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    America: Pathways to the Present America: Pathways to the Present Presentation Transcript

    • America: Pathways to the Present Chapter 25 Nixon, Ford, Carter (1969–1981)
    • America: Pathways to the Present Section 1: Nixon’s Domestic Policy Section 2: Nixon’s Foreign Policy Section 3: The Watergate Scandal Section 4: The Ford Administration Chapter 25: Nixon, Ford, Carter Section 5: The Carter Administration
    • Nixon’s Domestic Policy
      • How did Richard Nixon’s personality affect his relationship with his staff?
      • How did Nixon’s domestic policies differ from those of his predecessors?
      • How did Nixon apply his “southern strategy” to the issue of civil rights and to his choice of Supreme Court justices?
      • Describe the first manned moon landing.
      Chapter 25, Section 1
    • Nixon in Person
      • Although he had a reserved and remote personality, many Americans respected Nixon for his experience and service.
      • Nixon was willing to say or do anything to defeat his enemies, who included political opponents, the government bureaucracy, the press corps, and leaders of the antiwar movement.
      • Believing that the executive branch needed to be strong, Nixon gathered a close circle of trusted advisors around him.
      Chapter 25, Section 1
    • Nixon’s Staff
      • Nixon’s Close Advisors
      • H. R. Haldeman — After campaigning tirelessly for Nixon, advertising executive H. R. Haldeman became Nixon’s chief of staff.
      • John Ehrlichman — Lawyer John Ehrlichman served as Nixon’s personal lawyer and rose to the post of chief domestic advisor.
      • John Mitchell — Asked to be Attorney General after working with Nixon’s campaign in New York, Mitchell often spoke with Nixon several times a day.
      • Henry Kissinger — Although he had no previous ties to Nixon, Harvard government professor Henry Kissinger first became Nixon’s national security advisor and later his Secretary of State.
      Chapter 25, Section 1
    • Domestic Policy—Oil and Inflation
      • During Nixon’s first few years in office, unemployment and inflation rose, and federal spending proved difficult to control. In response, Nixon turned to the practice of deficit spending , or spending more money in a year than the government receives in revenues. He also imposed two price freezes lasting several months each.
      • When the United States supported its ally Israel in a war against Egypt and Syria in 1973, the Arab members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) imposed an embargo, or ban, on shipping oil to the United States. The resulting shortage resulted in high oil prices, which in turn drove inflation even higher.
      Chapter 25, Section 1
    • Domestic Policy—Social Programs
      • Although Nixon himself supported cutting back or eliminating federal social programs, he did not want to alienate those voters who favored them.
      • Under Nixon’s New Federalism , states were asked to assume greater responsibility for the well-being of their citizens, taking some of this responsibility away from the federal government.
      Chapter 25, Section 1
    • The “Southern Strategy”
      • Nixon’s Views on Civil Rights
      • Nixon did not support advances in civil rights, believing that to do so would cost him the support of many white southern voters.
      • Hoping to win over white southern Democrats, Nixon sought a “southern strategy” which would keep his supporters happy.
      • Results of Nixon’s Views
      • Nixon’s views resulted in a slowdown of desegregation.
      • Although Nixon tried to prevent the extension of certain provisions of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, Congress went ahead with the extension.
      • Busing to end segregation in schools was slowed, but not halted entirely, by Nixon’s opposition to it.
      Chapter 25, Section 1
    • Nixon’s Supreme Court
      • During Nixon’s first term in office, four of the nine Supreme Court justices either died, resigned, or retired. This gave him the opportunity to name four new justices and, thus, reshape the court.
      • Warren Burger, Nixon’s choice for Chief Justice, was a moderate. However, Nixon’s later appointees reflected his conservative views.
      • The Senate rejected two of Nixon’s nominees from the South, charging that they showed racial bias.
      Chapter 25, Section 1
    • The First Moon Landing
      • During Nixon’s presidency, the United States achieved its goal of a successful moon landing.
