FOster the Comprehension and USe of Knowledge intensive 3D media
1. Results of AWG The FOCUS K3D consortium is glad to be able to
distribute the third newsletter of our project. This time,
Workshops the focus of the newsletter is on the workshops held by
2. Workshop about the Application Working Groups:
Industry Challenges CAD/CAE and Virtual Product Modeling Leader of AWG
in Geometric Modeling Virtual Product
Archaeology and Cultural Heritage Modeling
3. Workshop about Future
Challenges in Computer Medicine and Bioinformatics
Gaming and Simulation
4. Semantic Scenarios
Each working group has organized and carried out a workshop
of the Future together with industrial and academic partners to discuss the potenti-
al of 3D shapes and semantics in the various ﬁelds.
5. News about the DSW
6. Events All in all 5 workshops were held with 130 participants from industry
and academia stemming from 8 different European countries. The
7. Project Partners results of these workshops are summarized in this newsletter.
Additionally, we have identiﬁed concrete scenarios where current prac-
tices can beneﬁt from semantics for 3D shapes that will also be presen-
ted in the current newsletter.
For example, one scenario in the ﬁeld of Virtual Product Modeling talks
about the need for easy modeling tools describing objects on a high-
ly semantic level being independent from its mathematical represen-
tation. Such a description can beneﬁcially be used not only to model
objects from scratch but also to interpret physical models being acqui-
red by scanning technology.
Another scenario in the ﬁeld of Medicine and Bioinformatics talks about
the need to understand the relationships between the 3D shape and its
bio-molecules and their function. Semantics and possibly annotations
could help this process; shape-based reasoning would be an approach
to try to automate interpretations in the future.
These scenarios point out current shortcomings of technology where
more research is needed to make today’s wishes and visions a future
daily reality by facilitating semantic processing of 3D shapes.
Current limitations of technology, such as high level semantic represen-
tation of shape, recognition of shape and its function, etc. will be struc-
tured in the remainder of the FOCUS K3D project and build the basis
for the development of research roadmaps for the future.
1. Results of AWG Anatomic Models
Workshop The Workshop about Anatomic Models computer-aided medicine. The workshop
AWG Medicine and was held on June 16-17, 2009 at INRIA featured 15 talks and an open discussi-
Sophia Antipolis - Mediterranee. Mode- on at the end on knowledge technolo-
ling anatomical objects is required to gies for computer-aided medicine. Ove-
carry out therapy planning and simu- rall 35 people attended. The audience
lation, with more and more interest for was mostly composed of researchers
patient speciﬁc anatomy. Accurate ana- (around 25 Phs and 4 professors) and
tomical models require both geometric of two industry representatives from
modeling (most commonly from ima- the company Esaote (Italy). One neuro-
ging devices) and knowledge from the surgeon and one practicioner from Ircad
experts. Diagnosis, therapy planning (Strasbourg, France) also attended the
and legal medicine use a combination of workshop. The registered participants
simulation and knowledge. came from France, Italy, Switzerland,
The Workshop on Anatomical Models Belgium and Germany. All abstracts are
aimed at bringing together interdiscip- available from the program web page
linary people to discuss recent results http://www.focusk3d.eu/awg-medicine-
and research directions, with an empha- and-bioinformatics. When available each
sis on knowledge technologies applied to abstract page has a link to the slides.
Flexibility in Biological Recognition
The workshop Flexibility and Biological between the 3D shape of bio-molecules
Recognition: from Biophysics to Data and their function. Yet, advanced geo-
Models, was held on March 18-20 at metric tools to study properties to be
INRIA Sophia-Antipolis, France. A total used for annotations are not readily
of 42 scientists coming from the biophy- available, which is clearly a hindrance.
sics and computer science communities Such tools should in particular provide
attended the event. The multi-discipli- basic operations for molecular surfaces
nary discussions which took place allow and volumes, and in general allow the
us to pitch two facts. computation, segmentation and compa-
First, while there is a steady interest for rison of molecular shapes. In fact, the
Knowledge Technologies in the structu- ideal setting would be to have a robust,
ral bio-informatics community, KT are fast, and versatile library such as Com-
perceived as complex and not easy-to- putational Geometry Algorithms Library
use. A proper training must be develo- (www.cgal.org), but dedicated to mole-
ped to allow easier access. cular shapes. The development of such
Second, the geometric annotation of a library should become a clear focus in
macro-molecular shapes is key to fos- the near future. Without a doubt, anno-
ter our understanding of the relationship tations will follow!
