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  • 1. WORLD ATLAS of Gender Equality in Education UNESCO Publishing United NationsEducational, Scienti¿c and Cultural Organization
  • 2. WORLD ATLASof Gender Equality in Education
  • 3. Published in 2012 by the United NationsEducational, Scientific and Cultural Organization7, place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP, France© UNESCO 2012All rights reservedMaps © Collins Bartholomew Ltd 2012ISBN 978-92-3-104232-4The designations employed and the presentation of materialthroughout this publication do not imply the expression of anyopinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning thelegal status of any country, territory, city or area or of itsauthorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers orboundaries.The ideas and opinions expressed in this publication are thoseof the author; they are not necessarily those of UNESCO anddo not commit the Organization.Graphic design, illustrations, typeset: HarperCollins PublishersCover design: UNESCOPrinted in France
  • 4. ForewordGood policy is sharp policy. It is policy that targets specific problems andbottlenecks. For this, we need a clear picture of what is happening and gooddata. This first World Atlas of Gender Equality in Education responds to thisneed on one of the most important questions for human rights andsustainable development today.Girls and women remain deprived of full and equal opportunities foreducation. There has been progress towards parity at the primary level, butthis tapers off at the secondary level in developing regions. The globaleconomic crisis is deepening inequalities, made worse by cuts in educationbudgets and stagnating development support.Gender equality is one of the six goals of the global Education for Allcampaign that UNESCO leads. This was launched in 2000, when thecountries of the world agreed to “eliminate gender disparities in primary andsecondary education by 2005, and achieve gender equality in education by2015, with a focus on ensuring girls’ full and equal access to and achievementin basic education of good quality”.Gender equality is essential for protecting universal human rights andfundamental freedoms. It is also a powerful development accelerator.The education of girls and women can lead to a wide range of benefits –from improved maternal health, reduced infant mortality and fertility ratesto increased prevention against HIV and AIDS. For this to happen, we needto target the gender gap at every level.This Atlas illustrates the linkages between different levels, and it situatesissues of gender equality in a broader context. Equality in education mustbe integrated into wider policies at the economic, social and political levels.This is how the transformational power of education for girls and womencan translate into sustainable development for society as a whole.Maps are a way to understand the world; they are also excellent tools tocommunicate to a wide audience. This Atlas allows readers to accessinformation at a glance and to examine issues of gender equality fromdifferent perspectives.This is possible thanks to the availability of sex-disaggregated data ineducation, produced by UNESCO’s pioneering Institute for Statistics.The Institute regularly develops sex-disaggregated statistics for all levelsof education in order to monitor the progress of girls and the educationalattainment levels of women. It creates new indicators to providepolicy-relevant information at the national and international levels.All of this allows for a clearer picture to emerge on gender progress and gaps.This Atlas is a map of the world; it is also a call to action, to concentrate evermore on promoting gender equality in education as a human right and adevelopment multiplier.Irina BokovaDirector-General of UNESCO 1
  • 5. AcknowledgementsThis World Atlas of Gender Equality in Education is a production of theUNESCO Institute for Statistics’ Education Indicators and Data AnalysisTeam, Montreal, and the Education Sector Knowledge ManagementServices, Paris.The author is Edward B. Fiske.The publication was prepared under the supervision of Ulrika Peppler Barry,UNESCO’s Education Sector, Saïd Ould Voffal, and Albert Motivans,UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS). Lory Ajamian, UIS, was responsible forthe coordination and for the data presentation and graphics.The analysis in this Atlas is based on data provided to the UIS by thecountries or territories covered in this publication. We would like to expressour gratitude to those statisticians who, in each country and territory, tookthe time to carefully respond to the UIS, UNESCO-UIS/OECD/Eurostat orWorld Education Indicators questionnaires, as well as our requests forclarification. We would also like to express our thanks to the internationalorganizations that supplied additional information and statistics tocomplement those collected directly by the UIS: in particular, the UnitedNations Statistics and Population Divisions, the World Bank, theOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD),Eurostat and other specialized institutions.We are grateful to the external peer reviewers, namely the late ClaudeSauvageot and Ramya Subrahmanian, who provided valuable feedback onthe draft.We would also like to acknowledge the contribution of UIS and UNESCOHeadquarters colleagues to the overall quality of the Atlas:David Atchoarena, Nasli Aouka, Sheena Bell, Nicole Bella, Chiao-Ling Chien,Sanye Gülser Corat, Mohamad Elmasri, Amélie Gagnon, Rosario GarciaCalderon, Friedrich Huebler, Xiaobao Lin, Patrick Montjourides, ClaudeNdabananiye, Jean O’Sullivan, Amy Otchet, Maya Prince, Lydia Ruprecht,Ioulia Sementchouk, Sobhi Tawil, Patricia Toïgo and Nhung Truong.The Publishing, Design, Editorial and Database teams at HarperCollinsPublishers provided editorial control, mapping and typesetting.2