      • On July 20, 1969, Neil A. Armstrong became the first man to walk on the moon. He was joined by Edwin E. “Buzz” Aldrin, Jr., a fellow crewman on the Apollo 11 spacecraft.
      • Television viewers around the world watched the moon landing, and Apollo 11’s crew were treated as heroes when they returned.
      Chapter 25, Section 1
    • Nixon’s Domestic Policy—Assessment
      • Which of these was an effect of the 1973 OPEC oil embargo?
        • (A) Rising oil prices drove inflation higher.
        • (B) Many social programs became the responsibility of the states.
        • (C) Busing to desegregate schools became more widespread.
        • (D) Nixon was able to name four new Supreme Court justices.
      • What was Nixon’s “southern strategy”?
        • (A) a way to balance the federal budget
        • (B) an attempt to win the support of white southern Democrats
        • (C) the name of the first moon mission
        • (D) an effort to end segregation
      Chapter 25, Section 1
    • Nixon’s Domestic Policy—Assessment
      • Which of these was an effect of the 1973 OPEC oil embargo?
        • (A) Rising oil prices drove inflation higher.
        • (B) Many social programs became the responsibility of the states.
        • (C) Busing to desegregate schools became more widespread.
        • (D) Nixon was able to name four new Supreme Court justices.
      • What was Nixon’s “southern strategy”?
        • (A) a way to balance the federal budget
        • (B) an attempt to win the support of white southern Democrats
        • (C) the name of the first moon mission
        • (D) an effort to end segregation
      Chapter 25, Section 1
    • Nixon’s Foreign Policy
      • What role did Henry Kissinger play in relaxing tensions between the United States and the major Communist powers?
      • What was Nixon’s policy toward the People’s Republic of China?
      • How did Nixon reach an agreement with the Soviet Union on limiting nuclear arms?
      Chapter 25, Section 2
    • Henry Kissinger
      • Practical Politics
      • Kissinger admired the European political philosophy of realpolitik , or practical politics. Under this policy, nations make decisions based on maintaining their strength rather than on moral principles.
      • Kissinger applied a realpolitik approach to his dealings with China and the Soviet Union, which led to better diplomatic relations with both nations.
      • Public Opinion
      • Kissinger understood the power of the media and was able to use it to shape public opinion.
      • Kissinger’s efforts in ending the Vietnam War and easing Cold War tensions made him a celebrity. He topped a list of most-admired Americans, was often featured on the cover of Time magazine, and in 1973 shared the Nobel peace prize.
      Chapter 25, Section 2
    • Relaxing Tensions
      • Détente
      • Although Nixon had built a reputation as a strong anti-Communist, he and Kissinger reversed the direction of postwar American foreign policy by holding talks with China and the Soviet Union.
      • Nixon and Kissinger’s greatest accomplishment was in bringing about détente , or a relaxation in tensions, between the United States and these Communist nations.
      • Complex Foreign Affairs
      • Kissinger understood that foreign affairs were more complicated than just a standoff between the United States and communism.
      • The Soviet Union and China, once allies, had become bitter enemies. This development had the potential to reshape global politics.
      Chapter 25, Section 2
    • A New Approach to China
      • Easing Relations Between the United States and China
      • Historical Background — After its Communist takeover in 1949, the United States refused to recognize the People’s Republic of China, viewing the government of Taiwan as the legitimate Chinese rulers.
      • Steps to Ease Relations — During the early 1970s, relations eased between the United States and the People’s Republic of China. Nixon referred to the nation by name, travel and trade restrictions were lifted, and American table-tennis players visited China, beginning “Ping-Pong diplomacy.”
      • Nixon’s Visit to China — In February 1972, Nixon became the first American President to visit China. Touring Chinese sites in front of television cameras, Nixon established the basis for future diplomatic ties during his visit.
      • Recognizing the Chinese Government — The United States decided to join other nations in recognizing the Chinese government. In October 1971, Taiwan lost its seat in the United Nations to the People’s Republic of China.
