Nijmegen republiek ww2 engelsen

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Transcript

  • 1. Good Afternoon...
  • 2. where are we?
  • 3. where are we?
  • 4. where are we?
  • 5. Welcome to Nijmegen
  • 6. History of Nijmegen
  • 7. History of Nijmegen• Roman Age
  • 8. History of Nijmegen• Roman Age• Middle Ages to 19th century
  • 9. History of Nijmegen• Roman Age• Middle Ages to 19th century• WWII : the mistake bombardment
  • 10. History of Nijmegen• Roman Age• Middle Ages to 19th century• WWII : the mistake bombardment• WWII: market garden
  • 11. History of Nijmegen• Roman Age• Middle Ages to 19th century• WWII : the mistake bombardment• WWII: market garden• The present age
  • 12. Nijmegen• One of the Dutch towns that claims to be the oldest in the Netherlands!• Celebrated 2000th anniversary in 2005
  • 13. The Roman Empire’s Northern border The “Limes”, 57 BC - 400 AD
  • 14. The “Limes” went close by Nijmegen
  • 15. so the Roman army set up camp here
  • 16. called Oppidum (later: Ulpia) Noviomagus Batavorum or: stronghold on a hill called New Field close the Bataves
  • 17. Valkhof CastleAround 777, Charlemagne setup a castle here, called Valkhof,where he at least once visited
  • 18. Charlemagne
  • 19. Charlemagne•The first King to re-uniteEurope
  • 20. Charlemagne•The first King to re-uniteEurope•Was crowned “emperor” fordefending the Pope in Rome
  • 21. Charlemagne•The first King to re-uniteEurope•Was crowned “emperor” fordefending the Pope in Rome•Incredibly famous crown!
  • 22. Charlemagne•The first King to re-uniteEurope•Was crowned “emperor” fordefending the Pope in Rome•Incredibly famous crown!•(not this one)
  • 23. right crown shown here,
  • 24. right crown shown here,
  • 25. right crown shown here,
  • 26. •until 1797 ,the Valkhof had aremarkable tower, the DonJon•built by Frederick Barbarossa,a great emperor of the 12thcentury
  • 27. which was temporarilyreconstructed in 2005
  • 28. The people of Nijmegen would like to have this tower rebuilt, but the Dutch government insists on very high technical and easthetical standards
  • 29. Nijmegen, a thousand years later:1530
  • 30. The Dutch struggle for independence
  • 31. Philip II, king of Spain
  • 32. Philip II, king of Spain
  • 33. William of Orange Philip II, king of Spain
  • 34. William of Orange:Freedom for the provincesFreedom of religion
  • 35. William of Orange: Philip II, king of Spain:Freedom for the provinces Unity in huge empireFreedom of religion also unity of catolic religion
  • 36. in 1566, an iconoclasm starts
  • 37. in 1566, an iconoclasm starts
  • 38. The Duke of Alva is sent in to crush the rebellion with brute force
  • 39. The Duke of Alva is sent in to crush the rebellion with brute force
  • 40. The Duke of Alva is sent in to crush the rebellion with brute force
  • 41. The Duke of Alva is sent in to crush the rebellion with brute force which leads to more resistance....
  • 42. an 80 years war breaks outNijmegen is also involved...
  • 43. aerial view
  • 44. Nijmegen under siege in the 80 years war, 1591 The city was in Spanish hands
  • 45. Prince Maurice ofOrange won,
  • 46. Prince Maurice ofOrange won,
  • 47. Prince Maurice ofOrange won,since then Nijmegen reallybecame a Dutch city
  • 48. • meanwhile, a golden century had already broken out in the West
  • 49. • meanwhile, a golden century had already broken out in the West• famous for all those paintings...
  • 50. • meanwhile, a golden century had already broken out in the West• famous for all those paintings... like Vermeer....
  • 51. • meanwhile, a golden century had already broken out in the West• famous for all those paintings... like Vermeer....
  • 52. Rembrandt
  • 53. Rembrandt
  • 54. Jan Steen
  • 55. Jan Steen
  • 56. and Frans Hals.
  • 57. and Frans Hals.
  • 58. And a whole lot of scientists and other people....The Dutch wealth was based on international trade. In 1648, The United Provincesoffcially became an independent Republic, which they had been unofficialy already since 1579
  • 59. •By The Way.......
  • 60. •By The Way.......•One of the outposts of thisRepublic was New Amsterdam,bought for 60 guilders from some indians
  • 61. •By The Way.......•One of the outposts of thisRepublic was New Amsterdam,bought for 60 guilders from some indians•Presently known as....
  • 62. •By The Way.......•One of the outposts of thisRepublic was New Amsterdam,bought for 60 guilders from some indians•Presently known as....
  • 63. Back To Nijmegen111
  • 64. In 1873, the city literally burst out its walls, they weredemolished.expansion begun and has not ended till today!
  • 65. expansion of Nijmegen, 500 - 2025
  • 66. Any questions so far?
