Infant mortality and deaths in Kosova during 2005-2006
1UNIVERSITY OF PRISHTINAFACULTY OF MEDICINEINFANT MORTALITY ANDDEATHS IN REPUBLIC OFKOSOVA DURING 2005-2010Student: Floran SahitiICBMS-ALBANIA 3rd of May 2013
Infant mortality is a key indicator of the health of apopulation and Kosova unfortunately has a high level In the European region,Finland has the lowest level ofinfant mortality and Kyrgyzstan has the highest level Infant mortality in Kosova in 2000 is estimated to be29 deaths per 1.000 live births. At that time thismortality rate was the highest among all countries inthe region.
Main direct causes of infant deaths at the global level are:congenital anomalies, asphyxia, trauma at birth, infantileinfections, disorders caused by complications duringpregnancy Other causes that contribute indirectly are : economic andsocial circumstances, smoking, age and weight of the mother,mother’s level of education, high level of births and quality ofhealth care. Infant mortality and infant deaths are used as an indicatorof public health, quality of health services, distribution ofgoods and general living standards in a society In Kosova Health Strategy for 2005-2012 it is stated that themain purpose is to reduce infant mortality –number ofinfant deaths.
Survey and researchespro/against correlation betweenmaternal education and infantdeaths.
The aim of this retrospective paper isevaluation and analysis of infantdeaths/mortality, presentation of themain causes and the impact ofmaternal education level in infantmortality during 2005-2010 in Kosova.
The data used are taken from the annual officialpublications of KSA for the period 2005-2010. Data is taken for the infant deaths by the age ofinfants (three intervals), gender, mother’sage, mother’s education level where for the reasonof study, maternal education will be divided intwo big target groups. Descriptive tabulations data are presented andinterpreted. The data derived were tested p=0.05.The trend of the phenomena is also analyzed.
Infant mortality is defined as the number of infant deaths (1year or younger) per 1000 live births in a geographic regionor institution in a period of time Perinatal death is the death of a child born alive, that occurswithin six days of postnatal life (168 hours). Neonatal death is the death of a child born alive that occursafter 7-27 days of postnatal life (over 168 hours, but before 28days of life after birth). Post-neonatal death is the death of a child born alive thatoccurs after 27 days birth (but before age 1 year of life afterbirth).
Maternal education level: for study andsimplification issues are taken only two targetgroups for review with respect to education ofmothers, and they are:a) The group of mothers with these levels ofeducation : not attending school at all, primaryschool not completed, primary school completed .b)The group of mothers with : high schoolcompleted and other higher levels.
Comparing with the other European data’s ofinfantil mortality , Kosova is located between thestates with highest level of infant deaths In Kosova Health Strategy for 2005-2012 it isstated that the main purpose is to reduce infantmortality –number of infant deaths.
For the period 2005-2010 in Kosova havehappened 206907 live births Infant deaths in the Republic of Kosova in theperiod 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2010 are ina total of 2030 cases (this includes dead babies upto 365 days of age
Infant deaths according to age during 2005-20101275, 63%263, 13%492, 24%InfantilNeonatalPost-neonatal
In all the above mentioned subdivisions isnoticed a trend of male dominationapproximately by 10% for infant deaths. 20% of the total deaths occurred in the first24 hours of birth or a total of 407 cases forthis time interval. That is approximately 68deaths in a year in this vital interval .
0501001502002502005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010Infant deaths according to gender for the period 2005-2010Male Female
998103220306356401275150113263 21327949205001000150020002500Perinatal Neonatal Post-neonatalTotal Age of infant deathsInfant deaths acc. to maternal education level for the period 2005-20101.Not attending school at all, primaryschool not completed, primary schoolcompleted2.High school completed and higherlevelsTotal
Infant deaths according to mothers age 2005-20100% 4%22%34%21%12%4% 1% 2%<14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Unknown
The average within six years is 338.3 infant deaths peryear. Also we understand that the phenomena ofinfant deaths tends to decrease from year to year to11.15 occasions. Although the number of infant deaths in Kosovohas declined in recent years, the country still topsthe list of European countries in infant mortality. -The rate is still higher than it should be with 17.1deaths in 1000 births - a huge decrease from 2000,when the number of deaths was 29 per 1,000 births
Infant mortality phenomenon should be viewedbroadly, not just through health and healthcare services.General welfare of children and families inKosovo, environment, housing, and nutrition, overall levelof education and health education, economic conditionssuch as poverty and unemployment, all contribute toinfant mortality A lack of professionalism and financing in the health caresystem According to the WHO, 68% of the deaths result fromcomplications during pregnancy. About 36% of thesedeaths are caused by trauma during delivery (morespecifically As far as health reasons go that effect infantmortality, they are fetal immaturity (32%), complicationsin pregnancy (29%), congenital anomalies (6%), infections(2%), and others (31%),.