      Chapter 25, Section 2
    • Limiting Nuclear Arms
      • Nixon viewed arms control as a vital part of his foreign policy. Although he had taken office planning to build more nuclear weapons, Nixon came to believe that achieving balance between the superpowers was a better strategy than an increasing nuclear arms race.
      • In 1972, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, known as SALT I . In this treaty, both nations agreed to freeze the number of certain types of missiles at 1972 levels.
      • SALT I demonstrated that arms control agreements between the superpowers were possible. However, it did not reduce the number of weapons that either nation possessed, nor did it halt the development of conventional weapon technologies.
      Chapter 25, Section 2
    • Nixon’s Foreign Policy—Assessment
      • Which of these definitions best describes realpolitik ?
        • (A) An understanding of the power of the media to shape public opinion
        • (B) A push to end the arms race
        • (C) A relaxation in international tensions
        • (D) A political policy that advocates national strength above moral issues
      • What effect did Nixon’s 1972 visit to China have on American foreign policy?
        • (A) It began the practice of “Ping-Pong diplomacy.”
        • (B) It established the basis for diplomatic ties with China.
        • (C) It eased relations with the Soviet Union.
        • (D) It resulted in a freeze on certain types of nuclear weapons.
      Chapter 25, Section 2
    • Nixon’s Foreign Policy—Assessment
      • Which of these definitions best describes realpolitik ?
        • (A) An understanding of the power of the media to shape public opinion
        • (B) A push to end the arms race
        • (C) A relaxation in international tensions
        • (D) A political policy that advocates national strength above moral issues
      • What effect did Nixon’s 1972 visit to China have on American foreign policy?
        • (A) It began the practice of “Ping-Pong diplomacy.”
        • (B) It established the basis for diplomatic ties with China.
        • (C) It eased relations with the Soviet Union.
        • (D) It resulted in a freeze on certain types of nuclear weapons.
      Chapter 25, Section 2
    • The Watergate Scandal
      • How did the Nixon White House battle its political enemies?
      • How did the Committee to Reelect the President conduct itself during Nixon’s reelection campaign?
      • What was the Watergate break-in, and how did the story of the scandal unfold?
      • What events led directly to Nixon’s resignation?
      Chapter 25, Section 3
    • Battling Political Enemies
      • Nixon’s suspicious and secretive nature caused the White House to operate as if it were surrounded by political enemies. One result of this mind-set was the creation of an “enemies list,” a list of prominent people seen as unsympathetic to the administration.
      • When someone in the National Security Council appeared to have leaked secret government information to the New York Times , Nixon ordered that wiretaps , or listening devices, be installed on the telephones of some news reporters and members of his staff.
      • Leaks to the press continued, including former Defense Department official Daniel Ellsberg’s leak of the Pentagon Papers, a government study that revealed widespread deception about the situation in Vietnam.
      • In response, Nixon organized a special White House unit, nicknamed the Plumbers, to stop government leaks. In September 1971, the Plumbers broke into the office of Ellsberg’s psychiatrist, hoping to punish Ellsberg by disclosing damaging personal information about him.
      Chapter 25, Section 3
    • Nixon’s Reelection Campaign
      • Campaign Funding
      • The Committee to Reelect the President, led by John Mitchell, aimed to collect as much campaign money as possible before a new law required such contributions to be reported.
      • The money that the Committee collected was intended to fund both routine campaign activities and secret unethical actions.
      • “ Dirty Tricks”
      • Attempts to sabotage Nixon’s political opponents came to be known as “dirty tricks.” These efforts included sending hecklers to disrupt Democratic campaign meetings and assigning spies to join the campaigns of opposing candidates.
      • One particularly damaging “dirty trick” involved a faked letter that seriously hurt the candidacy of Edmund Muskie, a leading Democratic presidential contender.
