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1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
1.Science Vs Ethics
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1.Science Vs Ethics

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  • 1. 科學與倫理學 Science and Ethics Ayo NUTN website: http://myweb.nutn.edu.tw/~hycheng/
  • 2. Outline
    • Introduction
    • II. Ethics Education Programme
    • III. Case Study
  • 3.
    • Part I 基本概念
      • 1 科學與倫理學
      • 2 倫理學的理論
      • 3 宗教的環境倫理觀 ( 儒家、道家、佛教、基督信仰 )
    • Part II 環境倫理學與應用倫理學
      • 4 倫理學與經濟學:
      • 5 可持續發展:對未來世代的責任
      • 6 對自然界的責任:植物和動物權利
    • Part III 環境倫理學的理論
    I. INTRODUCTION
  • 4. 課程大綱
    • Part I 基本概念
    • Part II 環境倫理學與應用倫理學
    • Part III 環境倫理學的理論
      • 7 生命中心倫理 (Biocentric ethics)
      • 8 荒野、生態學與倫理學
      • 9 土地倫理 (The Land Ethic)
      • 10 深層生態學 (Deep Ecology)
      • 11 社會生態學 (Social Ecology) 與 生態女性主義 (Eco-feminism)
      • 12 多元論 (pluralism) 、實用主義 (pragmatism) 、與可持續力 (sustainability)
  • 5. Chap. 1 Science and Ethics
    • 1.1 引言 : Why philosophy?
    • 1.2 科學與倫理學 (Science and Ethics)
    • 1.3 什麼是環境倫理學?
    • Questions and Discussion
  • 6. 1.1 引言 : Why philosophy?
    • 全球的未來:
      • 化學風暴 (Chemstorm) :毒物的汙染與擴散
      • 農藥與肥料的汙染,飲用水的問題。
      • 生物物種滅絕速率,目前估計每天超過 100 種;未來幾十年,可能還會再增加兩倍到三倍的滅絕速率。 (Wilson, E. O. 1989. Threats to Biodiversity. Scientific American, 261:108-116.)
      • 全球氣候的變遷,高爾的「不願面對的真相」。
    • potentially catastrophic future
      • We are challenged with momentous decisions.
      • But how do we start making the right decisions?
      • 依靠 科學與技術?是否需要 philosophical ethics ( 哲學的倫理 )( 環境倫理學 ) ?
  • 7. 不願面對的真相
  • 8. Science and technology
    • For many people in our culture, science and technology offer the only hope for solving environmental problems.
    • Because environmental problems often involve highly technical matters, it is only reasonable to turn to experts in these technical areas for answers.
    • 案例討論:核能電廠、蘇花高興建案、流浪狗的問題 ( 成大校園 ) 、大發工業區潮寮毒氣案、基因轉殖農產品
  • 9. Ethics and Policy
    • Ethics ( 倫理學 ) is one branch of philosophy that addresses fundamental value questions ( 基本價值的問題 ).
    • Environmental policy( 環境政策 ) ought to be decided in the political arena ( 政治場域 ) and not in scientific laboratories ( 科學實驗室 ), corporate boardrooms ( 公司會議室 ), or government bureaucracies ( 官僚體制 ).
  • 10. 1.2 Science and ethics
    • Rachel Carson’s Silence Spring ,
      • We take risks when we treat environmental problems merely as technical problems awaiting solution form some specialized discipline.
      • This is partly because the dimensions of environmental issues are seldom limited to the specific boundaries of any one particular discipline.
      • 案例討論: pesticide pollution (agriculture, biology, chemistry, medicine, economics, politics and law)
        • 三聚氰胺 事件
  • 11. Carson, Rachel (1962)
    • 譯者:李文昭
    • 出版:晨星
    • 日期: 2008 年 05 月 10 日
    • 地球日
    • 1970 年創立
  • 12. 1.2 Science and ethics
    • Science is not a value-neutral ( 價值中立 ) as many assume.
      • Our culture has a profound belief in science as the ultimate authority ( 終極權威 ) on questions of knowledge and truth ( 知識和真實 ).
      • Our beliefs are mere opinion- personal ( 個人的 ), subjective( 主觀的 ), arbitrary( 獨斷的 ), and biased( 偏差的 – unless they are validated by science.
