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23 - Innovating Food, Innovating the Law - VINOD KUMAR GUPTA

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Piacenza, October 15, 2011 …

Piacenza, October 15, 2011
"Innovating Food, Innovating the Law"
Conference

VINOD KUMAR GUPTA (Traditional Knowledge Digital Library, India)
TKDL as a Model for Protection of Traditional Knowledge and for Rewarding the Creativity in Traditional Knowledge

Video: http://vimeo.com/31475922

Published in: Education, Technology

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  • 1. Innovating Food, Innovating the Law An interdisciplinary approach to the challenges of the agro-food sector Piacenza, 14-15 October, 2011 Protection of Traditional Knowledge and Rewarding Creativity V. K. Gupta, Senior Advisor and Director, TKDL, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Rafi Marg, New Delhi; E-mail: vkg@csir.res.inmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 2. Traditional Knowledge • Oral or Codified • Oral or Codified Disclosed or undisclosed • Defensive and Positive Rights Disclosed or undisclosed • Misappropriation and Lack of Wealth Creation Misappropriation Innovative Capacity & Wealth creationmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 3. Comparative Table between TK & Modern Knowledge Item TK Modern Knowledge Local, language &  X format barriers Widely Understood X  Innovative, Creative   and Dynamic Dynamic & Changing   Manner of creation Lab of Life Lab of Bricks & Mortarmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 4. • Social Capital • Natural • Intellectual Capital • Ethical Capital • Zone of Contestation • Intellectual Propertymercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 5. India – Turmeric – Neem – Basmati TKDL – TKRC - IPCmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 6. Neem Patent Case - EP436257 at European Patent Office (EPO) • Date of Grant 4 August 1994 • Date of Opposition 14 June 1995 • Date of Final Rejection 8 March 2005 • No. of documents submitted by Applicant 47 during opposition • No. of documents submitted 45 by the Opposing Party • No. of oral hearings after Opposition 20 • Average time between hearings 3 to 4 months • No. of Lawyers/ Examiners in each hearing 8mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 7. Extent of Misappropriation (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha) IPR Study Carried Out in March 2000 & Defensive Protection on TK – 4896 references on 90 medicinal plants in USPTO patent databases – 80% of references on seven medicinal plants of Indian Origin. • Kumari, Mustaka, Tamraparna, Garjara, Atasi, Jambira, Kharbuza – Almost 50% of patents linked to traditional medicinemercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 8.  March 2000 : 4896  March 2003 : 15000  December 2005 : 35587  December 2008 : 85000  Medicinal Plant Patents / Year : 5000  Possible Patents concerning Indian Plants / Year : 4000  Possible Patents on Indian system of Medicine on yearly basis : 2000  Annual average Growth Rate between 2000-2008 : 200%mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 9. Protection of TraditionalKnowledge and Genetic Resources Linkage recognized variously in: CBD FAO International Treaty & WIPO TRIPs Council is attempting to establish relationship with CBD Traditional Knowledge Genetic Resources Traditional Cultural Expressions TK related to genetic resourcesmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 10. Protection of TK (International Scenario) Doha doha Doha Ministerial Declaration — 2001 Disclosure Requirements — TRIPS Council Inter Governmental Committee — WIPO Convention on Biological Diversity Nagoya Protocol on Access to Resources & the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilisationmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 11. • Prevent Misappropriation of Indian Traditional Knowledge – Break Format & Language barriers • For International Patent Offices only • Multilingual (French, German, Japanese, English & Spanish)mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 12. IPC & Medicinal Plants A 61 K 35 78 Section Human Necessities Class Medical or Veterinary Sub Science; Hygiene Class Preparation for Medical, Dental or Toilet Purposes Group Extracts of Animal, Plant or Micro-organisms Sub Groups Materials from Plantsmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 13. TKRC Classification Symbol A 01 B 1/00 Main group SECTION Or CLASS 1/21 Sub group SUB CLASS SUB- GROUP GROUP Section A – Ayurveda; Class 01 – Pharmaceutical Preparations Sub-Class B – Based on Animals; Group 1/00 – Based on Animals & their Products; Sub-group 1/21 - Milkmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 14. Stages of Formal Acceptance of Traditional Knowledge Classifications Submitted a proposalmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 15. Stages of Formal Acceptance of Traditional Knowledge Classifications Oct 2004 Deliberations on IPC-TKRC Concordance list of the new main group A61K 36/00mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 16. mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 17. Englishmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 18. Englishmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 19. Englishmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 20. Japanesemercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 21. mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 22. mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 23. mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 24. Discipline Current Status Ayurvedic 91,410 formulations Unani formulations 1,29,170 Siddha formulations 15,290 Yoga 1,305 TKDL ready to safeguard 0.245 million medicinal formulations like Neem and Turmeric in Ayurveda ,Unani and Siddha which are present in 34 million A4 size pages, at International Levelmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 25. Cost/ Effectiveness of TKDL  TKDL Route – No. of A4 Size page information in 5 international 34 Million languages – Expenditure Incurred 2.0 Million US $  Translation Route – Skill needed, knowledge of Ayurveda/ Unani/ Siddha/ Sanskrit/ Persian/ Tamil/ German/English/French/Japanese/Spanish/ Modern medicine & Science – Incase above skill set was available, it would have costed 4.0 billion US $,a team of 5000 and time period of 60 years against the team of 100 and cost of 2.0 million US$ – TKDL protects 0.245 million formulations based on Neem cases, cost of such protection would be astronomical(200 billion US$).mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 26. WIPO has plans to Internationalise TKDL to utilise Indian TKDL as a template for other willing Countries rich in TK and GR World Intellectual Property Organisation, Geneva April-2010mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 27. WIPO- CSIR organised an International Conference on “Utilization of the Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) as a Model for the Protection of Traditional Knowledge” in New Delhi, India, March 22 to 24, 2011 Participants from 33 developing Countries participated in the Conferencemercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 28. The information, along witha photographic scan of therelative verse, is thenuploaded to an onlinedatabase and translatedinto English, French,German, Spanish, Japaneseand Hindi. So far, some140,000 treatments havebeen entered into theTraditional KnowledgeDigital Library (TKDL), a $2million project launchedfive years ago to provide adirect link to what isregarded in the patentworld as prior knowledge.The first of its kind, theTKDL is serving as amercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 29. mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 30. mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 31. Access to TKDL (CCEA has approved access to TKDL for International  Users – Shall not disclose the content to third party – Shall utilize for patent search & examiners, can give printouts to patent applicants for citation purposes – No use other than search & examination – Will provide non-confidential information received from applicant on usage to provider – Will give feedback for enhancing the features of TKDL  Provider – Shall provide uninterrupted access – Training to users (as and when needed) – Render assistance in search & examination (as & when needed)mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 32. TKDL Access Agreement to International Patent Offices (CCEA has approved access to TKDL for International Patent Offices)  European Patent Office February 2009  Indian Patent Office July 2009  German patent Office October 2009  United States Patent and Trademark Office November 2009 Access Agreement with USPTO was signed on the sideline of the state visit of Hon’ble Prime Minister to United states.  United Kingdom Patent and Trademark Office February 2010  Canadian Intellectual Property Office September 2010  IP Australia January 2011  Japan Patent Office April 2011  New Zealand IP Office, Korean IP Office Being Negotiatedmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 33. Global Bio-Piracy Watch System Monitor 24 x 7 basis, applications concerning TK/GR at identified Patent Offices Examine claims on Novelty with TKDL Prior art Submit Prior art evidences as per respective National Legislationmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 34. TKDL has made unparalled Contributions to the international policy context of the patent system and it offers a valuable template for others Dr. Francis Gurry Director General World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva 05-Jan-2009mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 35. EPO Introduced Online Third Party Submissions (TPS) w.e.f. July 2011 US Patent Law being changed w.e.f. September 2012 TPS at Pre-grant stage can be filled up to 6 months against earlier 2 months time period TPS can be filled until 9 months after the grant of Patentmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 36. Tangible Results of TKDL Access Agreement with EPO  Normal route of opposition of an international patent - (10-15 years) – Neem (10 years) – Enola Beans (10 years) – Monsonto soybean (13 years)  TKDL route – Anti-Vitiligo