Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin CummingsPowerPoint®Lecture Presentations forBiolo...
Overview: Diverse Forms, Common Challenges• Anatomy is the study of the biological form ofan organism• Physiology is the s...
Fig. 40-1
Concept 40.1: Animal form and function arecorrelated at all levels of organization• Size and shape affect the way an anima...
Physical Constraints on Animal Size and Shape• The ability to perform certain actions dependson an animal’s shape, size, a...
Fig. 40-2(a) Tuna(b) Penguin(c) Seal
Exchange with the Environment• An animal’s size and shape directly affect howit exchanges energy and materials with itssur...
Fig. 40-3Exchange0.15 mma) Single cell1.5 mm(b) Two layers of cellsExchangeExchangeMouthGastrovascularcavity
• Multicellular organisms with a sac body planhave body walls that are only two cells thick,facilitating diffusion of mate...
• More complex organisms have highly foldedinternal surfaces for exchanging materialsCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, I...
Fig. 40-4.5 cmNutrientsDigestivesystemining of small intestineMouthFoodExternal environmentAnimalbodyCO2 O2Circulatorysyst...
Fig. 40-4aNutrientsMouthDigestivesystemAnusUnabsorbedmatter (feces)Metabolic waste products(nitrogenous waste)Excretorysys...
Fig. 40-4bLining of small intestine0.5 cm
Fig. 40-4cLung tissue50µm
Fig. 40-4dKidney tubules10 µm
• In vertebrates, the space between cells is filledwith interstitial fluid, which allows for themovement of material into ...
• Most animals are composed of specializedcells organized into tissues that have differentfunctions• Tissues make up organ...
Table 40-1
• Different tissues have different structures thatare suited to their functions• Tissues are classified into four maincate...
Epithelial Tissue• Epithelial tissue covers the outside of thebody and lines the organs and cavities withinthe body• It co...
• The arrangement of epithelial cells may besimple (single cell layer), stratified (multipletiers of cells), or pseudostra...
Fig. 40-5aEpithelial TissueCuboidalepitheliumSimplecolumnarepitheliumPseudostratifiedciliatedcolumnarepitheliumStratifieds...
Fig. 40-5bApical surfaceBasal surfaceBasal lamina40 µm
Connective Tissue• Connective tissue mainly binds and supportsother tissues• It contains sparsely packed cells scatteredth...
• There are three types of connective tissuefiber, all made of protein:– Collagenous fibers provide strength andflexibilit...
• Connective tissue contains cells, including– Fibroblasts that secrete the protein ofextracellular fibers– Macrophages th...
• In vertebrates, the fibers and foundationcombine to form six major types of connectivetissue:– Loose connective tissue b...
– Adipose tissue stores fat for insulationand fuel– Blood is composed of blood cells andcell fragments in blood plasma– Bo...
Fig. 40-5cConnective TissueCollagenous fiberLooseconnectivetissueElastic fiber120µmCartilageChondrocytes100µmChondroitinsu...
Fig. 40-5dCollagenous fiber120µmElastic fiberLoose connective tissue
Fig. 40-5eNucleiFibrous connective tissue30µm
Fig. 40-5fOsteonCentral canalBone700µm
Fig. 40-5gChondrocytesChondroitinsulfateCartilage100µm
Fig. 40-5hFat dropletsAdipose tissue150µm
Fig. 40-5iWhite blood cellsPlasma Red bloodcells55µmBlood
Muscle Tissue• Muscle tissue consists of long cells calledmuscle fibers, which contract in response tonerve signals• It is...
Fig. 40-5jMuscle Tissue50 µmSkeletalmuscleMultiplenucleiMuscle fiberSarcomere100 µmSmoothmuscleCardiac muscleNucleusMuscle...
Fig. 40-5kSkeletal muscleMultiplenucleiMuscle fiberSarcomere100 µm
Fig. 40-5lSmooth muscleNucleusMusclefibers25 µm
Fig. 40-5mNucleus IntercalateddiskCardiac muscle50 µm
Nervous Tissue• Nervous tissue senses stimuli and transmitssignals throughout the animal• Nervous tissue contains:– Neuron...
Fig. 40-5nGlial cellsNervous Tissue15 µmDendritesCell bodyAxonNeuronAxonsBlood vessel40 µm
Fig. 40-5oDendritesCell bodyAxon40 µmNeuron
Fig. 40-5pGlial cellsAxonsBlood vesselGlial cells and axons15 µm
Coordination and Control• Control and coordination within a body dependon the endocrine system and the nervoussystem• The ...
