Nijmegen republiek ww2 engelsen

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  • Nijmegen republiek ww2 engelsen

    1. 1. Good Afternoon...
    2. 2. where are we?
    3. 3. where are we?
    4. 4. where are we?
    5. 5. Welcome to Nijmegen
    6. 6. History of Nijmegen
    7. 7. History of Nijmegen• Roman Age
    8. 8. History of Nijmegen• Roman Age• Middle Ages to 19th century
    9. 9. History of Nijmegen• Roman Age• Middle Ages to 19th century• WWII : the mistake bombardment
    10. 10. History of Nijmegen• Roman Age• Middle Ages to 19th century• WWII : the mistake bombardment• WWII: market garden
    11. 11. History of Nijmegen• Roman Age• Middle Ages to 19th century• WWII : the mistake bombardment• WWII: market garden• The present age
    12. 12. Nijmegen• One of the Dutch towns that claims to be the oldest in the Netherlands!• Celebrated 2000th anniversary in 2005
    13. 13. The Roman Empire’s Northern border The “Limes”, 57 BC - 400 AD
    14. 14. The “Limes” went close by Nijmegen
    15. 15. so the Roman army set up camp here
    16. 16. called Oppidum (later: Ulpia) Noviomagus Batavorum or: stronghold on a hill called New Field close the Bataves
    17. 17. Valkhof CastleAround 777, Charlemagne setup a castle here, called Valkhof,where he at least once visited
    18. 18. Charlemagne
    19. 19. Charlemagne•The first King to re-uniteEurope
    20. 20. Charlemagne•The first King to re-uniteEurope•Was crowned “emperor” fordefending the Pope in Rome
    21. 21. Charlemagne•The first King to re-uniteEurope•Was crowned “emperor” fordefending the Pope in Rome•Incredibly famous crown!
    22. 22. Charlemagne•The first King to re-uniteEurope•Was crowned “emperor” fordefending the Pope in Rome•Incredibly famous crown!•(not this one)
    23. 23. right crown shown here,
    24. 24. right crown shown here,
    25. 25. right crown shown here,
    26. 26. •until 1797 ,the Valkhof had aremarkable tower, the DonJon•built by Frederick Barbarossa,a great emperor of the 12thcentury
    27. 27. which was temporarilyreconstructed in 2005
    28. 28. The people of Nijmegen would like to have this tower rebuilt, but the Dutch government insists on very high technical and easthetical standards
    29. 29. Nijmegen, a thousand years later:1530
    30. 30. The Dutch struggle for independence
    31. 31. Philip II, king of Spain
    32. 32. Philip II, king of Spain
    33. 33. William of Orange Philip II, king of Spain
    34. 34. William of Orange:Freedom for the provincesFreedom of religion
    35. 35. William of Orange: Philip II, king of Spain:Freedom for the provinces Unity in huge empireFreedom of religion also unity of catolic religion
    36. 36. in 1566, an iconoclasm starts
    37. 37. in 1566, an iconoclasm starts
    38. 38. The Duke of Alva is sent in to crush the rebellion with brute force
    39. 39. The Duke of Alva is sent in to crush the rebellion with brute force
    40. 40. The Duke of Alva is sent in to crush the rebellion with brute force
    41. 41. The Duke of Alva is sent in to crush the rebellion with brute force which leads to more resistance....
    42. 42. an 80 years war breaks outNijmegen is also involved...
    43. 43. aerial view
    44. 44. Nijmegen under siege in the 80 years war, 1591 The city was in Spanish hands
    45. 45. Prince Maurice ofOrange won,
    46. 46. Prince Maurice ofOrange won,
    47. 47. Prince Maurice ofOrange won,since then Nijmegen reallybecame a Dutch city
    48. 48. • meanwhile, a golden century had already broken out in the West
    49. 49. • meanwhile, a golden century had already broken out in the West• famous for all those paintings...
    50. 50. • meanwhile, a golden century had already broken out in the West• famous for all those paintings... like Vermeer....
    51. 51. • meanwhile, a golden century had already broken out in the West• famous for all those paintings... like Vermeer....
    52. 52. Rembrandt
    53. 53. Rembrandt
    54. 54. Jan Steen
    55. 55. Jan Steen
    56. 56. and Frans Hals.
    57. 57. and Frans Hals.
    58. 58. And a whole lot of scientists and other people....The Dutch wealth was based on international trade. In 1648, The United Provincesoffcially became an independent Republic, which they had been unofficialy already since 1579
    59. 59. •By The Way.......
    60. 60. •By The Way.......•One of the outposts of thisRepublic was New Amsterdam,bought for 60 guilders from some indians
    61. 61. •By The Way.......•One of the outposts of thisRepublic was New Amsterdam,bought for 60 guilders from some indians•Presently known as....
    62. 62. •By The Way.......•One of the outposts of thisRepublic was New Amsterdam,bought for 60 guilders from some indians•Presently known as....
    63. 63. Back To Nijmegen111
    64. 64. In 1873, the city literally burst out its walls, they weredemolished.expansion begun and has not ended till today!
    65. 65. expansion of Nijmegen, 500 - 2025
    66. 66. Any questions so far?