      Chapter 25, Section 3
    • The Watergate Break-In
      • In March 1972, a group within the Committee to Reelect the President made plans to wiretap the phones at the Democratic National Committee Headquarters at the Watergate apartment complex in Washington, D.C. This group was led by E. Howard Hunt and G. Gordon Liddy.
      • The group’s first attempt failed. During their second attempt on June 17, 1972, five men were arrested. The money they carried was traced directly to Nixon’s reelection campaign, linking the break-in to the campaign.
      • The break-in and the coverup which resulted became known as the Watergate scandal .
      Chapter 25, Section 3
    • The Watergate Coverup
      • Although Nixon had not been involved in the break-in, he became involved in its coverup. He illegally authorized the CIA to try to persuade the FBI to stop its investigation of the break-in, on the grounds that the matter involved “national security.”
      • Nixon advisors launched a scheme to bribe the Watergate defendants into silence, as well as coaching them on how to lie in court.
      • During the months following the break-in, the incident was barely noticed by the public. Nixon won the 1972 election by a landslide.
      Chapter 25, Section 3
    • The Scandal Unfolds
      • The Watergate Trial
      • At the trial of the Watergate burglars in early 1973, all the defendants either pleaded guilty or were found guilty.
      • Judge John J. Sirica, presiding over the trial, was not convinced that the full story had been told. He sentenced the burglars to long prison terms, suggesting that their terms could be reduced if they cooperated with upcoming Senate hearings on Watergate.
      • Woodward and Bernstein
      • Two young Washington Post reporters, Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, were influential in tracking down information to uncover the Watergate story.
      • Woodward and Bernstein believed that the White House would prove to be involved in the Watergate scandal.
      Chapter 25, Section 3
    • The Scandal Unfolds
      • The Senate Investigates
      • Aided by Woodward and Bernstein and by the testimony of one of the Watergate burglars, a Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities began to investigate the Watergate affair.
      • Millions of Americans watched the Senate hearings unfold on national television.
      • Nixon attempted to protect himself by forcing two top aides to resign and by proclaiming that he would take final responsibility for the mistakes of others.
      • A Secret Taping System
      • During the Senate hearings, Alexander Butterfield, a former presidential assistant, revealed the existence of a secret taping system in the President’s office.
      • The taping system had been set up to provide a historical record of Nixon’s presidency. Now it could be used to show whether or not Nixon had been involved in the Watergate coverup.
      Chapter 25, Section 3
    • The “Saturday Night Massacre”
      • In an effort to demonstrate his honesty, in May 1973 Nixon agreed to the appointment of a special prosecutor for the Watergate affair. A special prosecutor works for the Justice Department and conducts an investigation into claims of wrongdoing by government officials.
      • The Watergate special prosecutor, Archibald Cox, insisted that Nixon release the White House tapes. Nixon ordered him fired on Saturday, October 20, 1973, beginning a series of resignations and firings that became known as the “Saturday Night Massacre.”
      Chapter 25, Section 3
    • An Administration in Jeopardy
      • Problems in the Nixon Administration, 1973–1974
      • Nixon’s public approval rating plummeted after his firing of Cox.
      • When Cox’s replacement, Leon Jaworski, also requested that Nixon turn over the tapes, Nixon turned over edited transcripts instead. Feelings of anger and disillusionment arose among many who read them.
      • Vice President Spiro Agnew, accused of evading income taxes and taking bribes, resigned in early October 1973. His successor, Gerald Ford, was not confirmed until two months later.
      Chapter 25, Section 3
    • Impeachment Hearings and Nixon’s Resignation
      • After the Saturday Night Massacre, Congress began the process of determining if they should impeach the President, or charge him with misconduct while in office.
      • In the summer of 1974, the House Judiciary Committee voted to impeach Nixon on numerous charges. Conviction, and removal from office, seemed likely.
      • On August 5, 1974, Nixon released the White House tapes, with an 18 1/2 minute gap. Even with this gap, the tapes revealed his involvement in the Watergate coverup. On August 9, 1974, Nixon resigned, the first President ever to do so. Gerald Ford was sworn in as the new President.