Fig. 40-6StimulusHormoneEndocrinecellSignal travelseverywherevia thebloodstream.BloodvesselResponse(a) Signaling by hormon...
Fig. 40-6aStimulusEndocrinecellHormoneSignal travelseverywherevia thebloodstream.BloodvesselResponse(a) Signaling by hormo...
• The nervous system transmits informationbetween specific locations• The information conveyed depends on asignal’s pathwa...
Fig. 40-6bStimulusNeuronAxonSignalSignal travelsalong axon toa specificlocation.SignalAxonsResponse(b) Signaling by neurons
Concept 40.2: Feedback control loops maintain theinternal environment in many animals• Animals manage their internal envir...
• A regulator uses internal control mechanismsto moderate internal change in the face ofexternal, environmental fluctuatio...
Fig. 40-7River otter (temperature regulator)Largemouth bass(temperature conformer)Bodytemperature(°C)0 1010202030304040Amb...
Homeostasis• Organisms use homeostasis to maintain a“steady state” or internal balance regardless ofexternal environment• ...
• Mechanisms of homeostasis moderatechanges in the internal environment• For a given variable, fluctuations above orbelow ...
Fig. 40-8Response:HeaterturnedoffStimulus:Control center(thermostat)reads too hotRoomtemperaturedecreasesSetpoint:20ºCRoom...
Feedback Loops in Homeostasis• The dynamic equilibrium of homeostasis ismaintained by negative feedback, which helpsto ret...
Alterations in Homeostasis• Set points and normal ranges can change withage or show cyclic variation• Homeostasis can adju...
Concept 40.3: Homeostatic processes forthermoregulation involve form, function, andbehavior• Thermoregulation is the proce...
• Endothermic animals generate heat bymetabolism; birds and mammals areendotherms• Ectothermic animals gain heat from exte...
• In general, ectotherms tolerate greatervariation in internal temperature, whileendotherms are active at a greater range ...
Fig. 40-9(a) A walrus, an endotherm(b) A lizard, an ectotherm
Variation in Body Temperature• The body temperature of a poikilotherm varieswith its environment, while that of ahomeother...
Balancing Heat Loss and Gain• Organisms exchange heat by four physicalprocesses: conduction, convection, radiation,and eva...
Fig. 40-10Radiation EvaporationConvection Conduction
• Heat regulation in mammals often involves theintegumentary system: skin, hair, and nailsCopyright © 2008 Pearson Educati...
Fig. 40-11EpidermisDermisHypodermisAdipose tissueBlood vesselsHairSweatporeMuscleNerveSweatglandOil glandHair follicle
• Five general adaptations help animalsthermoregulate:– Insulation– Circulatory adaptations– Cooling by evaporative heat l...
Insulation• Insulation is a major thermoregulatoryadaptation in mammals and birds• Skin, feathers, fur, and blubber reduce...
• Regulation of blood flow near the body surfacesignificantly affects thermoregulation• Many endotherms and some ectotherm...
• The arrangement of blood vessels in manymarine mammals and birds allows forcountercurrent exchange• Countercurrent heat ...
Fig. 40-12Canada goose BottlenosedolphinArteryArteryVein VeinBlood flow33º35ºC27º30º18º20º10º 9º
• Some bony fishes and sharks also usecountercurrent heat exchanges• Many endothermic insects have countercurrentheat exch...
Cooling by Evaporative Heat Loss• Many types of animals lose heat throughevaporation of water in sweat• Panting increases ...
• Both endotherms and ectotherms usebehavioral responses to control bodytemperature• Some terrestrial invertebrates have p...
Fig. 40-13
Adjusting Metabolic Heat Production• Some animals can regulate body temperatureby adjusting their rate of metabolic heatpr...
Fig. 40-14RESULTSContractions per minuteO2consumption(mLO2/hr)perkg00202015105 25 30 35406080100120
Fig. 40-15PREFLIGHT PREFLIGHTWARM-UPFLIGHTThoraxAbdomenTime from onset of warm-up (min)Temperature(ºC)0 2 425303540
• Birds and mammals can vary their insulation toacclimatize to seasonal temperature changes• When temperatures are subzero...
Physiological Thermostats and Fever• Thermoregulation is controlled by a region ofthe brain called the hypothalamus• The h...
Fig. 40-16Sweat glands secretesweat, which evaporates,cooling the body.Thermostat in hypothalamusactivates cooling mechani...
Concept 40.4: Energy requirements are related toanimal size, activity, and environment• Bioenergetics is the overall flow ...
Energy Allocation and Use• Animals harvest chemical energy from food• Energy-containing molecules from food areusually use...
