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The GAIA model is one of the first holistic approaches of the Earth System, seen as a cybernetic system (with feedback and feed-before specific to the conservation of a homeostasis in the Living – Dead relation) and as a real bioreactor allowing for the birth and conservation of Life.( Lovelock & Margulis , 1974 . Lovebock 1988; Lenton 1988 ) . This model holds true that : -life affects the environment: all living organisms alter the environment by extracting free energy and by excreting waste with high entropy, a metabolic process that secures the production of negenthropy (life perpetuation , Schrodinger 1944).
- the growth , reproduction included, of Life is made according to exponential laws; - the inorganic environment constraints the emergence and perpetuation of life: for each environment variable there is a value for which a specific organism is developing at a maximum rate; -once Life has emerged under several forms that multiply according to the given conditions , the development of each species in the context of a limited environment with finite resources is subject to natural selection; the outcome is that species able to best adapt to a specific context become dominant species.
This description of the Gaia system points to a hierarchical structure of systems and sub-systems , that are at different levels of organization; among them, there are exchanges of energy, matter and information (messages), with the end product of dynamic stability being achieved. (the system’s homeostasis ).
In this ecosystem, that is based on its own regulatory laws at the level of the whole, man has become a particular being, especially by its capacity to construct exomatic (artifact) extensions involving an accelerating free energy consumption and obviously, an associated entropy production. The entire ensemble of infrastructure constructions has now a global character (global transport networks of electricity, roads, railroads, cars etc ) and the life style imposes the consumption of electricity, water and food in amounts that are growing exponentially. This “diffusion” of the artificial universe all over the Earth, supported by economic globalization has created a new ensemble, defined by the subtle interwoven dichotomy : Natural – Artificial; the diffusion is likely to contribute to possible fluctuations of the whole GAIA , with unpredictable consequences for the evolution of life in general and of the human species in particular. Hence, it becomes strategically important to understand how such a complex system functions and to conceive methods to monitor and model interactions that develop at so different levels in order to give coherence to specific entities ( atom, cell, organ , organism , group, society); it becomes strategically important to find methods capable to watch “the health status of the environment“, to signal crisis situations and hereby contribute to limiting the negative effects of the anthropic develo