  • 6. Contents Foreword ................................................................................................................................................... 1 Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................................. 2 List of maps ............................................................................................................................................... 4 List of figures and tables ........................................................................................................................ 5 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 8CHAPTER 1 Increased worldwide demand for quality schooling .................................................................. 10 1. School enrolments keeping pace with population growth 2. National wealth: a factor in educational participation and persistence 3. Countries differ in levels of commitment to education 4. Compulsory education laws offer legal basis for educationCHAPTER 2 Girls’ right to education ...................................................................................................................... 21 1. Female enrolment rising at greater rate than among males 2. Gender parity an issue in all countriesCHAPTER 3 Enrolment and gender trends: primary education ..................................................................... 26 1. Participation in pre-primary education on the rise 2. Growing number of countries achieving universal primary education 3. Significant progress in gender parity at the primary level 4. Repetition a continuing obstacle to progress in school 5. Dropout a threat to universal primary education 6. Primary level completion rates on the rise 7. Out-of-school children a continuing challenge 8. Overage children more likely to drop out of school 9. Special challenges of poor children and those in rural areasCHAPTER 4 Enrolment and gender trends: secondary education ................................................................. 58 1. Gross enrolment ratios rising at secondary level 2. Upward trends in secondary level gender parity 3. Gross enrolment ratios different at lower and higher secondary levels 4. Out-of-school adolescents a continuing problemCHAPTER 5 Enrolment and gender trends: tertiary education ...................................................................... 74 1. Gross enrolment ratio soaring at the tertiary level 2. Women are the biggest beneficiaries of rising tertiary enrolments 3. National wealth a major factor in gender gaps at tertiary level 4. Women have edge in graduate degrees up until PhD level 5. Significant gender differences in various fields of study 6. Men continue to predominate in research jobs 7. Multiple reasons for over-representation of women in post-secondary educationCHAPTER 6 Trends in school-life expectancy ...................................................................................................... 86CHAPTER 7 Gender trends: adult and youth literacy ......................................................................................... 92 1. Significant progress made in push for universal adult literacy 2. Youth literacy on the riseCHAPTER 8 How policies affect gender equality in education ....................................................................... 98 1. Female role models an important factor in girls’ academic success 2. Secondary teaching force evenly divided among males and females 3. Teachers’ pay a factor in proportion of female teachers 4. Girls more affected than boys by distance to school 5. Females have edge over males in learning achievement Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................... 107 Annex Glossary ..................................................................................................................................................... 108 Definitions of indicators ......................................................................................................................... 110 Regions ...................................................................................................................................................... 112 Electronic resources ................................................................................................................................ 113 International targets ................................................................................................................................ 114 Index ........................................................................................................................................................... 115 3
  • 7. List of mapsMap 1.1.1 Majority of countries seeing growth in school-age population ......................................................................................................... 10 School-age population growth, 2010–2020, ages 5–29Map 1.2.1 School-life expectancy rates rise with greater national wealth .......................................................................................................... 14 National wealth and school-life expectancyMap 1.3.1 Two-thirds of countries devote 10 to 20 percent of public spending to education ......................................................................... 16 Total public expenditure on education as % of total government expenditureMap 1.4.1 Ten to fourteen years of education is the norm in most countries ................................................................................................... 18 Compulsory educationMap 2.1.1 Gender parity achieved in two-thirds of countries at primary and/or secondary levels ................................................................... 22 Gender parity index for primary and secondary educationMap 3.1.1 Pre-primary enrolment apparent in most regions of the world ......................................................................................................... 26 Gross enrolment ratio in pre-primary educationMap 3.1.2 Gender parity widespread in pre-primary education .......................................................................................................................... 30 Gender parity index in pre-primary educationMap 3.2.1 Gross enrolment ratios vary across regions ........................................................................................................................................ 32 Gross enrolment ratio in primary educationMap 3.2.2 Steady progress seen toward universal primary education ................................................................................................................ 34 Net enrolment rate in primary educationMap 3.3.1 Two-thirds of countries show gender parity in primary schools ........................................................................................................ 38 Gender parity index in primary educationMap 3.4.1 Repetition rates vary widely among different regions ........................................................................................................................ 40 Percentage of repeaters in primary educationMap 3.5.1 Dropout rates vary widely among different regions ........................................................................................................................... 44 Dropout rate in primary educationMap 3.6.1 Primary completion rates at least 95 percent in half of countries ..................................................................................................... 48 Primary completion rateMap 3.7.1 Children not in school heavily concentrated in three regions ........................................................................................................... 