2.Science Literary
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  • 1. Scientific literacy for students and adults: the UK experience 如何提高学生与成人的科学素质 : 英国的经验 Professor John Holman, Director, the National Science Learning Centre, University of York, UK John Holman 教授 英国 约克大学 国家科学教育中心主任
  • 2.  
  • 3.  
  • 4. The National Science Learning Centre, University of York, UK 英国约克大学 国家科学教育中心
  • 5. Launch by Tony Blair, March 2006
  • 6. Outline of talk 报告纲要
    • Why scientific literacy matters
    • Scientific literacy: where are the public now?
    • The elements of scientific literacy
    • Current science communication activities in Britain
    • A school curriculum for scientific literacy: outline of the Twenty First Century Science project
    • 1. 为何关注科学素质
    • 2. 科学素质:现在有哪些公众?
    • 3. 科学素质的构成
    • 4. 目前英国的科学传播活动
    • 5. 有关科学素质的一套教程:“ 21 世纪科学”项目
  • 7. Moore’s Law 摩尔定律
    • Computing power doubles every 18 months
    • 计算能力每 18 个月翻一倍
  • 8. Ferranti Mercury computer (1960s) Ferranti 水银计算机
  • 9.
    • Genetic information doubles every 16 months
    • Dr Richard Durbin FRS Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
    • 遗传信息每 16 个月翻一倍
    • Richard Durbin FRS 博士
    • Wellcome Trust Sanger 学会
  • 10. Largest ever medical prize 最大的医学奖项 The X PRIZE Foundation has announced a $10 million (£5.4 million) Archon X PRIZE for Genomics – A multi-million dollar incentive to create technology that can successfully map 100 human genomes in 10 days. X 奖基金会公布了一项一千万美金( 5.4 万英镑)的基因组 X 奖——对能够在 10 天内成功绘制 100 人的基因组这项技术给予几百万美元的奖励
  • 11. Our Nation‘s Future 我们国家的未来
    • Science will be as important to our economic future as stability
    • The British Prime Minister to the Royal Society, Oxford November 2006
    • 科学对经济发展的作用将和稳定性一样重要
    • 英国首相在牛津大学对英国皇家学会的讲话
    • 2006 年 11 月
  • 12. We are all scientists now (Sara Parkin, Forum for the Future) 全民科学家
    • It is essential to have young people prepared to become the engineers, research scientists and doctors of the future.
    • It is essential, but not enough. Developed countries also need a population who understand science, and are critically aware of its implications.
    • 必须让青少年做好将来成为工程师、科学家和博士的准备。
    • 这是根本的,但还不够。发达国家的人民也应该理解科学,并深刻领会其内涵。
  • 13. Why public scientific literacy is important 公众科学素质为何如此重要
    • For the country’s economy
    • Because science is part of our culture
    • For better democracy
    • 为了国家的经济发展
    • 因为科学是文明的一部分
    • 为了更好地实施民主政治
  • 14. Outline of talk 报告纲要
    • Why scientific literacy matters
    • Scientific literacy: where are the public now?
    • The elements of scientific literacy
    • Current science communication activities in Britain
    • A school curriculum for scientific literacy: outline of the Twenty First Century Science project
    • 1. 为何关注科学素质
    • 2. 科学素质:现在有哪些公众?
    • 3. 科学素质的构成
    • 4. 目前英国的科学传播活动
    • 5. 有关科学素质的一套学校课程:“ 21 世纪科学”项目
  • 15. Public confidence in science 公众科学信心
    • Genetically modified Crops: Success in US, failure in UK
    • Stem Cell research: Success in UK, failure in US
    • Sir David King, Government Chief Scientist
    • 基因改良农作物:在美国成功,在英国失败
    • 干细胞研究:在英国成功,在美国失败
    • David King 先生, 政府首席科学家
  • 16. Public confidence in science 公众科学信心
    • The alleged link between the mumps-measles-rubella vaccine and autism led to
    • a drop in the vaccination rate from 91% to 80% in Britain
    • a rise in mumps cases from 119 in 1998 to 43,000 in 2005
    • Sir David King, Government Chief Scientist
    • 腮腺炎——麻疹——风疹疫苗和孤独症之间所谓的关联引起:
    • 在英国接种疫苗比例从 91 %下降到 80 %
    • 1998 年到 2005 年腮腺炎病例从 119 上升到 43,000
    • David King 先生, 政府首席科学家
  • 17. Science and the Public 科学与公众
    • Report by the Government’s Office for Science and Innovation and the Wellcome Trust, October 2000
    • Survey data based on 1839 respondents from Britain
    • 科学与创新和 Wellcome Trust 政府办公室的报告, 2000 年 10 月
    • 1839 年英国调查数据
  • 18. Public attitudes to Science 公众对科学的态度
    • 75% of people are ‘amazed’ by science
    • 65% agree that science and technology improve our lives
    • 20% are not interested in science
    • 80% believe Britain needs to develop science and technology to be internationally competitive
    • 72% agree that basic scientific research is important
    • 75% 对科学感到“惊奇”
    • 65% 赞同科技提高我们的生活质量
    • 20% 对科学不感兴趣
    • 80% 相信英国需要发展科技来提高国际竞争力
    • 72% 赞同基础的科学研究是重要的
    Source: Science and the Public, OSI/Wellcome 2000 资料来源:科学与公众, OSI/Wellcome 2000
  • 19. The benefits of science 科学的作用
    • Are the benefits of science greater than its drawbacks?