Cream (3 week) – Chinese Traditional Medicine composition for treatment of avian influenza, method for preparation, and application thereof – Method for altering the Metabolism Characteristic of Food Products (11 Weeks) – Composition for Heart Disease and Health Products (9 Weeks) – Cosmetic herbal compositions (37 Weeks)mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 37. TKDL Outcomes TKDL AS DETERRENT Office No. of Application (Cancellation/ Withdrawn/ Amendment of Claims) EPO Withdrawn Applications - 50 Set-aside Applications - 2 Claims Amended Applications - 5 USPTO Examiner independently utilized - 3 TKDL Evidences Claims Amended Applications - 1 IP Australia Withdrawn Applications - 1 Claims Amended Applications - 1 CIPO Withdrawn Applications - 6 UKPTO Application terminated before grant -1 Total 70mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 38. TKDL Outcomes Office No. of Cases of Misappropriation Identified in last one year and action taken EPO 219 USPTO 196 IP Australia 43 CIPO 109 Total 567mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 39. TKDL Success against Bio-Piracy USA Italy Korea 1 Natreon Inc 1 Data Medica 1 Purimed Padova Co., Ltd 2 Jan Marini S.p.A 2 Indena 2 Seoul Skin S.p.A Research National Inc University 3 Bios Line Industry 3 Phytrix JV, S.p.a foundation LLC Great Britain Brazil Canada 1 GW Pharma 1 Acha 1 Herbal Limited Laboratories Infusion Corporation Netherlands Cyprus Israel 1 Unilever N.V 1 Bionature 1 Naveh Pharma Australia 1 Natbio Pty Ltd.mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 40. TKDL Success against Bio-Piracy TKDL Success against Bio-Piracy attempts of MNCs 2 Japan Germany 1 Cognis IP 1 Mercian Corporation Management GmbH 2 Evonik Goldschmidt GmbH China USA 1 Livzon 1 Berkson, Pharmaceutica Lindsey, l USA 1 Juice Beautymercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 41. TKDL Out-Comes Against Bio-Piracy Successfully safeguarded bio-piracy attempts to patent medicinal plants (usages) Withania Aloe Vera Brahmi Ginger Cannabis Somnifera Terminalia Pistacia Andrographis Mint Melon Arjuna Veramercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 42. TKDL Out-Comes Against Bio-Piracy Successfully safeguarded Bio-piracy attempts to patent Medicinal Plants (usages) Indian Cinnamon Cumin Green Tea Spinach Lotus Citrus Nigella Punica Phyllanthus Crocus Sativa Granatum Amarus Sativusmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 43. TKDL Out-Comes Against Bio-Piracysdfdf Slide Successfully safeguarded Bio-piracy attempts to patent Medicinal Plants (usages) Turmeric Licorice Apple Grapes Horse Grammercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 44.  Prevent Misappropriation of Indian Traditional Knowledge – Break Format & Language barriers  For International Patent Offices only  Multilingual (French, German, Japanese, English & Spanish)  Creation of new Intellectualmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 45. Golden Trianglemercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 46. Building the Golden Triangle Globalization of Indian Systems of Medicine consists of its philosophy, practice & products taken together. Integrating into modern systems practices of Indian Systems of Medicine (detoxification, combo therapy, functional foods) Products of Indian Systems of Medicine – existing & newly designed Concepts arising out of Indian Systems of Medicine, e.g. Bio- enhancing, synergism, etc. Indian Systems of Medicine itself to undergo changes to make it compatible to others systemsmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 47. TKDL for Validation of Ayurveda, Unani, & Siddha against each other  Allsystems of Indian system of Medicine have survived & grown in Indian Subcontinent.  Used common Bio and Genetic Resources.  For Diseases of Subcontinent and itsmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 48. Digital Integration of Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha Plant name Ayurveda/Unani to Italic/Botanical Name Disease Nomenclature Search on Classification symbols, Disease Symptoms, Plant, Disease, etc.mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 49. mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 50. Diseases and Common Indian Medicinal Plants Malaria System of AYURVED UNANI SIDDHA COMMON Medicine A MEDICINAL NO. of PLANTS Brahmin , 1587 48 95 Formulations Neerpirami, in TKDL Sapthalai, Indravaruni, Pippali , Srmgika visa/ Formulations Aindrirasaya Habb-e- Sanda nam Vatsanabha in TKDL Marutha bukhar ,Sarumam, Kuzhamabu Acacia arabica, Sambiran ipoondumercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 51. Standard Drug Discovery Processmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 52. Psoriasis (currently in Phase III)mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 53. Collaborative Research  Joint ownership of IP  Participative Research & Development  Technology transfer  Institutional capacity Building  Training  Access to advanced Scientific Informationmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 54. Limitations of TKDL Model TKDL is a Defensive Technical Tool only.  