52 Rate of out-of-school childrenMap 4.1.1 Secondary gross enrolment ratios vary amongst different regions ................................................................................................... 58 Gross enrolment ratio in secondary educationMap 4.1.2 Net enrolment rates in lower secondary education vary widely ......................................................................................................... 62 Net enrolment rate in lower secondary educationMap 4.2.1 Gender parity at secondary level reached in more than one-third of countries ............................................................................... 64 Gender parity index in secondary educationMap 4.3.1 Enrolments highest at lower secondary level ..................................................................................................................................... 66 Gross enrolment ratio in lower secondary educationMap 4.3.2 Enrolments lowest at upper secondary level ...................................................................................................................................... 68 Gross enrolment ratio in upper secondary educationMap 4.4.1 High rates of out-of-school female adolescents detected in certain regions .................................................................................. 72 Rate of female out-of-school adolescents (lower secondary education)Map 5.1.1 Tertiary level gross enrolment ratios vary across regions .................................................................................................................. 74 Gross enrolment ratio in tertiary educationMap 5.2.1 Women now a majority of tertiary level students in most countries ................................................................................................. 78 Gender parity index, tertiary educationMap 5.6.1 What is the share of women among researchers? .............................................................................................................................. 84 Women as a share of total researchersMap 6.1.1 School-life expectancy rates vary across different regions ................................................................................................................. 86 School-life expectancy from primary to tertiary educationMap 7.1.1 Adult literacy rates vary across different regions ................................................................................................................................ 92 Adult literacy rateMap 7.2.1 Youth literacy rates higher than those for adults ................................................................................................................................ 96 Youth literacy rateMap 8.1.1 Women account for a majority of primary school teachers in most countries and regions ............................................................ 98 Percentage of female teachers, primary educationMap 8.2.1 Proportion of female teachers in secondary schools rising but still lower than at the primary level .............................................. 100 Percentage of female teachers, secondary education4
  • 8. List of figures and tablesTable A. Gender-related goals ............................................................................................................................................................................ 8Figure A. Number of students (in millions) worldwide enrolled in school from primary to tertiary education, 1970, 2000 and 2009 .......... 9Figure 1.1.1 More than half of school-age population resides in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa ........................................................................... 10 School-age population, distribution by region, 2010Table 1.1.1 Projected growth in school-age population by region ....................................................................................................................... 12Table 1.1.2 Some regions expect population declines .......................................................................................................................................... 12 Projected school-age population growth in Central and Eastern Europe, Central Asia and East Asia and the PacificTable 1.1.3 Sub-Saharan African countries that have the lowest and highest school-age population growth ................................................... 13Figure 1.2.1 School-life expectancy rises with national wealth ............................................................................................................................... 13 School-life expectancy and GDP per capita in US$ PPP, 2009 or latest year availableTable 1.2.1 School-life expectancy for different levels of national wealth ............................................................................................................ 14Table 1.2.2 School-life expectancy for representative group of countries from the various income strata, 2009 or latest year available ....... 14Figure 1.3.1 Size of public sector affects education expenditures ......................................................................................................................... 16 Total government expenditure as a share of GDP and public education spending as a share of total government spending, selected countries, 2009 or latest year availableFigure 1.4.1 How regions vary in compulsory education requirements ................................................................................................................ 18 Number of countries per region according to the number of compulsory years of education, 2009Table 1.4.1 Country distribution by region, according to compulsory education, 2009 ...................................................................................... 20Table 1.4.2 Countries with no compulsory education ........................................................................................................................................... 20Table 1.4.3 Countries in sub-Saharan Africa that have 10+ years of compulsory education ............................................................................... 20Table 1.4.4 Countries with 5 to 6 years of compulsory education ........................................................................................................................ 20Figure 2.1.1 Central and Eastern Europe the top region for parity at both primary and secondary levels .......................................................... 22 Number of countries according to parity in primary and secondary education, 2009Figure 2.1.2 Majority of world’s children living in countries with gender parity at primary level ......................................................................... 