to make lots of cars much more cheaply
  • 12. Model T Facts
    • Predated the moving assembly line at Ford
    • First introduced September 27, 1908
    • Was $850 when introduced
    • Was produced until 1927
    • Was the bestselling car for 20 years
    • Nicknamed the “Tin Lizzie”
  • 13. Model T Cost: Pre- and Post-Moving Assembly Line
    • 1908-$850
    • 1913-$850 (pre-)
    • 1915-$440 (post-)
    • 1916-$360
    • 1924-$290
    • A Ford worker could buy a Model T with four months of wage
  • 14. Model T Innovations
    • Had the steering wheel on the left
    • Engine and transmission were entirely enclosed
    • Cylinders were in a block
    • Suspension use two semi-elliptic springs
  • 15. Model T Features
    • Had a top
    • Had a windshield
    • Had a speedometer
    • Had headlamps
    • Had a generator for the headlamps
    • Engine was front mounted
  • 16. Model T Features (cont.)
    • Had a 2.9L engine
    • Engine had 4 cylinders
    • Had 20 horsepower
    • Tank held 10 gallons
    • Had rear wheel drive
    • Top speed was 40-45 miles/hour
    • Got 13-21 miles/gallon
    • Ran on gas or ethanol
  • 17. Fordism
    • Henry Ford’s success implementing the moving assembly line at Ford Motor Co. became a model for production generally.
    • This style of production became known as “Fordism” and spread throughout different industries and the world.
  • 18. Significance of the Automobile
    • By making the “horseless carriage” available to the average person, Henry Ford transformed American society (arguably) more than any other person in the 20 th century
    • 80% of all U.S. households own at least one car and 30% own at least 2
    • 80% of all U.S. vacations are by car
    • Americans drive 2.66 trillion miles per year
    • Also, makes suburbanization, fast food, and strip shopping malls possible
    • Represents freedom and individuality – core American values
  • 19. Bibliography
    • Andrea, David J., and Michael S. Flynn. "Automobile."  World Book Encyclopedia . Chicago: World Book, Inc., 2003. 946-74.  
    • Askin, Ronald G. "Assembly Line."  World Book Encyclopedia . Chicago: World Book, Inc., 2003. 818.  
    • &quot;Assembly Line&quot;. < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assembly_line >. 
    • Brinkley, Douglas. Wheels for the World: Henry Ford, His Company, and a Century of Progress, 1903-2003 . New York: Viking, 2003. 
    • Burgan, Michael. Henry Ford . Trailblazers of the Modern World. Milwaukee, WI: World Almanac Library, 2002. 
    • &quot;Henry Ford (1863-1947).&quot;  Who Did What . Ed. Gerald Howat. New York: Crown Publishing, 1974. 114.  
    • &quot;Ford Model T&quot;. < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Model_T >. 
    • Gourley, Catherine. Wheels of Time: A Biography of Henry Ford . Brookfield, CT: The Millbrook Press, 1997. 
    • Harris, Jacqueline L. Henry Ford . New York: Franklin Watts, 1984. 
    • &quot;Inflation Calculator&quot;. < http://www.westegg.com/inflation/ >. 
    • Nevins, Allan. Ford: The Times, the Man, the Company . New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1954. 
    • Paradis, Adrian. Henry Ford . New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1968. 
    • Rubenstein, James. Making and Selling Cars: Innovation and Change in the U.S. Automotive Industry . Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001. 
    • Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations . 1776. 
    • Sobel, Robert. &quot;Henry Ford.&quot;  World Book Encyclopedia . Chicago: World Book, Inc., 2006. 379-80.

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