TKDL can protect only its contents which at present are limited to open domain codified Knowledge for Indian Systems of Medicine  Not a substitute for an International legally binding Instrument for Protection of Traditional Knowledge and disclosure requirements submitted by Developing Countries at TRIPs Council. These instruments are essential for protection of Traditional Knowledge  A useful resource for new Research and new IP & Capacity Building.mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 55. mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 56. Normal oppositions i.e. without TKDL and TKDL Access Agreement EPO PATENT NO: EP436257- (Neem) Title Method for controlling fungi on plants by the aid of hydrophobic extracted neem oil Applicant & Country Thermo Trilogy Corporation, 9145 Guilford Road Columbia, Maryland 21046-1883, Date of Filing USA 20 December 1990 Date of Grant 04 August 1994 Date of Opposition 14 September 1994 Opposed by National and International NGOs Final Rejection 8 March 2005 Period between Grant 10 Years & Rejectionmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 57. US PATENT NO: 5894079- (Enola Beans)US PATENT NO: 5894079- (Enola Beans) Title Field bean cultivar named enola Applicant & Country LARRY M. PROCTOR, DELTA, CO. USA Date of Filing 15 November 1996 Date of Grant 13 April 1999 Date of Opposition 20 December 2000 Opposed by International Center for Tropical Agriculture Rejection at USPTO 2008 Rejection at US Federal 10 July 2009 Court Period between Grant & 10 Years Rejectionmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 58. EPO PATENT NO: EP301749 – (Monsonto soybean) Title Particle-medicated transformation of soybean plants and lines Applicant & Country Monsanto Company, 800 North Lindbergh Boulevard, St. Louis, Missouri 63167, USA Date of Filing 20 July 1988 Date of Grant 02 March 1994 Date of Opposition 6 October 1994 Opposed by Rural Advancement Foundation International (Canada) Final Rejection 6 July 2007 Period between Grant & 13 Years Rejectionmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 59. (Anti Cancer - Pistacia Vera ) EPO PATENT APPLICATION NO: EP1520585 (Anti Cancer - Pistacia Vera ) Title Cancer treatment using natural plant products or essential oils or components from some pistacia species Applicant & Country DATA MEDICA PADOVA S P A, Italy Date of Filing 24 September 2004 Date of intention to grant 19 February 2009 Date of Third Party observation 08 July 2009 Notice setting aside Intention to grant 14 July 2009 Period between Third Party 1 Week observation and setting aside Intention to grantmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 60. (Anti-Vitiligo Cream ) EPO PATENT APPLICATION NO: EP1747786 (Anti-Vitiligo Cream ) Title Natural Product Cream with Anti- Vitiligo Therapeutic Properties Applicant & Country PERDIX EUROGROUP S L, Spain Date of Filing 24 July 2006 Date of Intention to grant March 2009 Date of Third Party observation 01 July 2009 Notice setting aside Intention to 27 July 2009 grant Period between Third Party 3 Weeks observation and setting aside Intention to grantmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 61. Chinese EPO PATENT APPLICATION NO: EP1849473 (Composition for treatment of avian influenza) Title Chinese traditional medicine composition for treatment of avian influenza, method for preparation, and application thereof Applicant & Country Livzon Pharmaceutical Group Inc., CN, China Date of Filing 19 Jan 2007 Date of Intention to grant 25 Feb 2010 Date of Third Party observation 20 May 2010 Notice setting aside Intention to 10 June 2010 grant Period between Third Party 3 Weeks observation and setting aside Intention to grantmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 62. (Cardio Vascular Tonic) EPO PATENT APPLICATION NO: EP1607006 (Cardio Vascular Tonic) Title Cardio Vascular Tonic Applicant & Country UNILEVER NV, Netherlands Date of Filing 18 June 2004 Date of Third Party observation 09 July 2009 Application deemed to be 04 August 2009 withdrawn Period between Third Party 3 Weeks observation and withdrawal of application by applicantmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 63. Composition for Heart Disease and Health Products EPO PATENT APPLICATION NO: EP1781309 (Composition for Heart Disease and Health Products) Title Nelumbinis semen extract for preventing and treating ischemic heart disease and pharmaceutical composition and health food containing the same Applicant & Country Purimed Co., Ltd. Seoul, Korea Date of Filing 09-June-2005 Date of Third Party observation 09-July-2009 Application deemed to be 18-Sept-2009 withdrawn Period between Third Party 9 Weeks observation and setting aside Intention to grantmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 64. EP 2044850 EPO PATENT APPLICATION NO: EP2044850 (Method for altering the Metabolism Characteristic of Food Products ) Title Method for altering the Metabolism Characteristic of Food Products Applicant & Country CLARA S APS, DENMARK Date of Filing 19-Sept-2007 Date of Third Party observation 12-August-2009 Applicant withdraw his 30-Oct-2009 application Period