AWG Gaming and 3AMIGAS
On June 16, 2009, the FOCUS K3D Advanced Media In Gaming And Simula-
Application Working Group for Gaming tion) and took place in Amsterdam, The
and Simulation organized a thematic Netherlands, in conjunction with CASA
workshop together with the GATE pro- 2009, the 22nd Annual Conference on
ject, a large national initiative on Game Computer Animation and Social Agents.
Research for Training and Entertainment CASA is the leading international confe-
that is funded by the Netherlands Orga- rence in the ﬁeld of computer animation
nization for Scientiﬁc Research (NWO) and social agents.
and the Netherlands ICT Research and 3AMIGAS featured a technical program
Innovation Authority (ICT Regie). Its addressing different aspects involved
major goal was to promote the usage in the creation and use of advanced 3D
of semantics in 3D content modelling media in gaming and simulation. Con-
by bringing together people working tributions have been selected based on
in this ﬁeld and getting them involved a rigorous review process and cover-
by providing feedback to the ideas and ed various topics including 3D shapes
Model name: Armadillo 4
Edges: 497856, Faces: 331904,
concepts fostered by FOCUS K3D. The with semantics in virtual worlds, rule-
Vertices: 165954 workshop was called 3AMIGAS (for 3D based layout solving, procedural me-
thods for terrain modelling, coordinated ming and simulation applications, high-
movement of autonomous agents, and lighted challenges and critical issues,
detection, tracking, and recognition of and addressed potential problems and
human poses. Two keynote speeches limitations.
from the AWG members T-Xchange and Workshop material including the Procee-
VSTEP presented issues related to the dings with all the technical papers, ab-
collaborative visual analytics through stracts from the keynote speeches, and
serious gaming and the content creati- a position statement from the FOCUS
on workﬂow of a ship simulator game, K3D AWG Gaming and Simulation can
respectively. A lively discussion among be downloaded from our web portal at
all participants at the end of the event http://www.focusk3d.eu/gaming-and-si-
addressed various aspects related to mulation-awg. Slides from all presenters
the workshop’s theme. It demonstrated are also available from the web portal.
the various opportunities for the bene- Slides from all presenters are available
ﬁcial usage of knowledge technologies for download from the FOCUS K3D web
and semantics in 3D modelling for ga- portal.
Presentation by Chiara Eva Catalano (IMATI, Italy) about “Computer Graphics Recipes for Endowing 3D
Shapes with Semantics in Virtual Worlds
AWG Archaeology and 3D Knowledge Technologies for
Cultural Heritage Cultural Heritage Applications
The Workshop on 3D Knowledge Tech- nological directions in the emerging
nologies for Cultural Heritage Applica- and highly multi-disciplinary research
tions was held on September 12, 2009 ﬁeld of Semantic 3D Media in Cultural
in conjunction with the 15th Internatio- Heritage and Archeology.
nal Conference on Virtual Systems and The workshop program included several
Multimedia (VSMM09) in Vienna, Aus- invited talks from different related are-
tria. It was sponsored by the FOCUS as (like e-documentation, virtual envi-
K3D coordination action and organized ronments, serious games) and projects
by the Archaeology & Cultural Heritage (like 3D COFORM, www.3d-coform.eu).
Application Working Group of FOCUS During the workshop a discussion took
K3D. The workshop targeted the sci- place concerning 3D and knowledge
entiﬁc community working in the ﬁeld technologies in Cultural Heritage and
of 3D graphics and knowledge techno- digital libraries (Europeana), open re-
Model name: Neptune - clean, logies and aimed at bringing together search issues and practical difﬁculties in
watertight (4M triangles)
Edges: 6011808, Faces: 4007872, researchers, 3D content creators/users CH applications.
