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"Linking online and offline: digital media and political processes in Indonesia" - Presentation by Yanuar Nugroho at FoME 2012 Symposium in Berlin. http://forum-medien-entwicklung.de ...

"Linking online and offline: digital media and political processes in Indonesia" - Presentation by Yanuar Nugroho at FoME 2012 Symposium in Berlin. http://forum-medien-entwicklung.de

(c) Yanuar Nugroho, 2012
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Linking online and offline: digital media and political processes in Indonesia Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Linking  online  and  offline:   Digital  media  and  poli2cal  processes     in  Indonesia   Berlin,  29  –  31  October  2012   Yanuar  Nugroho   Research  Fellow,  University  of  Manchester,  UK   on  secondment  to  the  Indonesian  President’s  Delivery  Unit   for  Development  Monitoring  &  Oversight  (UKP-­‐PPP)   @yanuarnugroho;  yanuar.nugroho@manchester.ac.uk    Picture:  Private  Collec2on  
  • 2. Agenda  •  Online  Indonesia  •  Regula2ng  the  Net  •  Alterna2ve  public  spheres  •  Digital  media:  support  and  networking  •  Digital  media  and  mobilisa2on  and  protest  •  Tales  from  the  field  •  Reflec2on  
  • 3. Online  Indonesia  Approx.  55  million  internet  users,  with  22.4%  penetra2on  …  60%  of  the  access  are  mobile-­‐based;  …  total  171  million  mobile  users  More  than  19.5  million  Twi$er  accounts  More  than  42.5  million  Facebook  users  More  than  5.3  million  blogs  listed  
  • 4. Story  #1:  Prita  and  freedom  of  expression  •  A  common  housewife     –  prosecuted  under  the  charge  of  defama;on  for  sending  complaints   through  private  e-­‐mails  regarding  the  service  of  the  Omni  Interna;onal   Hospital  where  she  was  treated.     –  Was  jailed  for  3  weeks  and  was  released  aEer  a  public  outcry  which   gained  weight  aEer  becoming  viral  on  the  Net  thanks  to  Facebook   (Support  from  prominent  figures  inc.  the  former  President  Megawa;)     –  was  sued  in  a  civil  case  and  fined  IDR  312  million  (USD37,  000),  and   later  was  reduced  to  IDR  204  million  (USD  20,  500)    •  Indonesian  net  ac;vists  started  a  mailing  list  and  Facebook  group   called  Coins  for  Prita     –  to  raise  money  from  people  throughout  the  country  to  help  her  pay  the   fine.    •  As  a  result,  the  Hospital  dropped  the  civil  lawsuit  and  the  Supreme   Court  quashed  the  charge  …   –  …  but  in  July  2011  the  Supreme  Court  overturned  the  decision  (despite   she  does  not  have  to  go  to  jail)  
  • 5. Story  #2:  @JalinMerapi  &  mobilisa2on  of  aids  It  was  5  November  2010,  7.30pm,  when  …  we  received  an  emergency  request  …  [that]  refugees  …  now  needed  6,  000  por;on  of  nasi  bungkus  (rice  meal).  ...  Who  could  have  provided  that  much  rice  meal  in  such  circumstance?  …  At  7.55,  Nasir  tweeted:  #DONASI  nasbung  utk  6000  pengungsi  di  Pusdiklatpor  Depo  Kompi  C,  Wedi,  Klaten.  MALAM  INI  |  Candy  081XXXXXXXXX  [literally:  #DONATION  ricemeal  for  6000  refugees  at  Pusdiklatpor  Depo  Kompi  C,  Wedi,  Klaten,  TONIGHT  |  Candy  081XXXXXXXX].  In  half  an  hour,  the  phone  rang  again.  The  very  volunteer  in  Klaten  told  us,  gladly,  that  they  have  received  the  rice  meal  for  the  6000  refugees.  He  wanted  us  to  tell  the  public  about  the  maher  so  that  there  would  be  no  excess  of  rice  meal.  We  were  so  glad  and  felt  relieved.  (Ambar  Sari  Dewi,  Jalin  Merapi  volunteer,  interview  and  wrihen  tes;mony,  15/12/10;  this  was  also  published  in  Bahasa  Indonesia  in  the  Bulle;n  KOMBINASI  Edi;on  25,  2010).  
