Science Technology Engineering Mathematics


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Blake Bullock
James Webb Space Telescope Campaign Lead
Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems

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  • For centuries the vastness of the night sky has prompted humansto ponder the big questionsWho are we? Why are we here?What is here?
  • Time has yielded technical innovations that have improved discovery and allowed mankind to view the heavens more clinically, yet with the same sense of wonder
  • With each step in observatory size & power, the field of Astrophysics has expanded.Our understanding of celestial bodies has progressively moved further and further and further outward. We’ve built very capable terrestrial instruments. We are here at one of them tonight. These have raised discovery to remarkable new levels revealing things that no one could have imaged
  • Look up and see this band of lightBut this is a look at the Milky Way from “above”
  • With the advent of access to space, the observational high ground has moved above the earth.Today space-based observatories float along in the heavens, peering outwards, looking ever further.Northrop Grumman has been committed to Human discovery of space fielding 3-4 (verifying number)? of the Nation’s great observatories.These, together with Hubble, have yielded absolutely stunning results that serve only to whet our appetitesfor more
  • Here is Our sun is one starBillions of stars in our GalaxyIf the Sun were the size of a grain of sand, our Galaxy would be the size of the Earthwhat one of those dots looks like up close – Hubble picture
  • But discovery informs further discovery.Dimmer, older light, which Blake will talk to you about in a few minutes, is accessible by • going out further, • building a larger, more sensitive telescope• that is specifically aimed to collect this older light.With JWST, which Scott will speak to you on in great detail, our collective understanding will travel back in time eons further than we could with previous systems.JWST will retrieve this data in a 100th of the time of Hubble.It is our privilege to support NASA and the Nation – for that matter – Humanity in the continued quest for knowledge with the next great space telescope, JWST
  • 1929: Hubble showed that all galaxies were seemingly moving away from us.The light of a galaxy that is moving away from us will be “redshifted”, or the wavelength gets longer
  • Age of the universe = ~14 billion yearsShakespeare ~1600, (400 years ago)
  • The Eagle Nebula in visible light (left) and infrared light (right)Because infrared light can penetrate clouds of dust, infrared telescopes allow us to see through dust to the stars and objects within
  • Science Technology Engineering Mathematics

    1. 1. Blake BullockJames Webb Space Telescope Campaign LeadNorthrop Grumman Aerospace SystemsApproved for Public Release by NASA, 25 May 2011, NGAS Case 11-0676
    2. 2. 2
    3. 3. Early Celestial ObserversStared Up at the Skies in WonderSUN MOON EARTHhtLxssi
    4. 4. Invention of Observation InstrumentsBrought Space into Focus
    5. 5. Galileo:-Confirms sun-centered Universe-Jupiter has moons-Milky Way is composed of stars-All because he has best (only)astronomical telescopeMost Powerful Telescope in the World: ~1620
    6. 6. Terrestrial ObservatoriesExpanded Our Horizons
    7. 7. The Milky WayScale: If the Sun were a small pebble:The nearest star? Orlando (approximately 100km)The Center of the galaxy? A trip to the moon
    8. 8. World’s Most Powerful Telescope: ~1920• Hubble showedspiral nebulaewere “island universes”• Showed the Universe is expanding.100 inch Hooker telescope(Mt. Wilson, just north ofPasadena, CA)
    9. 9. Space-Based Observation hasYielded Unimaginable ResultsOGOHEAOChandraGROHubbleHubble Deep Field
    10. 10. From Hubble to Webb
    11. 11. 3 million light years MilkyWayMilky Way is a Memberof the “Local Group”
    12. 12. One Among Many Superclusters in the Universe...300 million light yearsMilkyWay
    13. 13. WEBB: Our Knowledge of the Universeis About to Radically Expand...…AgainHubbleUltraDeepFieldHubbleEarthMoonLaGrangePoint 2Simulation ofwhat WEBBwill see
    14. 14. The Expanding Universe
    15. 15. A Sense of Time…14 Billion Years AgoIf the full expanse of time were crunched into 1 year,then Shakespeare wrote his plays ~ 1 second ago
    16. 16. 14 Billion Years AgoOverview of Scientific Cosmology• Time & Space began~14 billion years agoin the big bang• The Universe has beenexpanding & coolingsince then• Hot in the beginning:a sea of elementary particles• Out of this simple startemerged all of the complexstructure we see today
    17. 17. From Hubble to WebbHubble “Ultra Deep Field” is thedeepest image of the universe evertaken in visible lightSimulation of the same field with Webbshows many more objects in muchgreater detailHubble Ultra Deep Field Simulated James Webb Field
    18. 18. Star Formation
    19. 19. WebbcharacterizesplanetsExploring Terrestrial PlanetsKeplerdiscovers planets
    20. 20.  Large primary mirror for increased sensitivity &detail Deployable to fit inside rocket fairing Passively cooled by sunshield to avoid limitedlifetime of coolant Infrared sensitive: due to expansion of universe,light from oldest galaxies is redshifted, or stretched,from visible into the infraredObserve the earliest, faintest galaxies,beyond what Hubble can seeHubble Ultra Deep Field, pictured here, reveals some of the oldest galaxies everseen, formed 13 billion years ago when the universe was 5% its present age.From Hubble to WebbCHALLENGESOLUTIONS
    21. 21. Webb has Stunning Surface Accuracy
    22. 22. Measuring Webb’s Surface Accuracy YieldsOptometry Breakthrough