Fig. 40-17Organic moleculesin foodExternalenvironmentAnimalbody Digestion andabsorptionNutrient moleculesin body cellsCarb...
• Metabolic rate is the amount of energy ananimal uses in a unit of time• One way to measure it is to determine theamount ...
Fig. 40-18
Minimum Metabolic Rate and Thermoregulation• Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the metabolicrate of an endotherm at rest at a ...
• Metabolic rates are affected by many factorsbesides whether an animal is an endotherm orectotherm• Two of these factors ...
Size and Metabolic Rate• Metabolic rate per gram is inversely related tobody size among similar animals• Researchers conti...
Fig. 40-19ElephantHorseHumanSheepDogCatRatGround squirrelMouseHarvest mouseShrewBody mass (kg) (log scale)BMR(LO2/hr)(Iogs...
Fig. 40-19aShrewHarvest mouseMouseGround squirrelRatCat DogSheepHumanHorseElephantBody mass (kg) (log scale)BMR(LO2/hr)(lo...
Fig. 40-19b10310210110–110–210–3012345678Body mass (kg) (log scale)(b) Relationship of BMR per kilogram of body mass to bo...
• Activity greatly affects metabolic rate forendotherms and ectotherms• In general, the maximum metabolic rate ananimal ca...
• Different species use energy and materials infood in different ways, depending on theirenvironment• Use of energy is par...
Fig. 40-20Annualenergyexpenditure(kcal/hr)60-kg female humanfrom temperate climate800,000Basal(standard)metabolismReproduc...
Fig. 40-20aAnnualenergyexpenditure(kcal/hr)60-kg female humanfrom temperate climate800,000Basal(standard)metabolismReprodu...
Fig. 40-20bReproductionThermoregulationActivityBasal(standard)metabolism4-kg male Adélie penguinfrom Antarctica (brooding)...
Fig. 40-20cReproductionThermoregulationBasal(standard)metabolismActivity4,0000.025-kg female deer mousefrom temperateNorth...
Fig. 40-20dReproductionGrowthActivityBasal(standard)metabolism4-kg female easternindigo snake8,000Annualenergyexpenditure(...
Torpor and Energy Conservation• Torpor is a physiological state in which activityis low and metabolism decreases• Torpor e...
Fig. 40-21Additional metabolism that would benecessary to stay active in winterActualmetabolismArousalsBodytemperatureOuts...
• Estivation, or summer torpor, enables animalsto survive long periods of high temperaturesand scarce water supplies• Dail...
Fig. 40-UN1HomeostasisStimulus:Perturbation/stressResponse/effectorControl centerSensor/receptor
Fig. 40-UN2
You should now be able to:1. Distinguish among the following sets of terms:collagenous, elastic, and reticular fibers;regu...
3. Compare and contrast the nervous andendocrine systems4. Define thermoregulation and explain howendotherms and ectotherm...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Chapter 40 formn function

1,242

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,242
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
20
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Figure 40.1 How does a jackrabbit keep from overheating? For the Discovery Video Human Body, go to Animation and Video Files.
  • Figure 40.2 Convergent evolution in fast swimmers
  • Figure 40.3 Contact with the environment
  • Figure 40.4 Internal exchange surfaces of complex animals
  • Figure 40.4 Internal exchange surfaces of complex animals
  • Figure 40.4 Internal exchange surfaces of complex animals
  • Figure 40.4 Internal exchange surfaces of complex animals
  • Figure 40.4 Internal exchange surfaces of complex animals
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.6 Signaling in the endocrine and nervous systems
  • Figure 40.6a Signaling in the endocrine and nervous systems
  • Figure 40.6b Signaling in the endocrine and nervous systems
  • Figure 40.7 The relationship between body and environmental temperatures in an aquatic temperature regulator and an aquatic temperature conformer
  • Figure 40.8 A nonliving example of negative feedback: control of room temperature
  • Figure 40.9 Endothermy and ectothermy
  • Figure 40.10 Heat exchange between an organism and its environment
  • Figure 40.11 Mammalian integumentary system
  • Figure 40.12 Countercurrent heat exchangers
  • Figure 40.13 Thermoregulatory behavior in a dragonfly
  • Figure 40.14 How does a Burmese python generate heat while incubating eggs?