between Third Party 11 Weeks observation and setting aside Intention to grantmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 65. September 2009mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 66. J u l y 2 0 1 0mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 67. Clara_ginger J u l y 2 0 1 0mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 68. Section A – Ayurveda Class  01 – Pharmaceutical Preparations (Kalpana)  02 – Personal Hygiene Preparations  03 – Dietary (food/food stuff or Beverages)  04 – Biocides, Fumigatives (Dhupana, krmighna) Section A Class 01 – Pharmaceutical Preparations (Kalpana) Sub-Class  01A Based on Audbhida (Plants)  01B Based on Jangama (Animals)  01C Based on Parthiva (Minerals)  01D Characterised by Roga (Diseases)  01E Characterised by Karma (Action)  01F Mode of Administration  01G Miscellaneous Sub-Class: A01A – Pharmaceutical Preparations (Kalpana) Based on Audbhida (Plants)  Group A01A 1/00 Whole medicinal plant 2/00 Parts of medicinal plant usedmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 69. EP-1906980 EPO PATENT APPLICATION NO: EP1906980 (METHOD OF TREATMENT OR MANAGEMENT OF STRESS) Title Method of treatment or management of stress Applicant & Country Natreon Inc. 2-D Janine Place New Brunswick, NJ 08901 / US Date of Filing 27-July-2006 Date of Third Party observation 05-June-2009 Applicant withdraw his 25-March-2010 application Period between Third Party 40 Weeks observation and setting aside Intention to grantmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 70. TKDL getting recognised TK as prior art by Patent Examination System Claim of M/S Natreon Treatment or management of stress, using a high purity extract composition comprising withanolide glycosides oligosaccharides, withanolide aglycons. TKDL Evidences Prior art references from Ayurveda & Unani Books (15 references) were given concerning of use of Withania Somnifera along with other medicinal plants for providing relief in insomnia, blood pressure, palpitation, perspiration, anemia, gastric ulcer, restlessness. EPO Examination Report Search authority agreed to use of withania Somnifera for use of insomnia, gastric ulcer, restlessness etc all stress related diseases and withania Somnifera would contain compound such as withanolide glycosides, oligosaccharides, withanolide aglycons, therefore there is no novelty in the claim Withdrawal of Application M/S Nateron withdrew its application of 1.2.2007 on 25.3.2010.mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 71. Availability of Withania somnifera in various countries and Usage Sr Country Medicinal Use no. 1 India As a Sedative, liver tonic, blood purifier, antidote against cobra poison and to induce abortion. For the treatment of Insomnia, hypertension, diabetes, tuberculosis, rheumatic pain, anaemia, inflammation of joints, nervous disorders, epilepsy, hiccup, cold, cough, female disorders. 2 South Africa Alcoholism, tuberculosis and emphysema 3 Ethiopia Cough, asthma, epilepsy 4 Somalia Improves blood circulation, ulcer, skin disorders, sores, abcess, ear infection, fever, disturbed sleep, to repel snakes and scorpions 5 Mauritius As a tonic, for treating Rheumatoid arthritis, skin diseases like ringworm, dysuria, gonorrhea, gangrenous inflammation of rectum (as enema), asthma. 6 Cape Verde As Blood purifier and diuretic and for treating gonorrhea 7 Madagascar Asthmamercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 72. Ep 1889638 23 EPO PATENT APPLICATION NO: EP1825845 (Cosmetic herbal compositions) Title Cosmetic herbal compositions Applicant & Country Jan marini skin res inc, U.S. Date of Filing 22-Feb-2007 Date of Third Party observation 02-July-2009 Applicant withdraw his 08-April-2010 application Period between Third Party 37 Weeks observation and setting aside Intention to grantmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 73. EP1825845-press J u l y 2 0 1 0mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 74. Ep 1889638 23 EPO PATENT APPLICATION NO: EP2015761 (Methods and composition for treating sore throat) Title Methods and composition for treating sore throat Applicant & Country Naveh pharma 1996 ltd, Israel. Date of Filing 29-Mar-2007 Date of Third Party observation 24-July-2009 Applicant withdraw his 15-April-2010 application Period between Third Party 35 Weeks observation and setting aside Intention to grantmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 75. Ep 1889638 23 EPO PATENT APPLICATION NO: EP1660106 (Biotherapeutics for mitigation of health disorders from terminalia arjuna ) Title Biotherapeutics for mitigation of health disorders from terminalia arjuna Applicant & Country Avesthagen Limited , India Date of Filing 15-Aug-2003 Date of Third Party observation 01-July-2009 Applicant withdraw his 06-April-2010 application Period between Third Party 38 Weeks observation and setting aside Intention to grantmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 76. China_pic June 2010mercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
  • 77. Final Report Generationmercoledì 19 ottobre 2011
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