    • 43% Yes
    • 17% No
    • 35% No opinion
    • 科学的好处大于其弊端吗?
    • 43% 是的
    • 17% 不是
    • 35% 不清楚
  • 20. Outline of talk 报告纲要
    • Why scientific literacy matters
    • Scientific literacy: where are the public now?
    • The elements of scientific literacy
    • Current science communication activities in Britain
    • A school curriculum for scientific literacy: outline of the Twenty First Century Science project
    • 1. 为何关注科学素质
    • 2. 科学素质:现在有哪些公众?
    • 3. 科学素质的构成
    • 4. 目前英国的科学传播活动
    • 5. 有关科学素质的一套教程:“ 21 世纪科学”项目
  • 21. An operational definition of ‘scientific literacy’ 科学素质定义
    • read, and understand the essential points of, media reports about matters concerning science;
    • reflect critically on the information provided in such reports, and its implications;
    • recognise the impacts of science and technology on everyday life;
    • take part in discussions with others about matters involving science and technology;
    • gain pleasure from the ideas and insights of science.
    • 有科学素质的人能够:
    • 阅读,并理解与科学相关的媒体报道的主要意思
    • 准确地反映出这些报道中所提供的信息及其含义
    • 认识到科技对生活的影响
    • 参与有关科技话题的讨论
    • 从科学思想和观点中享受乐趣
    A scientifically literate person is someone who can:
  • 22. For scientific literacy … 对于科学素质…
    • Scientific knowledge is not enough …
    • You also need to have some understanding of science:
    • as a form of knowledge
    • as an approach to enquiry
    • 科学知识是不够的…
    • 你还需要具备对科学的理解:
    • 作为一种知识形式
    • 作为一种满足需求的方法
  • 23. Ideas about Science 科学思想
    • Data and its limitations: error and uncertainty
    • Correlation and cause: pattern seeking
    • Developing explanations: scientific explanations
    • The Scientific Community: peer review
    • Risk: real and perceived risks
    • Making Decisions: science and society
    • 数据及其局限性: 误差和不确定性
    • 相关性及原因: 模式搜索
    • 进一步解释: 科学解释
    • 科学群体: 同等审查
    • 风险: 存在与感知风险
    • 决策: 科学与社会
  • 24. Lung Cancer and Smoking 肺癌与吸烟
        • Early 1950’s: Causal link established between smoking and lung cancer
        • Mid 1970’s: Tobacco taxed on health grounds
        • 2007: Ban on smoking in public places
        • 20 世纪 50 年代早期:已确定吸烟与肺癌之间存在因果联系
        • 20 世纪 70 年代中期:基于健康的理由对烟草征税
        • 2007 年:禁止在公共场所吸烟
    Guardian 25.07.05
  • 25. Outline of talk 报告纲要
    • Why scientific literacy matters
    • Scientific literacy: where are the public now?
    • The elements of scientific literacy
    • Current science communication activities in Britain
    • A school curriculum for scientific literacy: outline of the Twenty First Century Science project
    • 1. 为何关注科学素质
    • 2. 科学素质:现在有哪些公众?