Vertices: 2003932 and Cultural Heritage professionals. Its Workshop related information and ma-
objective was also to establish a scien- terial like presentation abstracts, slides,
tiﬁc forum for exchanging and disse- position statements, etc., are available
minating novel ideas and techniques, at our web portal http://www.focusk3d.
and trace future research and tech- eu/3d-knowledge-for-ch
AWG CAD/CAE and Challenges in 3D Content for Virtual
Virtual Product Modeling Product Modeling
The workshop on Challenges in 3D a general problem that knowledge to-
Content for Virtual Product Modeling day is mainly hidden in the applications
was held on September 1, 2009 in con- and nor embedded in the 3D shapes
junction with the conference Go-3D themselves. The event addressed new
2009: Go for Innovations in Rostock, topics like Functional Digital Mock-up
Germany. It was sponsored by the and Engineering Ontologies.
FOCUS K3D coordination action and The program of the workshop inclu-
organized by the CAD/CAE and Virtual ded several invited talks from scien-
Product Modeling Application Working tiﬁc experts about the integration of
Group of FOCUS K3D. simulation in the product develop-
Thinking of product data and looking at ment process and product semantics
today´s product development, 3D plays in computer-aided conceptual Design.
a crucial role in the digital content crea- The scientiﬁc presentations were com-
tion and consumption and especially in pleted by several position statements
the requirements of product innovation. from the industry about existing pro-
The workshop addressed relevant and blems concerning the integration
challenging problems in the use of 3D of semantics in the virtual product mo-
content for knowledge based enginee- deling process. The discussion round
ring (KBE). The workshop targeted later on pointed out that semantic in-
the scientiﬁc and industrial commu- formation is today still embedded in the
nity working in the ﬁeld of knowledge application not in the transferred data.
intensive technologies in the area of Research is needed to ﬁnd and establish
virtual product modeling. Recently, approaches for this problem.
semantic technologies, including on- Workshop related information and ma-
Virtual Product Modeling
tologies, have shown beneﬁts for terial like presentation abstracts, slides,
heterogeneous information and know- position statements etc., are available at
ledge management but they still cannot our web portal:
handle 3D objects that carry knowledge http://www.focusk3d.eu/cad-cae-and-
about their interface and behavior. It is virtual-product-modelling-awg.
2. Workshop Beginning in 2003, the 1 1/2-day work- and explore concrete opportunities for
shops „Industry Challenges in Geo- collaboration.
about Industry metricModeling, CAD and Simulation“ The 7th event in this series was held
Challenges have been held every year in March, on March 12-13, 2009, and featured
in Geometric organized by Ewald Quak (SINTEF) and several presentations related to FO-
Ulrich Reif (Darmstadt University of Tech- CUS K3D and its Application Working
Modeling nology), and hosted by Fraunhofer IGD Groups, namely „Models and algorithms
in Darmstadt, Germany. They are set up for the description of macro-molecular
to promote theco-operation of industry interactions: from biophysics to geome-
and academia in addressing relevant try and vice versa“ by Frederic Cazals
and challenging mathematical problems (INRIA); „Interactive surface reconstruc-
from geometry, computer-aided design, tion on triangle meshes with subdivision
shape modelling, and other related are surfaces“ by Matthias Bein (Fraunho-
as such as simulation. In a relaxed at- fer IGD), „The multimedia, multilingual
mosphere conducive to interesting dis- e-documentation of the past“ by Mari-
cussions, practitioners from industry and nos Ioannides (European Commision),
application-minded people from acade- and „Current issues in the visual effects
mia come together to discuss current re- and post production industry“ by Neil
search issues, investigate future trends Dodgson (University of Cambridge).
3. Workshop On the workshop “Future Challenges Documents”, and “Conﬂuence of Gra-
in Computer Vision 2009” on March phics and Vision”.
about Future 13, 2009, leading experts in the ﬁeld Bianca Falcidieno, Project Coordinator of
Challenges of Computer Graphics and Computer FOCUS K3D was invited to give a keyno-
in Computer Vision shared and discussed their te speach about „Semantics in the Mo-
thoughts about the future development deling process. We are printing an abs-
Vision in three main areas: “Semantics in the tract about her talk.