      Chapter 25, Section 3
    • The Watergate Scandal—Assessment
      • Why did members of the Committee to Reelect the President break into the Watergate apartment complex in 1972?
        • (A) To cover up an increasing scandal
        • (B) To raise undocumented campaign funds
        • (C) To prevent Nixon from turning over tapes
        • (D) To wiretap phones of the Democratic National Committee
      • Which statement best describes Nixon’s role in the Watergate affair?
        • (A) He was involved in the break-in but not the coverup.
        • (B) He was involved in the coverup but not the break-in.
        • (C) He was involved in both the break-in and the coverup.
        • (D) He was involved in neither the break-in nor the coverup.
      Chapter 25, Section 3
    • The Watergate Scandal—Assessment
      • Why did members of the Committee to Reelect the President break into the Watergate apartment complex in 1972?
        • (A) To cover up an increasing scandal
        • (B) To raise undocumented campaign funds
        • (C) To prevent Nixon from turning over tapes
        • (D) To wiretap phones of the Democratic National Committee
      • Which statement best describes Nixon’s role in the Watergate affair?
        • (A) He was involved in the break-in but not the coverup.
        • (B) He was involved in the coverup but not the break-in.
        • (C) He was involved in both the break-in and the coverup.
        • (D) He was involved in neither the break-in nor the coverup.
      Chapter 25, Section 3
    • The Ford Administration
      • How did Gerald Ford become President, and why did he pardon Richard Nixon?
      • What economic problems did the Ford administration face?
      • What actions in foreign policy did President Ford take during his term?
      • How did Americans celebrate the nation’s bicentennial?
      Chapter 25, Section 4
    • Ford Becomes President
      • When Gerald Ford took over the Presidency following Nixon’s resignation, he was viewed as a popular and noncontroversial political figure.
      • Ford named New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller as Vice President, rounding off an administration in which neither the President nor the Vice President had been elected.
      Chapter 25, Section 4
    • The Nixon Pardon
      • At the beginning of Ford’s presidency, Time magazine noted “a mood of good feeling and even exhilaration in Washington.” However, this was soon to change.
      • A month after Nixon’s resignation, Ford pardoned the former President for “all offenses” he might have committed, avoiding future prosecution. This decision proved to be unpopular, both among the general public and among Nixon loyalists still facing prosecution. As a result, many Republicans were voted out of office in the 1974 congressional elections.
      Chapter 25, Section 4
    • Economic Problems
      • The Economy Stalls
      • Preoccupation with Watergate had prevented Nixon from dealing with the economy. By 1974, both inflation and unemployment were rising, making the economy stagnant. Economists named this situation stagflation.
      • Although Ford tried to restore public confidence in the economy with the voluntary “Whip Inflation Now,” or WIN program, he later recognized the need for more direct action.
      • Government Spending and Conflicts With Congress
        • Although Ford was generally against government spending, he supported an increase in unemployment benefits and a tax cut in an effort to help the economy.
        • Ford was often at odds with the Democratic-controlled Congress, which wanted the government to take a more active role in the economy. In response to Ford’s vetoes, Congress created the highest percentage of veto overrides since the 1850s.
      Chapter 25, Section 4
    • Foreign Policy–Southeast Asia
      • When North Vietnam began a new offensive against the South in the spring of 1975, Ford asked for military aid to help South Vietnam. However, both Congress and the American people were against further involvement in Vietnam.
      • To prevent such involvement, Congress was prepared the invoke the War Powers Act , a Nixon-era law limiting the President’s ability to involve the United States in foreign conflicts without receiving a formal declaration of war from Congress.
      • When Communist Cambodia captured the American merchant ship Mayaguez , Ford sent the marines to recapture the ship. Forty-one American lives were lost in the effort, but the incident dispelled impressions of American weakness in Southeast Asia.
      Chapter 25, Section 4
    • Foreign Policy - Asia, Europe, and Africa
      • Asia — Ford continued Nixon’s goals of friendship with China and was the first American President to visit Japan.