  • 67. WW IIand its effects on Nijmegen
  • 68. WW II in NL
  • 69. WW II in NL• German invasion may 10,1940
  • 70. WW II in NL• German invasion may 10,1940• first 4 years relative quiet: Dutch “accomodated” to occupation
  • 71. WW II in NL• German invasion may 10,1940• first 4 years relative quiet: Dutch “accomodated” to occupation• jewish population largely “removed”
  • 72. WW II in NL• German invasion may 10,1940• first 4 years relative quiet: Dutch “accomodated” to occupation• jewish population largely “removed”• end may 5, 1945
  • 73. February 22, 1944• American bombers bomb the 2000+ year old inner city of Nijmgen
  • 74. feb 22, 194413:30 13:31
  • 75. feb 22, 194413:30 13:31
  • 76. A Mistake...
  • 77. A Mistake...• The bombing squad is called back: bad weather in England! The crew sees good weather. Discussion between officers ensues: false German message?
  • 78. A Mistake...• The bombing squad is called back: bad weather in England! The crew sees good weather. Discussion between officers ensues: false German message?• while turning, crew looks for a target of opportunity: the train station and shunting yards of some German city
  • 79. A Mistake...• The bombing squad is called back: bad weather in England! The crew sees good weather. Discussion between officers ensues: false German message?• while turning, crew looks for a target of opportunity: the train station and shunting yards of some German city• there is not enough time to aim accurately, bombs fall all over city centre
  • 80. A Mistake...• The bombing squad is called back: bad weather in England! The crew sees good weather. Discussion between officers ensues: false German message?• while turning, crew looks for a target of opportunity: the train station and shunting yards of some German city• there is not enough time to aim accurately, bombs fall all over city centre• All this time, crew is not aware they are flying above Netherlands
  • 81. the crew of one of the bombers
  • 82. American reconstruction of what happened
  • 83. the first explosions in the inner city
  • 84. St. Stephens church
  • 85. St. Stephens church
  • 86. V&D department storeon fire
  • 87. V&D department storeon fire
  • 88. station area hit by fragmentation boms
  • 89. 800 dead, thousands injured
  • 90. 800 dead, thousands injured1300 houses destroyed
  • 91. part of the devastated inner city
  • 92. Operation Market Garden
  • 93. Operation Market Garden• Commences sep 17, 1944. Aim: capture all bridges over Rhine and its branches by airborne US, Canadian and British forces
  • 94. Operation Market Garden• Commences sep 17, 1944. Aim: capture all bridges over Rhine and its branches by airborne US, Canadian and British forces• On the run, Germans set fire to remains of inner city, including the town hall
  • 95. Operation Market Garden• Commences sep 17, 1944. Aim: capture all bridges over Rhine and its branches by airborne US, Canadian and British forces• On the run, Germans set fire to remains of inner city, including the town hall• after sep 20, German shelling of Nijmegen continues for 6 months.
  • 96. One Bridge too far
  • 97. One Bridge too far• Arnhem is “a bridge too far”, British cannot hold the bridge,
  • 98. One Bridge too far• Arnhem is “a bridge too far”, British cannot hold the bridge,• German forces much stronger than anticipated
  • 99. One Bridge too far• Arnhem is “a bridge too far”, British cannot hold the bridge,• German forces much stronger than anticipated• Area between Arnhem and Nijmegen becomes frontline zone: inundated!
  • 100. One Bridge too far• Arnhem is “a bridge too far”, British cannot hold the bridge,• German forces much stronger than anticipated• Area between Arnhem and Nijmegen becomes frontline zone: inundated!• War in Europe lasts 6 months longer.
  • 101. GeneralJames Gavin
  • 102. General James Gavin• The “Jumping General”
  • 103. General James Gavin• The “Jumping General”• Succeeded in capturingNijmegen Bridge
  • 104. General James Gavin• The “Jumping General”• Succeeded in capturingNijmegen Bridge•Let’s see how.....
  • 105. Total WW II toll in Nijmegen
  • 106. Total WW II toll in Nijmegen• 2.200 civilians dead
  • 107. Total WW II toll in Nijmegen• 2.200 civilians dead• 10.000 injured
  • 108. Total WW II toll in Nijmegen• 2.200 civilians dead• 10.000 injured• 5.000 homes destroyed
  • 109. Total WW II toll in Nijmegen• 2.200 civilians dead• 10.000 injured• 5.000 homes destroyed• 12.000 people homeless
  • 110. Nijmegen 1945-46
  • 111. Nijmegen 1945-46
  • 112. Reconstruction
  • 113. Reconstruction
  • 114. Reconstructiontook quite sometime,Quite a few partsof the inner cityhave been parkinglots for someyears....
  • 115. Reconstructiontook quite sometime,Quite a few partsof the inner cityhave been parkinglots for someyears....
  • 116. One area was notrebuilt, but made intoa large city square(and parking lot):Plein 1944This square will startits Second Life laterthis year!
  • 117. Well, that’s about itHave a nice stay in Nijmegen!