  • 6. Story  #2:  @JalinMerapi  &  mobilisa2on  of  aids   >  44,000  followers,  4,000  volunteers   Yogyakarta  25%   Indonesia  55%   Jakarta  14%   From  Outside  Indonesia  45%   Other  61%   Source:  Nasir,  2012  
  • 7. Story  #3:  An2-­‐corrup2on  movement  •  Building  awareness  •  Recruitment  for  movement  •  Mobilisa;on  of  supporters  •  Public  poli;cal  pressure  •  Poli;cal  educa;on  
  • 8. Regula2ng  the  Net  ..?  •  Main  regula;ons  concerning  internet  and  digital  media  in   Indonesia:   –  Telecommunica;on  Law  36/1999   –  Electronic  Informa;on  and  Transac;on  Law  (ITE  Law)  11/2008   –  Freedom  of  Informa;on  Law  14/2008   –  and  other  laws  governing  media  in  general  •  Aims  to  promote  &  protect  internet  access  in  the  country  …  •  …  yet  endangering  the  freedom  of  expression,  e.g.   –  ITE  Law  contains  regula;ons  regarding  the  defama;on  act  with   vague  defini;ons  that  eventually  can  be  used  to  prosecute   individuals  or  groups  expressing  their  opinions  on  the  Net   –  Freedom  of  Informa;on  Law  s;pulates  one-­‐year  jail  term  for  any   ‘misuse’  of  the  informa;on      •  Example:  The  case  of  Prita  Mulyasari   Picture:  ©  komikukomikita.wordpress.com  
  • 9. Alterna2ve  public  spheres  •  The  par;cipants  are  the  “innovators”  (Liddle,  1988;  1996),  who   demand  a  more  democra;c  poli;cal  system.   –  They  have  a  deeper  understanding  of  how  important  it  is  to  have  a   democra;c  atmosphere  in  order  to  be  heard  by  the  government.   –  They  are  constantly  challenging  the  state  to  make  sure  the  values  are   implemented.     –  Such  purpose,  they  believe,  can  be  achieved  by  using  media.  •  Nearly  every  poli;cal  ins;tu;on,  ministers  and  poli;cal  par;es  are   nowadays  using  digital  media  as  well  to  win  over  the  masses.  •  Several  cases  show  the  influence  they  have  in  the  socio-­‐poli;cal   sphere  is  quite  vast.     –  E.g.  In  Cicak  vs  Buaya‘  (an;  corrup;on  movement):  online  ac;vists   succeeded  in  ahrac;ng  the  ahen;on  of  the  conven;onal  media,  so   that  their  goals  were  widely  spread,  including  huge  rallies  across  the   country.     –  Yet,  online  ac;vism  alone  cannot  guarantee  the  effec;veness  of  it.   Real  ac;ons  remain  central  to  gain  the  best  possible  result.  
  • 10. Media  network  in  Indonesia   Source:  Nugroho,  Putri,  Laksmi  (2012)  
  • 11. Digital  media:  Support  and  networking  •  Providing  a  placorm  to  gather  those  with  the   same  views  regarding  a  par2cular  mader.    •  Promo2ng  ac2vism  in  order  to  get  public   aden2on    •  Enabling  engagement  with  wider  public  and   other  societal  actors  •  Strengthening  civil  society  by  connec2ng  various   ac2vist  groups  …    •  …  but  it  cannot  be  the  only  placorm  to  facilitate   social  changes.  
  • 12. Digital  media  and  mobilisa2on  •  One  of  the  quickest  playorms  to  gather  supporters  for  par;cular   purposes.     –  Twiher  and  Facebook  (also  mailing  list!)   –  Gathering  and  exchanging  informa;on;  organising  mee;ngs   –  Mobilising  supporters  and  resources  •  Examples   –  Jalin  Merapi  (humanitarian)   –  An;  corrup;on  movement  (socio  poli;cal)  •  Change  always  takes  place  in  the  real,  offline  sphere:     –  the  role  of  physical  technology  (digital  media)  is  in  fact  secondary  to   the  social  one  (engagements,  mee;ngs,  direct  exchanges).   –  Reflec;on  on  the  failure/stagna;on  of  ‘Solidaritas  Lumpur   Lapindo’  (Lapindo  mudflow  solidarity)  movement  due  to  inability  to   ‘link’  the  offline  and  online  realms  …  
  • 13. Reflec2ng  digital  media:  A  sui  generis?  •  Much  ac;vism  facilitated  by  digital  media  …  •  …  but  even  offline  protests/movements  do  not  really  change  poli;cal  decisions   (perhaps  influencing  the  processes?  eg.  Parlemen2.0)     –  State  blockage  on  the  Net  con;nues,   –  Internet  access  remains  poor,  low  quality,  and  unequally  distributed     –  Local  governments  in  Yogyakarta  and  Central  Java  un;l  now  never  use  the   informa;on  network  established  by  Jalin  Merapi   –  ‘Cicak  v.  Buaya’  did  not  manage  to  push  the  government  to  revise  the  Laws  on   Police  and  Corrup;on  Eradica;on  Commihee   –  #SaveJakarta  did  not  yield  result  that  significantly  changing  the  society   –  Despite  Prita  case,  UU  ITE,  etc.  remains  unrevoked  •  Changes  that  happen  are  more  within  the  society  domain  (hence  fostering  social   innova;ons),  rather  than  within  the  government/decision  makers,  e.g.   –  Public-­‐ini;ated,  voluntary,  independent  online  movements   –  Guideline  for  digital  media  journalist  (by  Alliance  of  Independent  Journalists)   –  Transforming  online  ac;visms  into  offline  ones  (e.g.  by  ICTWatch)  
  • 14. Civil  society  @c2vism  in  reflec2on  1.  What  maders  in  civil  society  ac2vism  is  not  the  tools  such  as   the  Internet  or  new  media  per  se,  but  how  civil  society   strategically  and  poli2cally  use  the  media  to  advance  their   ac2vism.  2.  As  change  always  takes  place  in  the  real,  offline  sphere,  the   role  of  physical  technology  (the  Internet  and  social  media)  is  in   fact  secondary  to  the  social  one  (engagements,  mee2ngs,   direct  exchanges).  3.  If  new  media  can  strategically  be  used  in  civil  society,  there  is  a   good  possibility  for  concerned  groups  to  not  only  emerge,  but   also  to  contribute  to  the  shaping  of  rela2ons  between   technology,  poli2cs,  and  civic  engagements.  4.  Civil  society  groups  and  communi2es  to  be  more  careful  and   cri2cal  towards  today’s  ‘Internet  centricity’.  
  • 15. Yanuar  Nugroho  |  Manchester  Ins6tute  of  Innova6on  Research,  Univ.  Manchester,  UK                     (on  secondment:  The  Indonesian  President’s  Delivery  Unit  for  Development  Monitoring   and  Oversight,  October  2012-­‐13)  |  yanuar.nugroho@manchester.ac.uk  |   @yanuarnugroho