      • Although science have potential for helping us to understand and solve environmental problems, science is not the purely objective and value-neutral resource that so many assume it to be.
        • 案例討論:試管嬰兒、複製人、聚質水 (polywater) 、分子生物學、 reductionist approach (reductionism)
  • 13. 圖 1. A Knowledge hierarchy ( 知識的階層 ) 數據 (Data) 資訊 (information) 知識 (Knowledge) 智慧 (intelligence) 默會的 (tacit) 、需要學習的 明確的、容易獲取 批判力
  • 14. 圖 2. types of knowledge transfer ( 知識的傳授 ) 。 社會化 (Socialisation) 外部化 (Externalisation) 內部化 (internalisation) 結合 (combination) 默會知識 (tacit knowledge) 明確知識 (explicit knowledge) 默會知識 (tacit knowledge) 明確知識 (explicit knowledge) from to Taylor. Liz (2007) Knowledge, information and the business process: Revolutionary thinking or common sense? Chandos Publishing (Oxford) Limited.
  • 15. 1.2 Science and ethics
    • We should not deceive ourselves into thinking that because science demands objectivity and neutrality, all its uses are objective and value-neutral.
    • Even if the scientific enterprise is committed to impartial( 公正的 ) and objective ( 客觀的 ) methods, and even if its findings are valid, the practical uses that we make of scientific information may not be reasonable.
    • Sometimes this will require examining the value assumptions implicit in science and technology.
  • 16. 1.2 Science and ethics
    • Nevertheless, it also would be a mistake to think that some abstract ethical theory can resolve environmental controversies.
    • Looking to philosophical ethics for some quick fix is just as short-sighted as overreliance ( 過度依賴 ) on science.
    • The best approach is to recognize that both science and ethics are essential if we hop to make meaningful progress in meeting the environmental challenges that confront us.
      • Science without ethics is blind ( 盲的 )
      • Ethics without science is empty ( 空的 ).
  • 17. Science and Ethics
    • 科學沒有倫理,是盲目的、
    • 倫理沒有科學,是虛空的。
      • Science without ethics is blind;
      • Ethics without science is empty.
    • 我們對世界的了解,以及我們對各事物的評價和價值觀,都顯著的受到科學傳達給我們的內容,所影響。
    • 面對環境問題的挑戰時,科學與倫理,兩者都是必要,倘若我們要有改善的進展。
  • 18. 1.3 什麼是環境倫理學 ?
    • 一般而言, 「環境倫理學」 (EE) 是系統化探討人類和其環境的倫理 ( 道德 ) 關係。
    • 「環境倫理學」假定道德規範可主導人類與自然世界的相處的行為。
    • 「環境倫理學」的理論必須要能解釋:
      • 這些規範 (norms) 是什麼?
      • 人類有何責任?對什麼有責任?
      • 這些責任,是否合理 (justified) ?
  • 19. http://myweb.nutn.edu.tw/~hycheng/ Questions and Discussion
  • 20. 問題
    • 好的科學 vs. 壞的科學
    • 科學研究的目的,是否有好壞?倘若有,好的科學和壞的科學,有何區別?
    • 科學研究的目的是否包含著價值?有哪些?這些是否有好的或壞的區分?
    • 科學研究應當是價值中立的,是這樣嗎?