      • Europe and the Soviet Union — In 1975, Ford signed the Helsinki Accords , a series of agreements on European security. He also continued Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) with the Soviet Union.
      • Africa — Ford’s administration aimed to develop relationships with African countries newly independent from colonial rule.
      Chapter 25, Section 4
    • The Nation’s Birthday
      • America’s bicentennial , or 200th anniversary, provided Americans, discouraged by Watergate, Vietnam, and the economy, an opportunity to celebrate.
      • Parades, concerts, air shows, political speeches, and fireworks took place on and around July 4, 1976, the 200th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence.
      Chapter 25, Section 4
    • The Ford Administration—Assessment
      • Why did Ford’s popularity fall soon after his term began?
        • (A) Americans did not like having a non-elected President.
        • (B) His pardon of Nixon proved to be unpopular.
        • (C) His WIN program became highly effective.
        • (D) He began to develop ties with newly-independent nations.
      • Which of these topics was an issue on which Ford and Congress disagreed?
        • (A) The level of government spending on economic programs
        • (B) Celebration of the bicentennial
        • (C) The signing of the Helsinki Accords
        • (D) The recapture of the Mayaguez
      Chapter 25, Section 4
    • The Ford Administration—Assessment
      • Why did Ford’s popularity fall soon after his term began?
        • (A) Americans did not like having a non-elected President.
        • (B) His pardon of Nixon proved to be unpopular.
        • (C) His WIN program became highly effective.
        • (D) He began to develop ties with newly-independent nations.
      • Which of these topics was an issue on which Ford and Congress disagreed?
        • (A) The level of government spending on economic programs
        • (B) Celebration of the bicentennial
        • (C) The signing of the Helsinki Accords
        • (D) The recapture of the Mayaguez
      Chapter 25, Section 4
    • The Carter Administration
      • What changes did Jimmy Carter bring to the presidency?
      • How did Carter deal with domestic issues?
      • What ideals guided Carter’s foreign policy?
      • What factors influenced the outcome of the 1980 election?
      Chapter 25, Section 5
    • Carter’s Presidency
      • Although Gerald Ford had the advantage of being the incumbent , or current office holder, he faced strong opposition from Republicans inside his own party during the 1976 presidential election. Democrat James Earl (“Jimmy”) Carter won the election by a narrow margin.
      • Carter had no national political experience and lacked an ability to win reluctant politicians over to his side. Nevertheless, he was well-liked for his informal approach to the presidency.
      • As President, Carter appointed more women and minorities to his staff than previous administrations.
      Chapter 25, Section 5
    • Carter’s Domestic Policies–Economic Issues and Deregulation
      • Economic Issues
      • Carter had inherited an unstable economy in which inflation and unemployment continued to grow.
      • In response, Carter cut federal spending, mostly on social programs. This cut angered liberal Democrats.
      • As bond prices fell and interest rates rose, Americans lost confidence in Carter and his economic advisors.
      • Deregulation
      • Carter felt that government controls on certain industries, put in place in the 1800s and early 1900s, hurt competition and increased consumer costs.
      • His move toward deregulation, the reduction or removal of government controls, affected the energy, railroad, trucking, and airline industries. This move, which continued during the next two administrations, also angered many Democrats.
      Chapter 25, Section 5
    • Energy Issues
      • Energy Issues During Carter’s Presidency
      • Carter’s Energy Plan — To save on rising oil prices, Carter asked Americans to conserve fuel in their homes, cars, and businesses. He also created a new Cabinet department, the Department of Energy.
      • Response to Carter’s Energy Plan — States that produced oil and gas fiercely opposed Carter’s conservation plans. The National Energy Act, passed in 1978, incorporated many of Carter’s directives.
      • Alternative Energy Sources and Three Mile Island — One of Carter’s goals was to seek alternative energy sources. A partial meltdown of a nuclear reactor at Three Mile Island near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, eroded people’s confidence in nuclear power.