Modeling Process”, “Generalized Digital 3D content is now widely recognized as
the upcoming wave of digital media. In- totypes and experience to virtual proto-
experience and professional users are types and simulation. This shift has an
becoming more and more actively in- enormous impact on a number of indus-
volved in the content creation pipeline trial and scientiﬁc sectors, such as De-
and ask for more and more intuitive and sign and Manufacturing, Serious Gaming
effective tools for creating, sharing, re- and Simulation, Cultural Heritage and
trieving and re-using 3D content. The Archaeology, Medical Applications, Bio-
critical role of users as drivers of inno- informatics and Pharmaceutical Science,
vation is increasingly apparent and sug- where digital shapes are essential know-
gests that true innovation and impact ledge carriers and represent a huge eco-
can emerge by a balanced combination nomic factor in many content sectors.
of technology-pushed and user-pulled In both the talk and the panel, issues
solutions. and challenges that should be addressed
The ease of producing and/or collecting have been discussed, together with
data in digital form has caused a gradu- some new approaches and solutions de-
al shift of paradigm in various applied veloped in FOCUS K3D and other Euro-
and scientiﬁc ﬁelds: from physical pro- pean projects.
4. Semantic Motivation
Scenarios In various applications dense meshes in a procedural modeling framework
of the Future or point clouds are generated with offers new options for many surface
3D-scanners to digitize the surface of an reconstruction applications. By combi-
Surface Recontruction object. Usually the direct result of the ning the tool with easy-to-use but intelli-
scanning process is of insufﬁcient qua- gent functions it is also possible to reach
lity. Some examples are varying point a wider audience. For instance a scan-
density, incomplete regions, holes and ned incomplete cultural heritage object
triangulation errors. In a manual pro- can be fully reconstructed by applying
cess the scanned object needs to be re- rules like repeating structures, symme-
vised which is a tedious work. Further- try or boundary conditions. Another use
more this work ﬂow does not allow fast case is object design, where an existing
variations of the created model. object can be digitized and used to crea-
Integrating a fast reconstruction tool te new models by variation.
GML (Generative Modeling Language) is function blocks with parameters that can
a stack based programming language for be combined to form a ﬂexible descripti-
3D-modeling (similar to PostScript, just on of a whole model. For instance a chair
for 3D instead of 2D). A model in GML is can be composed of the function blocks
described by its surface generating func- create seat, append legs and append
tions, hence the name. GML offers edge backrest where parameters (total height,
tagged subdivision surfaces that combine seat length, bending angle of backrest,
polygonal surfaces and freeform surfaces etc) to these blocks inﬂuence the ap-
in a single surface representation. The pearance of the chair.
programming language allows creating
While programming models offer high creation of surface patches with little
ﬂexibility, intelligent model and complex user interaction. For high surface cont-
surface descriptions, it is quite unusual rol, 3D-widgets are used for visualizati-
for a non-expert to use but recent ex- on and manipulation.
tensions successfully integrated inter- Offering an intelligent front-end to GML
active components that make creation with the above-mentioned operations
and modiﬁcation of GML models possib- realizes the generative surface recons-
le without any programming. Sketching truction. A designer or archeologist can
operations like silhouette-sketching, ex- use the interactive operations to create
trusion, sweeping and lofting allow fast ﬂexible function blocks from scratch or
creation of models on a high modeling a scanned object. Via the front-end the
level. Reconstruction operations allow user can organize the function blocks,
their composition and parameters which combine them with existing functions,
allow deﬁning a procedural model without to alter and reuse them with different
any programming involved. parameters and to recombine them to
The whole solution offers the user to create new models or complete missing
interactively create procedural models model parts.
or functions from scratch, to extend or
Reference: Bein, Matthias; Havemann, Sven; Stork, André: ACM SIGGRAPH / Eurographics Symposium
on Sketch-Based Interfaces and Modeling (SBIM) 6, 2009, New Orleans, LA, USA, pp. 61-68
Towards more Insight Motivation
with Functional Digital
Mockup In industrial product development, me- in industrial practice. However DMU and
chatronic components play a rapidly in- the associated software tools are nowa-
creasing role. days mostly limited to the integration of
Mechatronic components are charac- geometry. Possibilities of a functional in-
terized by the fact that electronic and tegration are missing.
software controlled systems inﬂuence In order to put mechatronic products on
mechanical parts. In the development a solid base in an early stage of the de-
of mechatronic products the domains velopment process, an extension of DMU
software engineering, mechanical engi- with functional aspects towards a Func-
neering, and electronic engineering are tional Digital Mock-up and the support
considered. For the geometric integrati- of cooperation between the domains of
on of product models, Digital Mock-Up mechanics, electronics and software de-
(DMU) has been established as an inhe- velopment are imperative.