  • 21. UNESCO and Ethics Division of Ethics of Science and Technology United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Established Nov.1945 Hdq. Paris, France
  • 22. (BIO)ETHICS & UNESCO Understanding the current ethical problems in connection with science and technology education science social and human sciences culture communication and information
  • 23. (BIO)ETHICS AND UNESCO 1970 UNESCO first reflection on ethics of life sciences 1993 Start bioethics program with International Bioethics Committee (IBC) - 36 independent experts designated by DG 1998 Intergovernmental Bioethics Committee (IGBC) - 36 member states of UNESCO elected by GC 1998 Expansion of program with ethics of scientific knowledge and technology -World Commission on the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge and Technology (COMEST) 2002 Inter-agency Committee on Bioethics
  • 24. bioethics science ethics environmental ethics space ethics theoretical basis of activities Division of Ethics of Science and Technology
  • 25. bioethics science ethics environmental ethics space ethics Theoretical basis of activities standard-setting actions capacity building awareness raising
  • 26. bioethics science ethics environmental ethics space ethics Theoretical basis of activities Standard-setting actions COMEST IGBC Inter- Agency Comm IBC
  • 27. Normative instruments Gen.Conference 1997 Gen.Conference 2003
  • 28. bioethics science ethics environmental ethics space ethics Theoretical basis of activities standard-setting actions Universal Declaration on bioethics 2005
  • 29. bioethics science ethics environmental ethics space ethics Theoretical basis of activities standard-setting actions Universal Declaration on bioethics Code of Conduct for Scientists 2005 2005; 2007
  • 30. bioethics science ethics environmental ethics space ethics Theoretical basis of activities standard-setting actions Universal Declaration on bioethics Code of Conduct for Scientists Ethical Principles for use of the environment 2005 2005; 2007 2007; 2009
  • 31. bioethics science ethics environmental ethics space ethics Theoretical basis of activities standard-setting actions Universal Declaration on bioethics Code of Conduct for Scientists Ethical Principles for use of the environment Ethical Principles for outer space 2005 2005; 2007 2007; 2009 2005; 2007
  • 32. bioethics science ethics environmental ethics space ethics Theoretical basis of activities capacity building
  • 33. capacity building
    • Global Ethics Observatory
    • Database 1: experts
    • Database 2: institutions, organisations, commissions
    • Database 3: ethics teaching programmes
    • Database 4: legislation and guidelines
    GEO
    • Headquarters : coordination; English + French
    • Regional databases coherent network
    • Vilnius (Russian language)
    • Porto Alegre (Spanish and Portuguese)
  • 34. bioethics science ethics environmental ethics space ethics Theoretical basis of activities capacity building
    • Ethics Education Programme
    • biennium 2004-2005: establishing Latin American and European School of Ethics, creating a pool of experts from various countries
    • biennium 2006-2007: other priority areas Asia and Arab region
    EEP
  • 35. bioethics science ethics environmental ethics space ethics Theoretical basis of activities capacity building
    • Implementation of instruments
    • establishing national (bio)ethics committees
    • producing resource materials for ethics committees
    • providing legal samples and materials
    • workshops and training
    • developing implementation methodology
  • 36. bioethics science ethics environmental ethics space ethics Theoretical basis of activities awareness raising
  • 37. bioethics science ethics environmental ethics space ethics Theoretical basis of activities awareness raising
    • Ethics around the World
    • rotating conferences aiming at:
      • Disseminating information
      • Interacting and networking with national experts
  • 38. awareness raising Ethics around the World Netherlands, 18 March 2004 Iran, 2 May 2004 Lithuania, 13 September 2004 Turkey, 15 September 2004 Argentina, 4-5 November 2004 South Korea, 16 November 2004 Mexico, 24 November 2004 Indonesia, 2 December 2005 Philippines, 6 December 2005 Portugal, 6 January 2005 Burundi, February 2005 Morocco, Spring 2005 China, May 2005 Uganda, November 2005 Consultation of national experts on the Universal declaration on bioethics Ethics teaching
  • 39. awareness raising
    • Publications
    • Information kit on Human Cloning
      • (available in 6 working languages)
    • Book series in Ethics
      • Vol.1: Environmental Ethics
      • Vol.2: Ethics and Nanotechnology
    • Guidebooks on National (Bio)ethics Committees:
    • - Guidebook 1: Establishing Biomedical Ethics Committees
    • ( early 2005)
  • 40.
    • Research
    • Re-evaluation of (bio)ethics: emphasis on public health, social justice, human rights (special significance of ethical issues for developing countries)
      • Panama City, Panama: regional network of experts, March 2004
      • Eilat, Israel: 3 rd International Conference in Medical Ethics, March 2004
    • N ew topics for analysis and international regulation: nanotechnology, integrity in scientific research, cognitive sciences
    • - Ethics, innovative and existing technologies
    • Ethics and pain management (University of Shefffield; Economic and Social Research Council, United Kingdom, March 2004)
    • Justice through creative technologies (Creighton University, Omaha, USA, April 2004)
    • Ethics and anaesthesiology (European Society of Anaesthesiologists, Lisbon, June 2004)
  • 41. Standards Declara- tions Capacity Ethics committes Legislation/ guidelines Ethics teaching Awareness publications GEO databases Rotating conferences OUTCOMES
    • platforms for ethical action
    • intensive public debate
    • informed public opinion
    • (inter)national normative frameworks
    • morally sensitized professionals and scientists
    • assisted policy-making
    A summary view of ethics activities in a coherent framework
  • 42. ETHICS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Our website: www.unesco.org/shs/ethics
  • 43. Good Science , Bad Ethics Or, Does the end Justify the Means
  • 44. Introduction
    • 1935 Max Delbrück publishes paper on gene mutation
    • 1944 Research into viruses shows that DNA was responsible for gene mutation
    • 1946 Schrödinger popularizes idea of genes as information carriers in his book What is Life?