  • Figure 40.15 Preflight warm-up in the hawkmoth
  • Figure 40.16 The thermostatic function of the hypothalamus in human thermoregulation
  • Figure 40.17 Bioenergetics of an animal: an overview
  • Figure 40.18 Measuring rate of oxygen consumption in a running pronghorn
  • Figure 40.19 The relationship of metabolic rate to body size
  • Figure 40.19 The relationship of metabolic rate to body size
  • Figure 40.19 The relationship of metabolic rate to body size
  • Figure 40.20 Energy budgets for four animals
  • Figure 40.20 Energy budgets for four animals
  • Figure 40.20 Energy budgets for four animals
  • Figure 40.20 Energy budgets for four animals
  • Figure 40.20 Energy budgets for four animals
  • Figure 40.21 Body temperature and metabolism during hibernation in Belding ’ s ground squirrels
  • Chapter 40 formn function

    1. 1. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin CummingsPowerPoint®Lecture Presentations forBiologyEighth EditionNeil Campbell and Jane ReeceLectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan SharpChapter 40Basic Principles of AnimalForm and Function
    2. 2. Overview: Diverse Forms, Common Challenges• Anatomy is the study of the biological form ofan organism• Physiology is the study of the biologicalfunctions an organism performs• The comparative study of animals reveals thatform and function are closely correlatedCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    3. 3. Fig. 40-1
    4. 4. Concept 40.1: Animal form and function arecorrelated at all levels of organization• Size and shape affect the way an animalinteracts with its environment• Many different animal body plans have evolvedand are determined by the genomeCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    5. 5. Physical Constraints on Animal Size and Shape• The ability to perform certain actions dependson an animal’s shape, size, and environment• Evolutionary convergence reflects differentspecies’ adaptations to a similar environmentalchallenge• Physical laws impose constraints on animalsize and shapeCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin CummingsVideo: GalVideo: Galáápagos Sea Lionpagos Sea LionVideo: Shark Eating SealVideo: Shark Eating Seal
    6. 6. Fig. 40-2(a) Tuna(b) Penguin(c) Seal
    7. 7. Exchange with the Environment• An animal’s size and shape directly affect howit exchanges energy and materials with itssurroundings• Exchange occurs as substances dissolved inthe aqueous medium diffuse and aretransported across the cells’ plasmamembranes• A single-celled protist living in water has asufficient surface area of plasma membrane toservice its entire volume of cytoplasmCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin CummingsVideo: Hydra Eating DaphniaVideo: Hydra Eating Daphnia
    8. 8. Fig. 40-3Exchange0.15 mma) Single cell1.5 mm(b) Two layers of cellsExchangeExchangeMouthGastrovascularcavity
    9. 9. • Multicellular organisms with a sac body planhave body walls that are only two cells thick,facilitating diffusion of materialsCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    10. 10. • More complex organisms have highly foldedinternal surfaces for exchanging materialsCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    11. 11. Fig. 40-4.5 cmNutrientsDigestivesystemining of small intestineMouthFoodExternal environmentAnimalbodyCO2 O2CirculatorysystemHeartRespiratorysystemCellsInterstitialfluidExcretorysystemAnusUnabsorbedmatter (feces)Metabolic waste products(nitrogenous waste)Kidney tubules10 µm50µmLung tissue
    12. 12. Fig. 40-4aNutrientsMouthDigestivesystemAnusUnabsorbedmatter (feces)Metabolic waste products(nitrogenous waste)ExcretorysystemCirculatorysystemInterstitialfluidCellsRespiratorysystemHeartAnimalbodyCO2 O2FoodExternal environment
    13. 13. Fig. 40-4bLining of small intestine0.5 cm
    14. 14. Fig. 40-4cLung tissue50µm
    15. 15. Fig. 40-4dKidney tubules10 µm
    16. 16. • In vertebrates, the space between cells is filledwith interstitial fluid, which allows for themovement of material into and out of cells• A complex body plan helps an animal in avariable environment to maintain a relativelystable internal environmentCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    17. 17. • Most animals are composed of specializedcells organized into tissues that have differentfunctions• Tissues make up organs, which together makeup organ systemsHierarchical Organization of Body PlansCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    18. 18. Table 40-1
    19. 19. • Different tissues have different structures thatare suited to their functions• Tissues are classified into four maincategories: epithelial, connective, muscle, andnervousTissue Structure and FunctionCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    20. 20. Epithelial Tissue• Epithelial tissue covers the outside of thebody and lines the organs and cavities withinthe body• It contains cells that are closely joined• The shape of epithelial cells may be cuboidal(like dice), columnar (like bricks on end), orsquamous (like floor tiles)Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    21. 21. • The arrangement of epithelial cells may besimple (single cell layer), stratified (multipletiers of cells), or pseudostratified (a single layerof cells of varying length)Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    22. 22. Fig. 40-5aEpithelial TissueCuboidalepitheliumSimplecolumnarepitheliumPseudostratifiedciliatedcolumnarepitheliumStratifiedsquamousepitheliumSimplesquamousepithelium