rent part of virtual product development
Approaches of Digital Mock-up and Functional Digital Mock-up
Key Concept of FDMU
Functional Building Block concept. The second challenge of Func-
One challenge in this context is to ﬁnd tional DMU is to provide a FDMU Frame
and create basic model components work as runtime-environment for FBB.
which support a ﬂexible co-simulation At least three aspects are important:
and online-visualization. For this reason • Simulation and visualization tools
the concept of Functional Building Block should be integrated in the framework
(FBB) has been developed. An example via open interfaces.
Example for a Functional Building is illustrated in the Figure. The FBB Mo- • The framework has to organize the
tor covers a functional model describing data exchange between all FBB within a
the electro-mechanical behavior and 3D total FDMU Simulation Model (FSM).
CAD data describing all geometrical/vi- • The framework has to provide ap-
sible components of the motor. propriate co-simulation algorithms for
An FBB shows the main advantage of the simulators/FBB.
Functional DMU approach: 3D CAD mo-
dels are no longer ’dead’ models. With a Interactive Visualization
functional simulation in the background 3D visualization plays a key role in the
they can demonstrate a physically FDMU framework. The implementation
correct behavior. of the visualization components is based
Of course, the FBB is only one part of the on the iFX scene graph viewer software.
iFX is a ﬂexible and extendable frame- was designed to be extendable from
work for the interactive visualization of ground up. User speciﬁc extensions can
simulation data. It supports coopera- easily be integrated. The iFX software
tive work over low-bandwith network has been integrated in the FDMU frame-
connections and it is based on OpenSG work via wrapper. It allows to load the
and handles huge models with millions geometry data from FBB and to visualize
of elements. iFX runs on Linux and Win- 3D object transformations (translation,
dows operating systems and supports rotation, scaling, ...) according to simu-
multi core processors. iFX’s architecture lated signal values online.
FDMU Application Example: Window
The application example Window Regu- voltage U of the motor and is monitoring
lator demonstrates the co-simulation of the current I of the motor at the same
WindowRegulator: System model and functional models from the three diffe- time. If the current of the motor exceeds
interactive 3D visualization rent physical domains software, electro- a threshold I_max, the voltage is swit-
nics, and mechanics. Furthermore, the ched off by the control (U=0). Further-
example allows user interactions during more the ECU obtains signals up or down
a simulation run and shows the results from pushbuttons for opening and closing
immediately within a 3D visualization. the side windows. The evaluation of the
If a user pushs the UP or DOWN but- signals is carried out by software inside
ton of the window regulator, the window of the ECU. The system model is divided
moves up or down in the 3D CAD model, in different FBB corresponding to the
respectively. Inside a car door a mecha- different physical domains:
nism, operating like shears, moves a Switch, Controller, ElectricalUnit, Mo-
car side window up and down (h). It is tor, MechanicalUnit, Window. All FBB
driven by a gear of an electric motor. An exchange their data via a Master Simu-
engine control unit (ECU) provides the lator.
The main advantages are the co-simu- perfomed by a Master Simulator.
lation of different physical domains and The FDMU framework provides ﬂexible
the combination of functional simu- open interfaces for integration of simu-
lation and 3D geometry visualization lation tools, visualization programs, and
in a ﬂexible design environment – the other applications supporting virtual
FDMU framework. With the concept of product design of mechatronic systems.
Functional Building Block (FBB) users Currently, FDMU addresses many impor-
can reuse and combine existing beha- tant challenges in automotive industry.
vioral models and geometry/CAD data. More complex multi-domain systems
A total system model consisting of vari- can be developed faster. Furthermore,
Pictures are published from Fraunhofer ous FBB can be simulated and visualized FDMU allows integration tests as early
EAS, IGD, LBF; FOKUS on European
Automotive Simulation Conference, within a framework. Data exchange as possible.