24 Distribution of world’s children by level of education by gender parity index for gross enrolment ratio, 2009Figure 3.1.1 Growth seen in the majority of the regions ........................................................................................................................................ 28 Gross enrolment ratio in pre-primary education, by region and worldwide, 1990–2009Figure 3.1.2 Participation rates vary within regions ................................................................................................................................................. 28 Gross enrolment ratio in pre-primary education for selected countries and regions, 2009 or latest year availableFigure 3.1.3 Early childhood experience ranges from minimal to near-universal ................................................................................................. 29 Percentage of new entrants in primary education with ECD experience for selected countries, 2009 or latest year availableFigure 3.2.1 Majority of children living in countries with high gross enrolment ratios ........................................................................................ 32 Distribution of world’s children by levels of gross enrolment ratio in primary education, 2009Figure 3.2.2 Net enrolment rates rising in most countries .................................................................................................................................... 34 Changes in net enrolment ratios in primary education, 2000–2009Figure 3.2.3 Sub-Saharan Africa leading gains in gross enrolment ratios for both sexes ..................................................................................... 36 Gross enrolment ratio in primary education by region and worldwide, 1970–2009Figure 3.2.4 Primary enrolments keeping pace with population growth ............................................................................................................... 36 Percentage change in enrolment and population in primary education by gender, 1999–2009Figure 3.2.5 Gross enrolment ratio higher for boys in some countries and girls in others ................................................................................. 37 Gross enrolment ratio in primary education for selected countries, 2009 or latest year availableTable 3.3.1 Examples of countries with more girls and more boys ...................................................................................................................... 38Figure 3.3.1 Pace of movement toward gender parity varies among regions ........................................................................................................ 38 Percentage of countries within parity range in primary education, 1970–2009Table 3.4.1 Largest proportions of repeaters found in Latin America and the Caribbean and sub-Saharan Africa ............................................ 42 Regional percentage of repeaters, 2009 or latest year available Regional percentage of repeaters by gender, 2009 or latest year availableTable 3.4.2 Countries with highest percentage of repeaters, 2009 or latest year available ................................................................................. 42Figure 3.4.1 Boys are more likely to repeat than girls ............................................................................................................................................. 42 Percentage of repeaters for selected countries, 2009 or latest year availableFigure 3.4.2 Male repeaters outnumber females in 75 percent of countries ........................................................................................................ 43 Percentage of countries according to repetition ratesTable 3.4.3 Some countries have more female repeaters ..................................................................................................................................... 43 Countries with gender parity in repetition rates, 2009 or latest year available Countries where there are more female repeaters, 2009 or latest year availableFigure 3.5.1 Dropout rates high in two out of three sub-Saharan countries ......................................................................................................... 44 Percentage of countries according to dropout rates in primary education for sub-Saharan Africa and the remaining regions of the world, 2009Figure 3.5.2 How dropout rates vary among countries ........................................................................................................................................... 46 Dropout rates for selected countries, primary education, 2009 or latest year availableFigure 3.5.3 Boys more likely than girls to leave school ......................................................................................................................................... 47 Dropout rates by gender for all countries with available data, 2009 or latest year availableFigure 3.5.4 Examples of male/female dropout rates among countries ................................................................................................................ 47 Dropout rates by gender for selected countries, 2009 or latest year available 5
  • 9. List of figures and tables (continued)Figure 3.6.1 Rise seen in most regions and among both sexes ............................................................................................................................. 48 Primary completion rates by region and gender, 1999–2009Figure 3.6.2 Global primary completion rates up from 73 to 88 percent .............................................................................................................. 50 Primary completion rates by region, 1970–2009Figure 3.6.3 Countries differ in primary completion rates by gender .................................................................................................................... 50 Primary completion rates by gender for selected countries, 2009 or latest year availableFigure 3.6.4 Schooling trajectories vary among countries ...................................................................................................................................... 51 Net enrolment rate and primary completion rate, selected countries, 2009Figure 3.7.1 How out-of-school rates vary among regions .................................................................................................................................... 52 Out-of-school rate for primary school-age children for selected countries and regions, 2009 or latest year availableFigure 3.7.2 Most out-of-school children living in three regions .......................................................................................................................... 