    23. 23. Fig. 40-5bApical surfaceBasal surfaceBasal lamina40 µm
    24. 24. Connective Tissue• Connective tissue mainly binds and supportsother tissues• It contains sparsely packed cells scatteredthroughout an extracellular matrix• The matrix consists of fibers in a liquid, jellylike,or solid foundationCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    25. 25. • There are three types of connective tissuefiber, all made of protein:– Collagenous fibers provide strength andflexibility– Elastic fibers stretch and snap back to theiroriginal length– Reticular fibers join connective tissue toadjacent tissuesCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    26. 26. • Connective tissue contains cells, including– Fibroblasts that secrete the protein ofextracellular fibers– Macrophages that are involved in the immunesystemCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    27. 27. • In vertebrates, the fibers and foundationcombine to form six major types of connectivetissue:– Loose connective tissue binds epithelia tounderlying tissues and holds organs in place– Cartilage is a strong and flexible supportmaterial– Fibrous connective tissue is found in tendons,which attach muscles to bones, andligaments, which connect bones at jointsCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    28. 28. – Adipose tissue stores fat for insulationand fuel– Blood is composed of blood cells andcell fragments in blood plasma– Bone is mineralized and forms theskeletonCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    29. 29. Fig. 40-5cConnective TissueCollagenous fiberLooseconnectivetissueElastic fiber120µmCartilageChondrocytes100µmChondroitinsulfateAdiposetissueFat droplets150µmWhite blood cells55µmPlasma Red bloodcellsBloodNucleiFibrousconnectivetissue30µmOsteonBoneCentral canal700µm
    30. 30. Fig. 40-5dCollagenous fiber120µmElastic fiberLoose connective tissue
    31. 31. Fig. 40-5eNucleiFibrous connective tissue30µm
    32. 32. Fig. 40-5fOsteonCentral canalBone700µm
    33. 33. Fig. 40-5gChondrocytesChondroitinsulfateCartilage100µm
    34. 34. Fig. 40-5hFat dropletsAdipose tissue150µm
    35. 35. Fig. 40-5iWhite blood cellsPlasma Red bloodcells55µmBlood
    36. 36. Muscle Tissue• Muscle tissue consists of long cells calledmuscle fibers, which contract in response tonerve signals• It is divided in the vertebrate body into threetypes:– Skeletal muscle, or striated muscle, isresponsible for voluntary movement– Smooth muscle is responsible for involuntarybody activities– Cardiac muscle is responsible for contractionof the heartCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    37. 37. Fig. 40-5jMuscle Tissue50 µmSkeletalmuscleMultiplenucleiMuscle fiberSarcomere100 µmSmoothmuscleCardiac muscleNucleusMusclefibers25 µmNucleus Intercalateddisk
    38. 38. Fig. 40-5kSkeletal muscleMultiplenucleiMuscle fiberSarcomere100 µm
    39. 39. Fig. 40-5lSmooth muscleNucleusMusclefibers25 µm
    40. 40. Fig. 40-5mNucleus IntercalateddiskCardiac muscle50 µm
    41. 41. Nervous Tissue• Nervous tissue senses stimuli and transmitssignals throughout the animal• Nervous tissue contains:– Neurons, or nerve cells, that transmit nerveimpulses– Glial cells, or glia, that help nourish, insulate,and replenish neuronsCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    42. 42. Fig. 40-5nGlial cellsNervous Tissue15 µmDendritesCell bodyAxonNeuronAxonsBlood vessel40 µm
    43. 43. Fig. 40-5oDendritesCell bodyAxon40 µmNeuron
    44. 44. Fig. 40-5pGlial cellsAxonsBlood vesselGlial cells and axons15 µm
    45. 45. Coordination and Control• Control and coordination within a body dependon the endocrine system and the nervoussystem• The endocrine system transmits chemicalsignals called hormones to receptive cellsthroughout the body via blood• A hormone may affect one or more regionsthroughout the body• Hormones are relatively slow acting, but canhave long-lasting effectsCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    46. 46. Fig. 40-6StimulusHormoneEndocrinecellSignal travelseverywherevia thebloodstream.BloodvesselResponse(a) Signaling by hormonesStimulusNeuronAxonSignalSignal travelsalong axon toa specificlocation.SignalAxonsResponse(b) Signaling by neurons
    47. 47. Fig. 40-6aStimulusEndocrinecellHormoneSignal travelseverywherevia thebloodstream.BloodvesselResponse(a) Signaling by hormones