    • The race to discover the geometrical arrangement of the DNA, the “Rosetta Stone” of genetics, was on!
  • 45. The Players
      • Linus Pauling discovers the basic structure of the protein molecule at Cal Tech in 1951. Soon after he starts to model DNA.
      • Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin begin studying the structure of DNA using X-ray crystallography by 1951 at King’s college
      • In that year James Watson joined Francis Crick as researchers in the Cavendish laboratory under the supervision of Max Perutz and Sir Lawrence Bragg
      • Bragg and Perutz had been studying complex proteins for some time, also using X-ray techniques
  • 46.
    • Important investigations into the structure of DNA were done by Pauling, Wilkins and Franklin.
    • It was Crick and Watson who were able to pull everything together and make a correct model
  • 47.
    • 1953 Watson and Crick are the first to publish the correct structure of DNA
    • 1958 Franklin dies
    • 1962 Watson, Crick, and Wilkins are awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine
    • 1967 Watson publishes The Double Helix , his account of the discovery
    • Watson’s account reveals he is a jerk and he and Crick violated ethical norms for scientists
  • 48. Wilkins and Franklin
    • Wilkins considered Franklin his lab assistant, this was not the case
    • There was bad blood between Wilkins and Franklin
    • Franklin takes first X-rays of DNA
    • It was Wilkins that provided Franklin’s data to Crick and Watson
    • Franklin was not credited in Watson and Crick’s paper
  • 49. Sir Bragg
    • Bragg was in charge of the Cavendish laboratory
    • Unwritten standards at the time dictated that scientists not compete with colleagues on projects
    • DNA was Wilkins project, Bragg told Watson and Crick to cease work
    • Watson and Crick push ahead anyway
  • 50. The Double Helix
    • Harvard University Press refused to publish the book
    • Crick, Wilkins, and others objected to Watson’s book claiming it misrepresented the truth
    • Watson’s portrayal of women in general and Franklin in particular was demeaning and at times simply untrue
  • 51. Watson, you twit!
    • “ The thought could not be avoided that the best home for a feminist was in another person’s lab.”
    • “ Momentarily I wondered how she would look if she took off her glasses and did something novel with her hair.” (Franklin did not wear glasses)
    • Sir Lawrence Bragg was “a relic of the past” who had “lived too long under the shadow of his famous father”.
    • In France “fair play obviously did not exist”.
    • “ A goodly number of scientists are not only narrow minded and dull, but also just stupid.”
  • 52. Evidence Watson/Crick Acted Unethically
    • Watson was in violation of his fellowship
    • Watson and Crick were told by Bragg to discontinue research on DNA
    • King’s College group already working on DNA
    • Unpublished data was obtained without Franklin’s knowledge and used without her consent
    • Franklin was misrepresented and unrecognized
  • 53. Points to Ponder
    • Is there a code of ethics for scientists?
    • What are the consequences for a breach of said code?
    • Is it a scientist’s responsibility to accurately represent an event, a situation, or person?
    • Is moral fuzziness and acceptable price to pay for scientific innovation?
  • 54.  
  • 55. References
    • Watson, James The Double Helix; Edited by Gunther S. Stent, Norton & Co. 1980. Edition contains original papers, reviews and commentaries from several sources
    • James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, and Rosalind Franklin article from website http://www.chemheritage.org/EducationalServices/chemach/ppb/cwwf.html copyright 2000 The Chemical Heritage Society
    • Rosalind Franklin from http://www1.um.edu/scitech/franklin.htm

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