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Nematode Notes

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Notes on roundworm classification and characteristics.

Notes on roundworm classification and characteristics.


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  • 1. Nematoda roundworms
  • 2. Characteristics Free-living or parasitic  Most very small < 2mm, some 1m long  Abundant (100 in a cupful of soil) >20,000  named species, many others undescribed Radial symmetry - cylindrical body  Pseudocoelomate - false body cavity  Tough cuticle must be shed to grow  Has cephalization 
  • 3. Organization Specialized cells   Organized Tissues  Tripoblastic - 3 cell layers Organ systems   Muscles - only longitudinal  Reproductive  Digestive - Complete gut w/ mouth and anus
  • 4. Reproduction Usually diecious - sexes distinct   parenthogenesis common - asexual form of reproduction where embryo grows and develops without fertilization by a male.
  • 5. Nematode adult anatomy
  • 6. Nematode Locomotion Pressurized pseudocoelom holds shape  Longitudinal muscles that pull against  that pressure to provide a spiral lashing motion For burrowing and penetrating host  tissues
  • 7. Feeding Modes of Nematodes Microbivores - select bacteria and fungi  from soil and water  Predators eat small prey, or pierce and suck out larger prey  Plant parasites  Animal parasites
  • 8. Nematode Diets and Mouths
  • 9. Classification Ascaris - Intestinal Roundworm l genus Ascaris, females up to 30 cm  67% used to be infected in S.E. United  States adults eat intestinal chyme  heavy infections cause abdominal pain  and allergic reactions or death, in heavy infections of children 
  • 10. Ascaris Internal Migration eggs transferred from feces to food or  mouth by hand; hatch in intestine  larvae penetrate bloodstream, go to lungs  break out into alveoli and crawl up trachea to esophagus, swallowed again  adults live free in small intestine
  • 11. Ascaris Life Cycle
  • 12. Dog Heartworm Life Cycle Adult lives in dog’s heart muscle  releases eggs into bloodstream, which  hatch into small larvae (“microfilariae”)  larvae enter a mosquito that bites the dog  enter another dog by mosquito’s next bite  migrate to heart and grow inside muscle  Dog Heartworm 
  • 13. Dog Heartworm
  • 14. Other Parasitic Nematodes •hookworm, pinworm, trichinosis, river blindness, etc. •cuticle protects against immune system and enzymes •can do without oxygen
  • 15. Hookworm: Necator Americanus
  • 16. Dog Hookworm Lifecycle
  • 17. Trichinella: Trichina worm
  • 18. Pinworm: Enterobius
  • 19. Wucharia: Filial worms