    48. 48. • The nervous system transmits informationbetween specific locations• The information conveyed depends on asignal’s pathway, not the type of signal• Nerve signal transmission is very fast• Nerve impulses can be received by neurons,muscle cells, and endocrine cellsCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    49. 49. Fig. 40-6bStimulusNeuronAxonSignalSignal travelsalong axon toa specificlocation.SignalAxonsResponse(b) Signaling by neurons
    50. 50. Concept 40.2: Feedback control loops maintain theinternal environment in many animals• Animals manage their internal environment byregulating or conforming to the externalenvironmentCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    51. 51. • A regulator uses internal control mechanismsto moderate internal change in the face ofexternal, environmental fluctuation• A conformer allows its internal condition tovary with certain external changesRegulating and ConformingCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    52. 52. Fig. 40-7River otter (temperature regulator)Largemouth bass(temperature conformer)Bodytemperature(°C)0 1010202030304040Ambient (environmental) temperature (ºC)
    53. 53. Homeostasis• Organisms use homeostasis to maintain a“steady state” or internal balance regardless ofexternal environment• In humans, body temperature, blood pH, andglucose concentration are each maintained at aconstant levelCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    54. 54. • Mechanisms of homeostasis moderatechanges in the internal environment• For a given variable, fluctuations above orbelow a set point serve as a stimulus; theseare detected by a sensor and trigger aresponse• The response returns the variable to the setpointMechanisms of HomeostasisCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin CummingsAnimation: Positive FeedbackAnimation: Positive FeedbackAnimation: Negative FeedbackAnimation: Negative Feedback
    55. 55. Fig. 40-8Response:HeaterturnedoffStimulus:Control center(thermostat)reads too hotRoomtemperaturedecreasesSetpoint:20ºCRoomtemperatureincreasesStimulus:Control center(thermostat)reads too coldResponse:Heaterturnedon
    56. 56. Feedback Loops in Homeostasis• The dynamic equilibrium of homeostasis ismaintained by negative feedback, which helpsto return a variable to either a normal range ora set point• Most homeostatic control systems function bynegative feedback, where buildup of the endproduct shuts the system off• Positive feedback loops occur in animals, butdo not usually contribute to homeostasisCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    57. 57. Alterations in Homeostasis• Set points and normal ranges can change withage or show cyclic variation• Homeostasis can adjust to changes in externalenvironment, a process called acclimatizationCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    58. 58. Concept 40.3: Homeostatic processes forthermoregulation involve form, function, andbehavior• Thermoregulation is the process by whichanimals maintain an internal temperature withina tolerable rangeCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    59. 59. • Endothermic animals generate heat bymetabolism; birds and mammals areendotherms• Ectothermic animals gain heat from externalsources; ectotherms include mostinvertebrates, fishes, amphibians, and non-avian reptilesEndothermy and EctothermyCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    60. 60. • In general, ectotherms tolerate greatervariation in internal temperature, whileendotherms are active at a greater range ofexternal temperatures• Endothermy is more energetically expensivethan ectothermyCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    61. 61. Fig. 40-9(a) A walrus, an endotherm(b) A lizard, an ectotherm
    62. 62. Variation in Body Temperature• The body temperature of a poikilotherm varieswith its environment, while that of ahomeotherm is relatively constantCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    63. 63. Balancing Heat Loss and Gain• Organisms exchange heat by four physicalprocesses: conduction, convection, radiation,and evaporationCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    64. 64. Fig. 40-10Radiation EvaporationConvection Conduction
    65. 65. • Heat regulation in mammals often involves theintegumentary system: skin, hair, and nailsCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    66. 66. Fig. 40-11EpidermisDermisHypodermisAdipose tissueBlood vesselsHairSweatporeMuscleNerveSweatglandOil glandHair follicle
    67. 67. • Five general adaptations help animalsthermoregulate:– Insulation– Circulatory adaptations– Cooling by evaporative heat loss– Behavioral responses– Adjusting metabolic heat productionCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    68. 68. Insulation• Insulation is a major thermoregulatoryadaptation in mammals and birds• Skin, feathers, fur, and blubber reduce heatflow between an animal and its environmentCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    69. 69. • Regulation of blood flow near the body surfacesignificantly affects thermoregulation• Many endotherms and some ectotherms canalter the amount of blood flowing between thebody core and the skin• In vasodilation, blood flow in the skinincreases, facilitating heat loss• In vasoconstriction, blood flow in the skindecreases, lowering heat lossCirculatory AdaptationsCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    70. 70. • The arrangement of blood vessels in manymarine mammals and birds allows forcountercurrent exchange• Countercurrent heat exchangers transfer heatbetween fluids flowing in opposite directions• Countercurrent heat exchangers are animportant mechanism for reducing heat lossCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    71. 71. Fig. 40-12Canada goose BottlenosedolphinArteryArteryVein VeinBlood flow33º35ºC27º30º18º20º10º 9º