54 Distribution of out-of-school children, 2009Figure 3.7.3 How sub-Saharan Africa compares to world ....................................................................................................................................... 54 Country distribution according to the out-of-school rate for primary school-age children, 2009Figure 3.7.4 Out-of-school rates declining, including in sub-Saharan Africa ........................................................................................................ 54 Rate of out-of-school children by region, 1999 and 2009Figure 3.7.5 Decline of percentage of female out-of-school children greatest in East Asia and the Pacific ....................................................... 55 Percentage of female out-of-school children of primary age, by region and worldwide, 1990–2009Figure 3.7.6 Dramatic gains in girls’ school participation seen in South and West Asia ....................................................................................... 55 Out-of-school trends, 1990–2009Figure 3.8.1 Boys more likely than girls to be overage at the end of primary school ........................................................................................... 56 Percentage of overage boys and girls in the last grade of primary education, 2008 or latest year availableFigure 3.9.1 Primary school attendance highest in wealthy households ................................................................................................................ 57 Primary adjusted net attendance rate: Richest versus poorest wealth quintileFigure 3.9.2 Attendance also higher in urban than in rural areas ........................................................................................................................... 57 School attendance of primary school-age children: Urban versus rural areasFigure 4.1.1 Upward trend in secondary GER seen in all regions and for both sexes ........................................................................................... 60 Regional gross enrolment ratio in secondary education by region and worldwide, 1970–2009Figure 4.1.2 Secondary enrolment rising faster than school-age population in most regions ............................................................................ 61 Percentage change in enrolment and population in secondary education by gender, 1999–2009Figure 4.1.3 Patterns of gross enrolment ratio by gender vary among countries ................................................................................................. 61 Gross enrolment ratio for secondary education for selected countries, 2009 or latest year availableFigure 4.1.4 NERs range widely within regions ....................................................................................................................................................... 62 Net enrolment rate in lower secondary education for selected countries and regionsTable 4.2.1 Some countries favour males, some females, at secondary level ....................................................................................................... 64 Gender parity index for selected countries, 2009 or latest year availableBox 4.1 The adjusted gender parity index ......................................................................................................................................................... 66Figure 4.3.1 Despite general pattern, some countries have more females than males in vocational education ................................................ 68 Percentage of upper secondary students enrolled in vocational education by gender, 2009 or latest year availableFigure 4.3.2 Significant enrolment increases at both lower and upper secondary levels ..................................................................................... 70 Gross enrolment ratio in lower and upper secondary education by region and worldwide, 1999–2009Figure 4.3.3 Regions differ in gender parity patterns at lower and upper secondary levels ................................................................................. 70 Regional gender parity index in lower and upper secondary education, 2009Figure 4.3.4 Gender parity index of lower and upper secondary for selected countries ....................................................................................... 71 Gender parity index of lower and upper secondary for selected countries, 2009 or latest year availableTable 4.4.1 Rate of female out-of-school adolescents for selected countries, 2009 or latest year available ...................................................... 72Figure 5.1.1 Largest gains seen for regions that had the furthest to go ............................................................................................................... 76 Tertiary enrolment by region, 1970–2009Figure 5.1.2 Dramatic gains seen in Thailand, Bahrain and Cameroon ................................................................................................................. 76 Gross enrolment ratio in tertiary education for selected countries, 1971–2009Figure 5.1.3 Tertiary enrolment growth exceeding population growth in all regions and for both sexes ........................................................... 76 Percentage change in enrolment and population in tertiary education by gender, 1999–2009Figure 5.2.1 Overall female advantage in tertiary enrolment growth mirrored at regional level ......................................................................... 77 Gross enrolment ratio in tertiary education by region and worldwide, 1970–2009Figure 5.2.2 Global GPI up from 0.74 favouring men to 1.08 favouring women since 1970 ................................................................................ 77 Adjusted gender parity index for gross enrolment ratio in tertiary education, 1970–2009Table 5.2.1 Examples of countries favouring males or females, 2009 or latest year available ............................................................................ 78Figure 5.2.3 Majority of world’s youth live in countries where men have an edge in tertiary GPI ....................................................................... 78 Distribution of world’s youth by gender parity index for gross enrolment ratio in tertiary education, 2009Figure 5.2.4 Women’s participation in tertiary education much higher than at lower levels ................................................................................ 79 Gender parity index of the gross enrolment ratio by level of education, 2009 or latest year available6