Munich, July 6-7, 2009 and synchronization between FBB is
MellaniuM and the The key to effective virtual realism, es- create the realism necessary for a true
Temple of Horus pecially for ﬁelds like archaeology, is reduction of cognitive friction and the
Complex the creation of an environment so well subtle transcendence to a believable
conceived interpretively that the user immersion.
becomes emotionally involved in the In addition comprehensive descriptive
content of the simulation. Users obvi- metadata relating to the original source,
ously desire to experience a design that age, design and existing knowledge on
has been created in terms of lighting ef- associated artefacts can be connected
fects, ﬁnishes, surface textures, layout effectively to any 3D item in the envi-
and construction details which will lend ronment. By introducing small unobtru-
itself to a complete suspension of disbe- sive portal icons within the 3D models,
lief. The MellaniuM application allows for which can be approached in the screen,
Inside the Courtyard near the Entran- the importation of high polygon models the participant will automatically be
ce to the Hypostyle Hall and rich textures that are being used directed to URL or local links (web pages
now in the Temple of Horus complex to and movies) with pertinent information
to the item. This type of semantic inter- delivery client. It will be possible in the
activity is vital to produce an environ- near future with one URL web link click to
ment that will encompass both a truly enter along with up to 50 others to explo-
informative and a sensory experience re and learn about the fascinating details
resulting in an academically accurate of the Temple Complex. For a demonstra-
and effective educational space. tion of a MellaniuM furnace environment
Now the MellaniuM museum application on the NORTEL web.alive feature go to
Passing through the Hypostyle Hall will have to eventually be used in combi- http://furnace.projectchainsaw.com/
nation with the unique Nortel web.alive
5. News about Thanks to the active participation of In the DSW the collection of shapes used
AWG members, the Shape Repository of for the SHREC09 contest has been up-
the DSW the Digital Shape Workbench° has been loaded: the generic benchmark consists
considerably enlarged. A number of new of 800 3D models, and the target data-
3D shapes have been uploaded together base contains 720 complete 3D models,
with their metadata by AWG members, which are categorised into 40 classes.
spanning from models of organs and On the FOCUS K3D web portal, a video
muscles for the Medicine ﬁeld, to dif- tutorial on the different components and
ferent kinds of artefacts for the CAD the functionalities of the DSW has been
category, to virtual characters for the recently uploaded.
Gaming group. To include new shapes relevant for the
Among the research themes promoted four application ﬁelds, please contact
by FOCUS K3D shape similarity is one of the AWG leaders.
the most crucial for an efﬁcient retrieval. http://dsw.aimatshape.net
6. Events Upcoming Events
September MICCAI - 12th International Conference on Medical Image Computing and
20-24 Computer Assisted Intervention, London, England
October The 2009 SIAM (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics)/ ACM
5-9 (Association for Computing Machinery) Joint Conference on Geometric &
2009 Physical Modeling, San Francisco, California
November Second International Workshop on Motion in Games
March Second International IEEE Conference in Serious Games and Virtual Worlds
25-26 (VS-Games ‘10), Braga, Portugal
Date Event FOCUS K3D Activities
March CAA 2009 Distribution of project mate-
22-26 37th annual International Conference on rial and recruitment of new
2009 Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods AWG members
in Archaeology, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA
March Workshop on 3D Object Retrieval 3DOR’09, A FOCUS K3D poster pres-
29 EUROGRAPHICS 2009, Munich, Germany entation was given at the
2009 http://3dor.ge.imati.cnr.it/About.html EG workshop on 3D Object
June CASA Workshop on 3D Advanced Media The FOCUS K3D thematic
16 In Gaming And Simulation (3AMIGAS) Workshop was about the
2009 Amsterdam, The Netherlands creation and use of advanced
http://www.cs.uu.nl/events/3amigas/ 3D media in gaming and
September Go for Innovations. Workshop on challenges in Presentation of the project
1 3D content for Virtual Product Modeling. and recruitment of new AWG
September Workshop on 3D Knowledge Technologies for Presentation of the project
12 Cultural Heritage Applications. and recruitment of new AWG
7. Project Institute for Applied Mathematics and Information
Partners Technologies (CNR-IMATI-GE),
Dr. Bianca Falcidieno
Istituto di Matematica Applicata e Center for Research and Technology - Thessaly (CERETETH)
Tecnologie Informatiche Greece
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche
Via De Marini 6, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale De Lausanne (VRlab-EPFL)
16149 Genova, Italy Switzerland
Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics Research (IGD)
Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en
Université de Genève - MIRALab (MIRALab)
Utrecht University (UU)