    72. 72. • Some bony fishes and sharks also usecountercurrent heat exchanges• Many endothermic insects have countercurrentheat exchangers that help maintain a hightemperature in the thoraxCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    73. 73. Cooling by Evaporative Heat Loss• Many types of animals lose heat throughevaporation of water in sweat• Panting increases the cooling effect in birdsand many mammals• Sweating or bathing moistens the skin, helpingto cool an animal downCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    74. 74. • Both endotherms and ectotherms usebehavioral responses to control bodytemperature• Some terrestrial invertebrates have posturesthat minimize or maximize absorption of solarheatBehavioral ResponsesCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    75. 75. Fig. 40-13
    76. 76. Adjusting Metabolic Heat Production• Some animals can regulate body temperatureby adjusting their rate of metabolic heatproduction• Heat production is increased by muscle activitysuch as moving or shivering• Some ectotherms can also shiver to increasebody temperatureCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    77. 77. Fig. 40-14RESULTSContractions per minuteO2consumption(mLO2/hr)perkg00202015105 25 30 35406080100120
    78. 78. Fig. 40-15PREFLIGHT PREFLIGHTWARM-UPFLIGHTThoraxAbdomenTime from onset of warm-up (min)Temperature(ºC)0 2 425303540
    79. 79. • Birds and mammals can vary their insulation toacclimatize to seasonal temperature changes• When temperatures are subzero, someectotherms produce “antifreeze” compounds toprevent ice formation in their cellsAcclimatization in ThermoregulationCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    80. 80. Physiological Thermostats and Fever• Thermoregulation is controlled by a region ofthe brain called the hypothalamus• The hypothalamus triggers heat loss or heatgenerating mechanisms• Fever is the result of a change to the set pointfor a biological thermostatCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    81. 81. Fig. 40-16Sweat glands secretesweat, which evaporates,cooling the body.Thermostat in hypothalamusactivates cooling mechanisms.Blood vesselsin skin dilate:capillaries fill;heat radiatesfrom skin.Increased bodytemperatureDecreased bodytemperatureThermostat inhypothalamusactivates warmingmechanisms.Blood vessels in skinconstrict, reducingheat loss.Skeletal muscles contract;shivering generates heat.Body temperatureincreases; thermostatshuts off warmingmechanisms.Homeostasis:Internal temperatureof 36–38°CBody temperaturedecreases;thermostatshuts off coolingmechanisms.
    82. 82. Concept 40.4: Energy requirements are related toanimal size, activity, and environment• Bioenergetics is the overall flow andtransformation of energy in an animal• It determines how much food an animal needsand relates to an animal’s size, activity, andenvironmentCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    83. 83. Energy Allocation and Use• Animals harvest chemical energy from food• Energy-containing molecules from food areusually used to make ATP, which powerscellular work• After the needs of staying alive are met,remaining food molecules can be used inbiosynthesis• Biosynthesis includes body growth and repair,synthesis of storage material such as fat, andproduction of gametesCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    84. 84. Fig. 40-17Organic moleculesin foodExternalenvironmentAnimalbody Digestion andabsorptionNutrient moleculesin body cellsCarbonskeletonsCellularrespirationATPHeatEnergy lostin fecesEnergy lost innitrogenouswasteHeatBiosynthesisHeatHeatCellularwork
    85. 85. • Metabolic rate is the amount of energy ananimal uses in a unit of time• One way to measure it is to determine theamount of oxygen consumed or carbon dioxideproducedQuantifying Energy UseCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    86. 86. Fig. 40-18