    • 3. 科学素质的构成
    • 4. 目前英国的科学传播活动
    • 5. 有关科学素质的一套学校课程:“ 21 世纪科学”项目
  • 26. Celebrations of Science: events in Britain 科学庆典:英国的大型活动
    • Science and Engineering week (in March each year)
    • Thousands of events in schools, museums and shopping centres around the country
    • Festival of Science (in September each year)
    • A week-long festival in a different location each year – this year in York. 400 of the best scientists and communicators in the country
    • Organised by the British Association for the Advancement of Science www.the-ba.net
    • 科学与工程周(每年三月)
    • 在全国各学校、博物馆和购物中心举行上千个大型活动
    • 科技节(每年九月)
    • 为期一周的科技节每年在不同的地区举行——今年在约克
    • 有来自全国的 400 名优秀科学家和科学传播者
    • 由英国科学促进会主办 www.the-ba.net
  • 27. Science communication in Britain 英国的科学传播
    • Many organisations are engaged in public science communication, including
    • Universities
    • Industries
    • Science centres and science museums
    • Media
    • 很多组织参于公众科学传播,包括:
    • 大学
    • 行业组织
    • 科学中心和科学博物馆
    • 媒体
  • 28. Science and the Public: the British experience 科学与公众:英国的经验
    • Public understanding of science (1980s and 1990s)
    • The perception that the public need to know more about science and the scientific method
    • Public engagement with science (2000s)
    • The perception that scientists need to engage better with the public, and to have a dialogue about new scientific developments
    • 公众理解科学( 20 世纪 80 和 90 年代)
    • 公众需要了解更多有关科学和科学方法的内容
    • 公众参与科学 ( 21 世纪)
    • 科学家必须更好地与公众沟通,进行有关科学新发展方面的对话
  • 29. Approaches to scientific dialogue with the public 科学家与公众对话的途径
    • Citizens’ juries
    • Stakeholder dialogues
    • Internet dialogues
    • for example, the ‘GM Nation’ public debate about the future of genetically modified crops .
    • 公民陪审团
    • 利害关系方对话
    • 网络对话
    • 比如, ‘ GM Nation’ 关于基因改良作物前景的公众辩论会
  • 30. Science researchers in schools 学校的科学研究
    • Young research scientists from universities and industry provide excellent role models for schools – but they need training!
    • 来自大学和企业的年轻科研者为学校树立了很好的榜样——但是他们需要培训!
  • 31. Outline of talk 报告纲要
    • Why scientific literacy matters
    • Scientific literacy: where are the public now?
    • The elements of scientific literacy
    • Current science communication activities in Britain
    • A school curriculum for scientific literacy: outline of the Twenty First Century Science project
    • 1. 为何关注科学素质
    • 2. 科学素质:现在有哪些公众?
    • 3. 科学素质的构成
    • 4. 目前英国的科学传播活动
    • 5. 有关科学素质的一套教程:“ 21 世纪科学”项目
  • 32. Universal compulsory science education 义务科学教育
    • Since 1988, all students in England must study a balanced science course, including physics, chemistry, biology and earth science, from the ages of 5 to 16
    • Teaching science to the whole ability range brings new challenges
    • 1988 年起,英格兰从 5 岁到 16 岁的所有学生必须学习综合的科学课程,包括:物理、化学、生物和地理
    • 通过科学教育来提高综合能力带来了新的挑战
  • 33. The dual mandate 双重要求
    • The first stages of a
    • training in science
    • 科学培训的第一阶段
    • Access to basic
    • scientific literacy
    • 科学素质的基础知识
    for a minority 少数 for all 全部 The science curriculum has to provide: 科学教程应该提供:
  • 34. Scientific literacy: a worldwide quest 科学素质:一个全世界的需求
  • 35. A vision for the science curriculum 展望科学教程 Differentiated curriculum, offering scientific literacy for all plus optional specialist science for some 差别性课程,对一些人提供附加的可供选择的科学素质课程 16 - 18 Differentiated curriculum, offering scientific literacy for all plus optional specialist science for some 差别性课程,对一些人提供附加的可供选择的科学素质课程 14 – 16 Single curriculum for all, building foundations for scientific literacy and whetting appetite for further study 单一课程,为科学素质打下基础,提高将来学习科学的兴趣 11 – 14 Single curriculum for all, emphasising ‘being scientific’ and whetting appetite for further study 单一课程,强调“科学”,提高将来学习科学的兴趣 5 - 11 What is needed 需求 Age 年龄
  • 36.  