    67. 67. WW IIand its effects on Nijmegen
    68. 68. WW II in NL
    69. 69. WW II in NL• German invasion may 10,1940
    70. 70. WW II in NL• German invasion may 10,1940• first 4 years relative quiet: Dutch “accomodated” to occupation
    71. 71. WW II in NL• German invasion may 10,1940• first 4 years relative quiet: Dutch “accomodated” to occupation• jewish population largely “removed”
    72. 72. WW II in NL• German invasion may 10,1940• first 4 years relative quiet: Dutch “accomodated” to occupation• jewish population largely “removed”• end may 5, 1945
    73. 73. February 22, 1944• American bombers bomb the 2000+ year old inner city of Nijmgen
    74. 74. feb 22, 194413:30 13:31
    75. 75. feb 22, 194413:30 13:31
    76. 76. A Mistake...
    77. 77. A Mistake...• The bombing squad is called back: bad weather in England! The crew sees good weather. Discussion between officers ensues: false German message?
    78. 78. A Mistake...• The bombing squad is called back: bad weather in England! The crew sees good weather. Discussion between officers ensues: false German message?• while turning, crew looks for a target of opportunity: the train station and shunting yards of some German city
    79. 79. A Mistake...• The bombing squad is called back: bad weather in England! The crew sees good weather. Discussion between officers ensues: false German message?• while turning, crew looks for a target of opportunity: the train station and shunting yards of some German city• there is not enough time to aim accurately, bombs fall all over city centre
    80. 80. A Mistake...• The bombing squad is called back: bad weather in England! The crew sees good weather. Discussion between officers ensues: false German message?• while turning, crew looks for a target of opportunity: the train station and shunting yards of some German city• there is not enough time to aim accurately, bombs fall all over city centre• All this time, crew is not aware they are flying above Netherlands
    81. 81. the crew of one of the bombers
    82. 82. American reconstruction of what happened
    83. 83. the first explosions in the inner city
    84. 84. St. Stephens church
    85. 85. St. Stephens church
    86. 86. V&D department storeon fire
    87. 87. V&D department storeon fire
    88. 88. station area hit by fragmentation boms
    89. 89. 800 dead, thousands injured
    90. 90. 800 dead, thousands injured1300 houses destroyed
    91. 91. part of the devastated inner city
    92. 92. Operation Market Garden
    93. 93. Operation Market Garden• Commences sep 17, 1944. Aim: capture all bridges over Rhine and its branches by airborne US, Canadian and British forces
    94. 94. Operation Market Garden• Commences sep 17, 1944. Aim: capture all bridges over Rhine and its branches by airborne US, Canadian and British forces• On the run, Germans set fire to remains of inner city, including the town hall
    95. 95. Operation Market Garden• Commences sep 17, 1944. Aim: capture all bridges over Rhine and its branches by airborne US, Canadian and British forces• On the run, Germans set fire to remains of inner city, including the town hall• after sep 20, German shelling of Nijmegen continues for 6 months.
    96. 96. One Bridge too far
    97. 97. One Bridge too far• Arnhem is “a bridge too far”, British cannot hold the bridge,
    98. 98. One Bridge too far• Arnhem is “a bridge too far”, British cannot hold the bridge,• German forces much stronger than anticipated
    99. 99. One Bridge too far• Arnhem is “a bridge too far”, British cannot hold the bridge,• German forces much stronger than anticipated• Area between Arnhem and Nijmegen becomes frontline zone: inundated!
    100. 100. One Bridge too far• Arnhem is “a bridge too far”, British cannot hold the bridge,• German forces much stronger than anticipated• Area between Arnhem and Nijmegen becomes frontline zone: inundated!• War in Europe lasts 6 months longer.
    101. 101. GeneralJames Gavin
    102. 102. General James Gavin• The “Jumping General”
    103. 103. General James Gavin• The “Jumping General”• Succeeded in capturingNijmegen Bridge
    104. 104. General James Gavin• The “Jumping General”• Succeeded in capturingNijmegen Bridge•Let’s see how.....
    105. 105. Total WW II toll in Nijmegen
    106. 106. Total WW II toll in Nijmegen• 2.200 civilians dead
    107. 107. Total WW II toll in Nijmegen• 2.200 civilians dead• 10.000 injured
    108. 108. Total WW II toll in Nijmegen• 2.200 civilians dead• 10.000 injured• 5.000 homes destroyed
    109. 109. Total WW II toll in Nijmegen• 2.200 civilians dead• 10.000 injured• 5.000 homes destroyed• 12.000 people homeless
    110. 110. Nijmegen 1945-46
    111. 111. Nijmegen 1945-46
    112. 112. Reconstruction
    113. 113. Reconstruction
    114. 114. Reconstructiontook quite sometime,Quite a few partsof the inner cityhave been parkinglots for someyears....
    115. 115. Reconstructiontook quite sometime,Quite a few partsof the inner cityhave been parkinglots for someyears....
    116. 116. One area was notrebuilt, but made intoa large city square(and parking lot):Plein 1944This square will startits Second Life laterthis year!
    117. 117. Well, that’s about itHave a nice stay in Nijmegen!
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