According to the UN Population Division from 2005 to2010, infant deaths in Turkey were 24.02 per 1,000births; in Albania 18.28; in Macedonia 14.72; in Serbia11.77; in Croatia 6.06; and Montenegro with 8.70 Causes for this level of mortality are many, but poorprenatal care, lack of preventive health services andcommunity healing that should be offered withinfamily medicine, poor hygiene in hospitals, individualand collective responsibility, are causes thatcontinually must be addressed
The strategy has to do with child health andadolescent reproductive health by establishing aprovision for basic healthcare for every newborn,management of babies born prematurely, and withlow body weight; establishing a monitoring andevaluation system of care for mother and thenewborn, and others Reducing infant mortality is a long and laboriousprocess, but in comparison with European countries,of whose family we pretend to be a part of, theres noroom for complacency
We still remain at this time withcountries with unacceptable levels of[infant death] indicators. Mortality remains high, butimprovements were observed.Kosova is far from the level Finland,Austria, and Switzerland, whichhave the lowest infant mortality inEurope, but close to the numbers inMacedonia, yet better than Turkey,Armenia, Kazakhstan, Georgia andKyrgyzstan that have a higher infantmortality from Kosova.
Education of a potential women to become amother, is an indicator that affects her status andoften relates with her incomes and occupation and itis used as socioeconomic factor It is important to look at possible mechanismsinfluencing variables directly or indirectly related tothe level of maternal education and their impact oninfant deaths/mortality There is no significant difference in infant deaths andmaternal level of education of the two levels ofeducation.
1. Mother’s-education increases acquisition and use ofhealth knowledge’s2. Mother’s-education helps to increase the use of healthservices3. Education of the mother - may increase the financialresources of the family through work which indirectlyaffects the health of family members.4. Education of the mother-affects in preferences forfamily size and their health.
We conclude that the total infant deaths during the period2005-2010, include a total of 2030 cases where perinataldeaths take the biggest part of it -1266 cases or 62.8%./Neonatal deaths include 12.95% of cases or 263. and finallypost-neonatal deaths with 24,23% or 492 cases. Men areapproximately 10% more affectedInfant mortality phenomenon should be viewed broadly, notjust through health and healthcare services. General welfareof children and families in Kosovo, environment, housing,and nutrition, overall level of education and healtheducation, economic conditions such as poverty andunemployment, all contribute to infant mortality
Although the number of infant deaths in Kosovo hasdeclined in recent years, the country still tops the list ofEuropean countries in infant mortality. - The rate is stillhigher than it should be with 17.1 deaths in 1000 births - ahuge decrease from 2000, when the number of deaths was29 per 1,000 births.A lack of professionalism and financing in the health caresystem and other factors such as poverty and educationcontinues to contribute to Kosovos high infant mortalityrate, as well as the deaths of many mothers duringchildbirth. It is proven that there is no significantdifference between two levels described of mothereducation in infant mortality
Relationship between maternal educational level andinfant deaths and mortality during 2005-2010 isexamined, in terms of two target groups –a) The group of mothers with these levels of education :not attending school at all, primary school notcompleted, primary school completedb)The group of mothers with : high school completedand other higher levels.And regarding to that there is no significant differencebetween these two levels of education in infantmortality/deaths.
It is believed that this downward trend ofreducing the rate of infantil deaths in Kosovahas occurred due to many factors, amongwhich are: Improving antenatal care, careduring labor increased and improved qualityof care for newborns, birth performing underadequate medical care and improved medicaltechnology that is used in diagnosticprocedures and during birth