  • 10. Figure 5.3.1 Women more likely to pursue tertiary education in wealthy countries ............................................................................................. 80 Gender parity index for gross enrolment ratio in tertiary education and GDP per capita ($PPP), 2009Figure 5.4.1 Women’s edge in bachelor’s and master’s degrees reversed at PhD level ........................................................................................ 81 a. Proportion of women graduates in tertiary education by programme level, 2008 b. Proportion of women and men graduates in tertiary education by programme level and those employed as researchers, 2008Table 5.5.1 Proportion of women graduates strongest in social sciences, business, law and the life sciences ................................................ 81 Percentage of women graduates in the fields of science and social sciences, business and law by region, 2008Figure 5.5.1 Percentage of female tertiary graduates differs in education and engineering ................................................................................ 82 Women as a percentage of the total number of tertiary graduates in selected fields of education, 2009 or latest year availableFigure 6.1.1 Most children living in countries with modest SLE rates ................................................................................................................... 86 Distribution of world’s children according to school-life expectancyFigure 6.1.2 Gains in school-life expectancy reflected in all regions ..................................................................................................................... 88 Average school-life expectancy in years, by region and worldwide, 1970–2009Figure 6.1.3 Increase in school-life expectancy seen among both sexes ............................................................................................................... 88 Average school-life expectancy in years by gender, by region and worldwide, 1990–2009Figure 6.1.4 Grade repetition: A major impediment to school-life expectancy ..................................................................................................... 89 Average school-life expectancy excluding repetition, and years expected to be spent repeating grades for selected countries, primary and secondary education, 2009 or latest year availableFigure 6.1.5 Patterns of school-life expectancy differ among countries and regions ........................................................................................... 89 School-life expectancy from primary to secondary and from primary to tertiary education for selected countries, 2009 or latest year availableFigure 6.1.6 Dramatic gains seen in school-life expectancy in Afghanistan and Bhutan ...................................................................................... 90 School-life expectancy for primary and secondary education for selected South and West Asian countries, 1990 and 2009Figure 6.1.7 Despite gains, sub-Saharan African countries still face challenges in school-life expectancy ......................................................... 90 School-life expectancy for primary and secondary education for selected sub-Saharan African countries, 1990 and 2009Figure 6.1.8 Gender disparities a persistent problem in some developing countries .......................................................................................... 91 Share of population with at least five years of education by year of birth, 1950–1990Table 7.1.1 Global gains in adult literacy mirrored in all regions ......................................................................................................................... 92 Adult literacy rates by region and worldwide, 1990–2009Figure 7.1.1 Despite gains, women still account for substantial majority of adult illiterates ............................................................................... 94 Trends in male and female adult literacy rates, 1990–2009Figure 7.1.2 Greatest gains in female literacy seen in Arab States and South and West Asia ............................................................................... 95 Gender parity index for adult literacy by region and worldwide, 1990–2009Figure 7.1.3 Largest number of adult illiterates live in India .................................................................................................................................. 95 Number of adult illiterates for selected countries, in millions, 1990 and 2009Figure 7.2.1 Males still have an edge in some regions ........................................................................................................................................... 96 Youth literacy rates for selected regions, 1990–2009Figure 8.1.1 Proportion of female teachers on the rise since 1990 ....................................................................................................................... 98 Percentage of female teachers in primary education, 1990–2009Figure 8.2.1 Gains in proportion of female secondary teachers seen in all regions except sub-Saharan Africa ................................................. 101 Percentage of female teachers in secondary education, 1990–2009Figure 8.2.2 Countries with high female GERs have more female teachers ......................................................................................................... 102 Gross enrolment ratio for females in secondary education and the proportion of women teachers in primary educationFigure 8.2.3 Proportion of female managers at primary and secondary level ranges from 26 to 82 percent ..................................................... 103 Percentage of female teachers and female management personnel in primary and secondary educationFigure 8.2.4 Slovakia the only country with more female managers than teachers .............................................................................................. 103 Percentage of female teachers and female management personnel in primary educationFigure 8.3.1 More female primary teachers in countries where salaries are low .................................................................................................. 104 Primary teachers’ salaries as a ratio of average GDP per capita and the proportion of female primary teachers, 2000–2007Figure 8.4.1 How distance affects primary attendance in four sub-Saharan African countries ............................................................................ 105 Distance to school and attendance: PrimaryFigure 8.4.2 How distance affects secondary attendance in four sub-Saharan African countries ........................................................................ 105 Distance to school and attendance: SecondaryFigure 8.5.1 Girls have edge in reading and mathematics in 14 developing countries ........................................................................................ 106 Gender differences in reading and mathematics in 14 southern and eastern African countries, 2000 and 2007 7
