CONSULTING SOURCE MATERIAL
Research Methodology by Dr. K. Kaliyaperumal
Research Methods for Graduate Business and Social Science
Students by John Adams, Hafiz T.A. Khan, Robert Raeside and David
White (pgs 70-77)
Research Methods by Donald McBurney (pgs 36-46)
Steps of collection
Sources of data and types
Overview of other data sources
A critical review involves structuring and building a logical and
coherent argument. It flows from one point to another,
drawing upon evidence , and where possible, present
alternate points. It might also involve evaluating the quality
of the evidence presented to support an argument and not
simply describing it. It helps to assess the quality of other
peoples work , their limitations and gives a positive indicative
for future research.
Look at value of the evidence presented
Address inconsistent or incompatible evidence stemming from
research and seek to explain it
Weigh up the pros and cons of different positions , coming
down on the side of one argument if the quality of evidence
Try to find original links between sources or different strands of
Show originality by presenting new ideas or interpretations
based upon your own understanding of the material
To a critical reader any single text provides but one view of the
facts or version of reality- it is one individual’s view of the
subject matter. Therefore, they recognize not only what a
text says but also how the text portrays the subject matter.
They recognize the various ways in which each and every
text is the unique creation of a unique author.
Having recognized what a text says , critical readers reflect on
what the text does: is it offering examples? Arguing?
Appealing for sympathy? Making a contrast to clarify a
Critical readers also infer what the text means as a whole,
based on their analysis
What are its goals?
To recognize an author’s purpose
To understand tone and persuasive elements
To recognize bias by the author(s) – has the author not
reported all the research or written the article so a
particular view emerges as dominant which in actual
fact may not be dominant
Reply with reason not emotion
Require evidence, ignore no known no known evidence,
and follow evidence where it leads
Be concerned more with finding the best explanation than
Analyse apparent confusion and ask questions
Weigh the influence of motives and biases
Recognise our own biases, assumptions, prejudices or points
Evaluate all reasonable influences
Consider a variety of possible viewpoints/perspectives
Remain open to alternative interpretations
Accept a new explanation, model or paradigm because it explains the
evidence better, is simpler or has fewer inconsistencies or covers more
Accept new priorities in response to a reevaluation of evidence
Do not reject unpopular views out of hand
Recognise the relevance and/or merit of alternative
Recognise the extent and weight of evidence
To write a good review you should produce a short, well-
structured report. In this report it should be clear that you
are knowledgeable about the area and it is common to
refer to other work. Summarize recent progress, findings in
recent research. It may be several primary sources or
data put together.
MATERIAL,METHODOLOGY OR ABSTRACT IS NOT NECESSARY.
WHAT NOT TO DO
Do not include fraudulent figures or add someone as author
without their knowledge or consent. Beware of originality and
copyright policy of others work, give due credit as per their
policy. Do not plagiarize, write to the author to get
The review of literature is an important process in the realm
of research. It provides literature background and
context for the research problem. It should establish the
need for research and indicate the writer is
knowledgeable about that area.
It relates study to the larger ongoing dialogue in the
literature about a topic, filling in gaps and extending
it provides a comprehensive outlook about his area of
It is helpful to design your study and revise and extend your
It is helpful to frame the hypothesis and guide you to frame the
objectives of your study
It is helpful to write research proposals. And in a proposal, the
literature review is generally brief. Be judicious in your choice of
examples- the literature selected should be pertinent and relevant.
Select and reference only the more appropriate citations.
It is also worth to note that the examiners of the research theses or
research reports will always be serious about how best you used
the literature already available and your search strategy- the
procedures you used and sources you investigated to compile
your literature review.
Fix time limit. Try incorporating new literature.
It is the duty of the researcher to identify, retrieving and reviewing
those studies, which are very close to his study.
understand the available literature in print and non-print media.
While full-text database are convenient and save time, the
literature needs to be comprehensive and that will involve
indexing and abstracting services and the use of inter- library
STEPS IN COLLECTION
INTERNET AS SOURCE
SOURCES ON WEB
Altavista, Infoseek, Hotbot used for searching appropriate articles
related to your area of research.
RESEARCH REPORTS- annual reports in journals
PATENTS- documents of exclusive rights
STANDARDS- product description
PERIODOCALS- issued at regular intervals
OTHERS-conference proceedings, theses, dissertations
ENCYCLOPEDIAS- treasure chest of knowledge
INDEX AND ABSTRACTING JOURNALS
GUIDES TO THE LITERATURE
LIST OF PERIODICALS
LIST OF RESEARCH
NON DOCUMENTED SOURCES
INDUSTRIAL LIASON OFFICER- provides information about
INVISIBLE COLLEGE-interpersonal communication between
RESEARCH ASSOCIATIONS-cooperative information exchange
INFORMATION CONSULTANCY-retired scientists and professionals
give their expertise and knowledge
OTHERS-technical faculties , public and semi-public research
ATLASES AND MAPS
YEAR BOOKS /ALMANACS
PRESENTATION BY FLORENCE