    87. 87. Minimum Metabolic Rate and Thermoregulation• Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the metabolicrate of an endotherm at rest at a “comfortable”temperature• Standard metabolic rate (SMR) is themetabolic rate of an ectotherm at rest at aspecific temperature• Both rates assume a nongrowing, fasting, andnonstressed animal• Ectotherms have much lower metabolic ratesthan endotherms of a comparable sizeCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    88. 88. • Metabolic rates are affected by many factorsbesides whether an animal is an endotherm orectotherm• Two of these factors are size and activityInfluences on Metabolic RateCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    89. 89. Size and Metabolic Rate• Metabolic rate per gram is inversely related tobody size among similar animals• Researchers continue to search for the causesof this relationship• The higher metabolic rate of smaller animalsleads to a higher oxygen delivery rate,breathing rate, heart rate, and greater (relative)blood volume, compared with a larger animalCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    90. 90. Fig. 40-19ElephantHorseHumanSheepDogCatRatGround squirrelMouseHarvest mouseShrewBody mass (kg) (log scale)BMR(LO2/hr)(Iogscale)10–3 10–210–210–110–1101011 102102103103(a) Relationship of BMR to body sizeShrewMouseHarvest mouseSheepRat CatDogHumanHorseElephantBMR(LO2/hr)(perkg)Ground squirrelBody mass (kg) (log scale)10–310–210–11 10 102103012345687(b) Relationship of BMR per kilogram of body mass to body size
    91. 91. Fig. 40-19aShrewHarvest mouseMouseGround squirrelRatCat DogSheepHumanHorseElephantBody mass (kg) (log scale)BMR(LO2/hr)(logscale)(a) Relationship of BMR to body size10–310–210–210–110–11110 10210310102103
    92. 92. Fig. 40-19b10310210110–110–210–3012345678Body mass (kg) (log scale)(b) Relationship of BMR per kilogram of body mass to body sizeBMR(LO2/hr)(perkg)ShrewHarvest mouseMouseRatGround squirrelCatSheepDogHumanHorseElephant
    93. 93. • Activity greatly affects metabolic rate forendotherms and ectotherms• In general, the maximum metabolic rate ananimal can sustain is inversely related to theduration of the activityActivity and Metabolic RateCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    94. 94. • Different species use energy and materials infood in different ways, depending on theirenvironment• Use of energy is partitioned to BMR (or SMR),activity, thermoregulation, growth, andreproductionEnergy BudgetsCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    95. 95. Fig. 40-20Annualenergyexpenditure(kcal/hr)60-kg female humanfrom temperate climate800,000Basal(standard)metabolismReproductionThermoregulationGrowthActivity340,0004-kg male Adélie penguinfrom Antarctica (brooding)4,0000.025-kg female deer mousefrom temperateNorth America8,0004-kg female easternindigo snakeEndotherms Ectotherm
    96. 96. Fig. 40-20aAnnualenergyexpenditure(kcal/hr)60-kg female humanfrom temperate climate800,000Basal(standard)metabolismReproductionThermoregulationGrowthActivity
    97. 97. Fig. 40-20bReproductionThermoregulationActivityBasal(standard)metabolism4-kg male Adélie penguinfrom Antarctica (brooding)Annualenergyexpenditure(kcal/yr)340,000
    98. 98. Fig. 40-20cReproductionThermoregulationBasal(standard)metabolismActivity4,0000.025-kg female deer mousefrom temperateNorth AmericaAnnualenergyexpenditure(kcal/yr)
    99. 99. Fig. 40-20dReproductionGrowthActivityBasal(standard)metabolism4-kg female easternindigo snake8,000Annualenergyexpenditure(kcal/yr)
    100. 100. Torpor and Energy Conservation• Torpor is a physiological state in which activityis low and metabolism decreases• Torpor enables animals to save energy whileavoiding difficult and dangerous conditions• Hibernation is long-term torpor that is anadaptation to winter cold and food scarcityCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    101. 101. Fig. 40-21Additional metabolism that would benecessary to stay active in winterActualmetabolismArousalsBodytemperatureOutsidetemperatureBurrowtemperatureMetabolicrate(kcalperday)Temperature(°C)June August October December February April–15–10–5051510252035300100200
    102. 102. • Estivation, or summer torpor, enables animalsto survive long periods of high temperaturesand scarce water supplies• Daily torpor is exhibited by many smallmammals and birds and seems adapted tofeeding patternsCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    103. 103. Fig. 40-UN1HomeostasisStimulus:Perturbation/stressResponse/effectorControl centerSensor/receptor
    104. 104. Fig. 40-UN2
    105. 105. You should now be able to:1. Distinguish among the following sets of terms:collagenous, elastic, and reticular fibers;regulator and conformer; positive andnegative feedback; basal and standardmetabolic rates; torpor, hibernation, estivation,and daily torpor2. Relate structure with function and identifydiagrams of the following animal tissues:epithelial, connective tissue (six types),muscle tissue (three types), and nervoustissueCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    106. 106. 3. Compare and contrast the nervous andendocrine systems4. Define thermoregulation and explain howendotherms and ectotherms manage theirheat budgets5. Describe how a countercurrent heatexchanger may function to retain heat withinan animal body6. Define bioenergetics and biosynthesis7. Define metabolic rate and explain how it canbe determined for animalsCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×