  • 11. IntroductionThe global community has long been interested education. From the outset, the global community hasin finding ways to improve access to high quality recognized that educating girls and women is aneducation at all levels, from pre-primary through imperative, not only as a matter of respecting a basictertiary. Education is a fundamental human right – human right for half the population but as a powerfulone that all individuals are entitled to enjoy whatever and necessary first step to achieving the broader goals ofthe circumstances in which they live – that also brings EFA. Following the landmark Fourth World Conferenceimportant benefits to human society as a whole. The on Women held in Beijing in September 1995, attendedlevel of knowledge and skills that individuals need to by representatives of 189 governments and 2,100function as workers, citizens and fulfilled individuals non-governmental organizations, the internationalin the global society is increasing. For all countries, community reached a consensus on achieving genderwhatever their stage of development, view education as equality in education. The Dakar Framework for Actiona cornerstone of economic development. An educated and the MDGs set the goal of eliminating gendercitizenry is also a key to social and political stability disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005within and between nations. and of achieving gender equality by 2015.This concern for education on the part of the globalcommunity has been reiterated at a series ofinternational conferences, starting in 1990 with the Table A. Gender-related goalsWorld Conference on Education for All in Jomtien, EFA Goal 5 Eliminating gender disparities in primary andThailand. There, representatives from 155 countries secondary education by 2005, and achieving genderlaunched the Education for All (EFA) movement by equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls’ full and equal access to and achievement in basicagreeing to make primary education accessible to all education of good quality.children and to massively reduce illiteracy by the end of – Dakar Framework for Action (2000) (UNESCO)the decade. They adopted a Framework for Action thatdefined targets and strategies aimed at meeting the MDG Promote gender equality and empower women Target 4: Eliminate gender disparity in primary andbasic learning needs of all by the year 2000. secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in allTen years later, in April 2000, 1,100 participants from levels of education no later than 2015. – Millennium Summit (2002) (United Nations General164 countries gathered at the World Education Forum Assembly, Resolution A/57/270)in Dakar, Senegal, to reaffirm their commitment to thenotion of education as a fundamental human right andto the goals of EFA. The Forum reviewed progress up tothat point and adopted a framework for action that sets In laying out these goals, governments and internationalupdated targets. agencies pledged that no country engaged in this effortAnother important development was the signing in would be hindered by a lack of resources. They alsoSeptember 2000 of a United Nations Millennium asserted that regular and rigorous monitoring wasDeclaration by all 192 United Nations member states required in order to track progress towards the six goals,and at least 23 international organizations that laid out a identify strategies that make a difference, and holdset of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to be governments and donors accountable for their promises.reached by 2015. Progress towards EFA and the MDGs has been regularlyEach of these documents acknowledged the pivotal role monitored by UNESCO by means of the annual EFAthat access to quality education plays, not only as an end Global Monitoring Report. This report, as well as the 2011in itself, but as an essential means of reaching other edition of the Global Education Digest publication,important objectives, such as reducing poverty and contains a wealth of statistical information as well asachieving sustainable human development. detailed analysis of education policies and practices for a variety of audiences, including academic researchers andA closely related theme running through all of these policy makers.discussions has been that of gender equality in8
  • 12. Given the importance of education in general and The Atlas tells the story of enormous growth ingender equality in education in particular, it seemed educational opportunities and literacy levels throughoutappropriate to find a way to present data on progress the world over the last four decades, especially since thetowards EFA in a manner that would be accessible to a Dakar Forum of 2000. During this period the capacity ofgeneral audience. This Atlas is designed to do just that. the world’s educational systems more than doubled –It reports the latest data on the significant aspects of from 647 million students in 1970 to 1,397 million ineducation – including access to high quality education at 2009. Enrolments increased from 418 to 702 millionthe pre-primary, primary, secondary and tertiary levels, pupils at the primary level, from 196 to 531 millionretention and dropout rates, school-life expectancy, the at the secondary level, and from 33 to 164 million inrelation of education to economic growth, and youth and higher education.adult literacy – by means of colour-coded maps that While depicting the general expansion of educationalmake it easy for readers to visualize global and regional opportunities, the maps and tables in the pages thattrends. Additional tables and charts illustrate important follow also show how the rates of progress have variedsub-themes and provide additional information on widely not only among various regions of the world butparticular regions and countries. The source of the data between countries within the same region.is the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS), which wasestablished in 1999 as the United Nations depository for The Atlas pays special attention to the issue of genderglobal statistics in the fields of education, science and equality. While educational opportunity expanded overtechnology, culture and communication. the last four decades for both sexes, the gains were particularly striking among girls in terms of access, retention and progression from primary to secondaryFigure A. Number of students (in millions) worldwide and beyond. The maps and tables describe patterns ofenrolled in school from primary to tertiary education, gender parity at all levels of education – pre-primary,1970, 2000 and 2009 primary, secondary and tertiary – and show how these 1970 2000 2009 patterns are shaped by factors such as national wealth, geographic location and field of study. An important 800 theme is that although girls are still disadvantaged in 700 terms of access to education in many countries and regions, they tend to persist and perform at higher 600 rates than boys once they do make it into the education Enrolled students (millions) system. Another theme is that all countries face gender 500 equality issues of some sort, including situations where boys are disadvantaged in one way or another. 400 In order to establish a context for the discussions that 300 follow, the Atlas begins with a description of four factors that underlie and shape educational policies and 200 practices in all countries. These factors are the impact of population growth on the demand for education, 100 the relationship between levels of national wealth and 0 investment in education, the extent to which national Primary Secondary Tertiary governments are committed to their state educationSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics and United Nations Population Division systems, and how such commitment takes on a legal basis in the form of compulsory education policies. 9