  • 37. Twenty First Century Science - a core science curriculum that: 21 世纪科学——一套核心教程
    • engages with contemporary scientific issues
    • covers the central Science Explanations*
    • develops key Ideas about Science*
    • * The two foundations of scientific literacy
    • 与当代科学课题相结合
    • 涵盖主要的 科学解释 *
    • 发展重要的 科学思想 *
    • * 科学素质的两大基础
  • 38. Science Explanations 科学解释
    • the big ideas of science
    • 重大科学思想
  • 39. Science Explanations: some examples 科学解释:一些例子
    • SE2 Chemical change
    • SE3 Materials and their properties
    • SE4 Interdependence of living things
    • SE8 Gene theory of inheritance
    • SE11 Energy sources and use
    • SE12 Radiation
    • SE13 Radioactivity
    • SE16 The Universe
    • SE2 化学变化
    • SE3 材料及其属性
    • SE4 生物的相互依赖性
    • SE8 遗传基因理论
    • SE11 能量来源和利用
    • SE12 辐射
    • SE13 放射性
    • SE16 宇宙
  • 40. For scientific literacy … 对于科学素质…
    • Scientific knowledge is not enough …
    • You also need to have some understanding of science:
    • as a form of knowledge
    • as an approach to enquiry
    • 科学知识是不够的…
    • 你还需要具备对科学的理解:
    • 作为一种知识形式
    • 作为一种满足需求的方法
  • 41. Ideas about Science 科学思想
    • Data and its limitations: error and uncertainty
    • Correlation and cause: pattern seeking
    • Developing explanations: scientific explanations
    • The Scientific Community: peer review
    • Risk: real and perceived risks
    • Making Decisions: science and society
    • 数据及其局限性: 误差和不确定性
    • 相关性及原因: 模式搜索
    • 进一步解释: 科学解释
    • 科学群体: 同等审查
    • 风险: 存在与感知风险
    • 决策: 科学与社会
  • 42. Core Science modules integrate Science Explanations and Ideas about Science 核心科学模块使科学解释与科学思想相结合 Science Explanations 科学解释 Modules 模块 Ideas-about-Science 科学思想 etc.
  • 43. The nine Core Science modules 九个核心科学模块
    • You and your genes
    • Air quality
    • The Earth in the Universe
    • Keeping healthy
    • 你和你的基因
    • 空气质量
    • 宇宙的地球
    • 保持健康
    • Material choices
    • Radiation and life
    • Life on Earth
    • Food matters
    • Radioactive materials
    • 材料选择
    • 辐射与生命
    • 地球生物
    • 食物问题
    • 放射性材料
  • 44. Example: Core Science Module: Radiation and Life 举例:核心科学模块:辐射与生命
    • Science Explanation
    • SE12 Radiation
    • Ideas about Science
    • Correlation and cause
    • Risk
    • 科学解释
    • SE12 辐射
    • 科学构想
    • 相关性及原因
    • 风险
  • 45. Mobile phones 手机
    • How would you know if there were health risks associated with using mobiles?
    • Health surveys: sample size and matching populations
    • Student activity:
    • Dice-throwing to determine health outcomes in cells – chance?
    • 如果使用手机影响健康 , 你通过什么途径知道?
    • 健康调查:样本大小和匹配人群
    • 学生活动:用掷骰子 来确定细胞的健康结果——几率?
  • 46. Twenty First Century Science 21 世纪科学
    • Data from Questionnaires completed by pilot school teachers at end of the first and second years of the pilot
    Millar, R. (2006). Twenty First Century Science : Insights from the development and implementation of a scientific literacy approach in school science. International Journal of Science Education , 28 (13), 1499-1522. 数据来源于试点学校的教师在第一年和第二年试点后填写的调查表 Millar, R. (2006). 21 世纪科学 :对学校提高科学素质方法的开发及执行的看法 国际科学教育杂志, 28 (13), 1499-1522
  • 47. Is Core Science successful in improving students’ general scientific literacy? 核心科学在提高学生普遍科学素质方面是否取得成功? 2 Very unsuccessful 非常不成功 1 Unsuccessful 不成功 2 Neutral 中立态度 26 Successful 成功 9 Very successful 非常成功 Number of teachers 人数 Teachers’ views 老师的看法
  • 48. Teaching scientific literacy: the major challenge for teachers 传授科学素质:教师的主要挑战 Teaching ‘Ideas about Science’ is a challenge for many teachers Training is provided by the Science Learning Centres 传授科学思想对许多教师来讲是一个挑战 科学教育中心提供教师培训
  • 49. Will we ever know the truth? 我们会知道真相吗 ?
    • We continue from era to era of growing understanding, always with uncertainty at the leading edge. Maybe we shall eventually reach a point where the scientific approach can take us no further, though that time is a long way off.
    • Sir John Sulston, Times Higher Education Supplement, 10 June 2005
    • 几个世纪以来 , 我们都在不断地加深理解,但对于前沿科技总是难以确定。也许不久的将来科学方法将让我们到达终点,但那还有很长一段路要走。
    • Sir John Sulston ,高等教育时代增刊, 10 June 2005
  • 50. Contact 联系方式
    • John Holman, National Science Learning Centre
    • [email_address]
    • www.21stcenturyscience.org