      Chapter 25, Section 5
    • Civil Rights Issues
      • Carter’s concern for moral values influenced his civil rights actions. Soon after taking office, he granted amnesty , or a general pardon, to those who had evaded the draft during the Vietnam War.
      • Many of Carter’s staff appointments won the approval of African Americans. However, many African Americans were disappointed by his weak support for social programs.
      • Affirmative action policies, which aimed to make up for past discrimination against women and minorities, were a controversial issue during Carter’s presidency. In the landmark case Regents of the University of California v. Bakke , the Supreme Court ruled that race could be a factor in school admissions but that numerical quotas could not be used.
      Chapter 25, Section 5
    • Carter’s Foreign Policy
      • Camp David Accords
      • In 1978, Carter brought Egyptian President Anwar el-Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin together for negotiations at Camp David.
      • The resulting framework for Middle East peace, known as the Camp David Accords , was an important step toward peace in the Middle East. Under its terms, Israel agreed to withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula, and Egypt became the first Arab country to recognize Israel officially.
      • Soviet-American Relations
      • Although détente was at a high point when Carter took office, by the end of his term it was effectively dead.
      • Soviets were angered by Carter’s support of Soviet dissidents , writers and other activists who criticized the actions of their government.
      • Although a second round of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II) was begun, the resulting treaty was never ratified. Still, both nations followed its terms.
      Chapter 25, Section 5
    • Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
      • Late in 1979, the Soviet Union invaded neighboring Afghanistan to bolster a Soviet-supported government there. Carter called the invasion “a clear threat to the peace” and took steps to show American disapproval of the Soviet aggression.
      • As one of these steps, Carter imposed a boycott on the 1980 summer Olympic Games to be held in Moscow. Sixty other nations eventually joined the boycott.
      Chapter 25, Section 5
    • The Iran Hostage Crisis
      • In January 1979, revolution broke out in Iran, replacing its pro-American shah, Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlevi, with Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini, an anti-Western leader.
      • When Carter allowed the displaced shah to enter the United States for medical treatment, angry Khomeini followers seized the American embassy in Tehran, Iran’s capital. Fifty-two Americans were taken hostage and moved from place to place over the course of 444 days.
      • Carter’s failed attempts to secure the hostages’ freedom decreased his popularity and made his chances for reelection appear slim.
      Chapter 25, Section 5
    • The 1980 Election
      • By the end of Carter’s term, his administration had lost the confidence of many Americans. Although Carter ran for reelection, the nation instead chose conservative Republican candidate Ronald Reagan by a landslide.
      • In early 1981, following months of secret talks, Iran agreed to release the hostages. President Reagan sent Carter to greet the hostages as they arrived at a U.S. military base in West Germany.
      Chapter 25, Section 5
    • The Carter Administration—Assessment
      • Why was Carter in favor of deregulation?
        • (A) His energy conservation plan called for it.
        • (B) He believed that deregulation would improve affirmative action.
        • (C) He felt that government controls raised consumer costs.
        • (D) Many liberal Democrats were in favor of it.
      • Which of the following marked an end to American-Soviet détente?
        • (A) The signing of the Camp David Accords
        • (B) The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the resulting widespread boycott of the Olympic Games
        • (C) The Iranian seizure of the American embassy in Tehran
        • (D) The ratification of the SALT II treaty
      Chapter 25, Section 5
    • The Carter Administration—Assessment
      • Why was Carter in favor of deregulation?
        • (A) His energy conservation plan called for it.
        • (B) He believed that deregulation would improve affirmative action.
        • (C) He felt that government controls raised consumer costs.
        • (D) Many liberal Democrats were in favor of it.
      • Which of the following marked an end to American-Soviet détente?
        • (A) The signing of the Camp David Accords
        • (B) The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the resulting widespread boycott of the Olympic Games
        • (C) The Iranian seizure of the American embassy in Tehran
        • (D) The ratification of the SALT II treaty
      Chapter 25, Section 5