REGULATION OF HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION IN HUMAN BODY

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THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL CONTROL SYSTEMS THAT HELP IN MAINTENANCE OF pH IN BODY IS EXPLAINED IN THE PRESENTATION

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REGULATION OF HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION IN HUMAN BODY

  1. 1. REGULATION OF HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION IN HUMAN BODY
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  HOMEASTASIS  FLUID CONTENT  EXTRA CELLULAR FLUID  INTRA CELLULAR FLUID  WATER IN THE BODY
  3. 3. ACIDS AND BASES  WHAT ARE ACIDS  WHAT ARE BASES  RECAP OF CONCEPTS  HYDROGEN ION IN BODY  pH
  4. 4. CONTROL SYSTEMS CHEMICAL CONTROL BICARBONATE BUFFER PAIR PHOSPHATE BUFFER PAIR PROTIEN BUFFER PAIR PHSIOLOGICAL CONTROL RESPIRATORY CONTROL SYSTEM RENAL CONTROL SYSTEM
  5. 5. CONTROL SYSTEMS  BUFFER PAIRS  BICARBONATE BUFFER PAIR  EG:ADDITION OF ACIDS AND BASES  HAEMOGLOBIN BUFFER  LACTATE BUFFER  PHOSPHATE BUFFER PAIR  PROTEIN BUFFER PAIR
  6. 6. PHYSIOLOGICAL CONTROL SYSTEM  RESPIRATORY CONTROL SYSTEM  HYPERCAPNIA  HYPOCAPNIA  HYPERVENTILATION  HYPOVENTILATION
  7. 7. RENAL CONTROL SYSTEM  REABSORPTION OF BICARBONATE ION  RETENTION OF BICARBONATE ION
  8. 8. Introduction  60% of male body is water  50% of female body is water  2/3 of the body is ICF  1/3 of the body is ECF  INPUT: water in food, ingested liquid  OUTPUT: water vapor, sweat, urine, feces
  9. 9. Acids  Proton donors  Acidity reflects on free hydrogen ions  Strong acids dissociate completely, liberate all H+ ions  Weak acids dissociate partially
  10. 10. Bases  Bases are proton acceptors  Strong bases dissociate quickly and tie up H+ions almost immediately.  Weak bases slowly accept protons.
  11. 11. What is pH?  The amount of hydrogen ions present in the solution.  1- 14 ranges the pH scale. 7 is neutral. Below 7 is acidic. Above 7 is basic.  pH of arterial blood when above 7.45 causes alkalosis.  pH below 3.5 causes acidosis.
  12. 12. Continued…  Acids and bases continually enter and exit body.  H+ ions enter through Carbonic acid and lactic acid – via aerobic and anaerobic respiration Sulphuric acid-S+ containing amino acid oxidation Phosphoric acid- phosphoproteins and ribonucleotides break down Acidic ketone bodies- including acetone, acetoacetic acid and beta-hydroxybutyric acid thru’ incomplete breakdown of fats
  13. 13.  Minerals after metabolises may be acid forming or basic forming minerals.  Acid forming minerals- chlorine, sulphur, phosphorus (present in meat, fish, poultry, eggs, wheat, corn, oats)  Base forming minerals- potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium (present in dry fruits and vegetables)  Rhubarb (oxalic acid),cranberries (benzoic acid)- direct acid forming food  Antacids- sodium bicarbonate and calcium bicarbonate – direct base forming materials
  14. 14. Homeostasis  Carbonic anhydrase enzyme.
  15. 15. Control systems
  16. 16. Chemical Control Sytem
  17. 17. Bicarbonate Buffer Pairs  ECF buffer  When strong acid is added pH is lowered.  Hence this buffer pair forces the addition of strong base that neutralizes this effect.  Chloride shift  Bicarbonate loading.  RATIO OF ACID:BASE=20:1  Increase is uncompensated acidosis (uncompensated alkalosis.
  18. 18. Phosphate Buffer Pair  Sodium salts of dihydrogen phosphate and monohydrogen phosphate.  H+ released by strong acid is tied up by weak acids  Strong bases are converted in to weak bases.  Buffer of ICF and urine.
  19. 19. Protein Buffer Pair  Amino acids have exposed groups that act as bases and accept H+  A single protein molecule may be acidic or basic depending on pH.  They are amphoteric in nature.  Hb is an intracellular buffer.
  20. 20. Respiratory Control
  21. 21.  Carbon dioxide is expelled from lungs, during its unloading the balance is shifted and hydrogen ions are liberated from carbonic acid and reincorporated into water.  Due to protein buffer hydrogen ion is not accumulated and dos not affect blood pH.  Hypoventilation causes acidosis  Hyperventilation causes alkalosis
  22. 22. Renal Control System
  23. 23. Presentation by Florence Suganya R 12/PZO/004

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