  • 13. CHAPTER 1Increased worldwide demandfor quality schooling1. School enrolments keeping pace Map 1.1.1 Majority of countries seeing growth in school-age populationwith population growth School-age population growth, 2010–2020, ages 5–29An important underlying trend in global educationis the increased demand for quality schooling that Greenland (Denmark)follows when the school-age population increases. Faroe Islands Iceland (Den.)This population is growing in most, but by no means all, Finland Norwayareas of the world. The good news is that, by and large, Netherlands United Sweden Estonia Latvia Russian Federation Canada Kingdom Denmarkschool enrolments are growing at least as fast as the Belgium Lithuania Ireland Poland Belarusschool-age population. Luxembourg Germany 10 11 Ukraine 9 8 12 Kazakhstan Liechtenstein MongoliaFor the world as a whole, the number of the school-age Switzerland 7 France Italy 6 5 4 13 3 14 Georgia Uzbekistanpopulation is projected to increase by 2.8 percent Monaco Andorra San 2 1 Armenia Azerbaijan Kyrgyzstan Democratic People’s United States Spain Marino Republic of Koreabetween 2010 and 2020 from 2,989 million to 3,074 of America Portugal Greece Turkey Turkmenistan Tajikistan Gibraltar (UK) Cyprus Syrian Republic Japanmillion children. Map 1.1.1 shows how this projected Bermuda (UK) Tunisia Islamic Malta Lebanon Arab Rep. Republic Afghanistan Jammu and Kashmir* China of Korea Morocco Iraqgrowth varies among various countries. Bahamas Israel Jordan of Iran Kuwait Turks and Dominican Republic Pakistan Nepal Bhutan Algeria BahrainOf the 181 countries for which data are available, a slight Cayman Caicos Is. British Virgin Islands Western Libya Egypt Saudi Qatar Islands (UK) Bangladeshmajority of 98 will see overall growth in their school-age Mexico (UK) Anguilla (UK) St. Kitts and Nevis Cape Sahara Arabia United Arab Emirates India Hong Kong SAR, China Cubapopulation, while 83 others are projected to experience a Antigua and Barbuda Verde Mauritania Oman Myanmar Lao Macao SAR, China Haiti Montserrat (UK) P.D.R.decline. Among countries with projected increases, ten will Belize Jamaica Dominica Mali Niger Guatemala Honduras Puerto Rico Sudan Eritrea Yemenexperience increases of more than 30 percent. A majority of the El Salvador Aruba (USA) St. Lucia Barbados Gambia Senegal Burkina Chad Thailand Cambodia Philippinesdeclines will be in the minimal range of less than 10 percent. Nicaragua (Neth.) St. Vincent & Grenadines Guinea- Faso Djibouti Viet Nam Marshall Costa Rica Grenada Bissau Guinea Nigeria Islands Venezuela Ghana Sri PalauFigure 1.1.1 offers a snapshot of how the world’s 3 billion Panama Guyana Trinidad and Tobago Sierra Leone Côte d’Ivoire Central South African Sudan Ethiopia Lanka Brunei Liberia Cameroon Republic Somalia Darussalam Fed. States ofschool-age children are distributed among various regions. Colombia Micronesia Suriname Togo Benin Uganda Maldives MalaysiaIt shows that over half of this population (56 percent) resides Equatorial Guinea Congo Kenya Singaporein two regions – South and West Asia, and East Asia and the Ecuador São Tomé and Príncipe Gabon Democratic Rwanda Republic Burundi IndonesiaPacific – with another 15 percent in sub-Saharan Africa. of the Congo Seychelles Papua New United Republic GuineaThe other five regions collectively account for less than Brazil of Tanzania Timor-Leste30 percent of the world’s school-age children. Peru Comoros Angola Zambia Malawi Bolivia Mozambique Zimbabwe Mauritius Namibia Madagascar Paraguay Botswana see Less than -10% below-leftFigure 1.1.1 More than half of school-age population Chile Swaziland Australiaresides in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa [-10% – 0%[ South Lesotho [0% – 10%[ Africa UruguaySchool-age population, distribution by region, 2010 Argentina [10% – 20%[ 1% 5% New [20% – 30%[ Kiribati Zealand 6% Central Asia Nauru 28% Central and Eastern Europe Greater than 30% 8% Arab States No data Solomon North America and Western Europe Islands Tokelau (NZ) Latin America and the Caribbean Tuvalu 9% Sub-Saharan Africa Samoa 1. The FYR of Macedonia 8. Hungary South and West Asia Final boundary between the Republic of Sudan and the Republic of South Sudan has not yet been determined. 2. Albania 9. Austria East Asia and the Pacific Vanuatu 3. Montenegro 10. Czech Republic * Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control Fiji in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. Niue (NZ) 4. Serbia 11. Slovakia 15% The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been Cook Islands 5. Bosnia and Herzegovina 12. Republic of Moldova 28% agreed upon by the parties. Tonga (NZ) 6. Croatia 13. RomaniaSource: United Nations Population Division Source: United Nations Population Division 7. Slovenia 14. Bulgaria10 11
  • 14. CHAPTER 1 Increased worldwide demand for quality schoolingTable 1.1.1 Projected growth in school-age population by region Table 1.1.2Region School-age population Growth Some regions expect population declines (in millions) Projected school-age population growth in Central and Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and East Asia and the Pacific 2010 2020 % Region Country GrowthCentral and Eastern Europe 137.5 117.9 -14.2East Asia and the Pacific 848.1 795.2 -6.2 Central and Republic of Moldova -22.8%Central Asia 37.7 36.8 -2.5 Eastern Europe Belarus -21.7%Latin America and the Caribbean 264.1 260.2 -1.5 Lithuania -21.0%North America and Western Europe 238.7 240.4 0.7 Bosnia and Herzegovina -20.8%South and West Asia 843.9 880.9 4.4 Poland -20.3% Ukraine -19.8%Arab States 176.3 192.1 8.9 Russian Federation -19.5%Sub-Saharan Africa 444.4 552.1 24.2 Latvia -19.5%World 2,990.7 3,075.6 2.8 Romania -18.9%Source: United Nations Population Division Bulgaria -17.5% Slovakia -17.0% FYR of Macedonia -15.0%Projected patterns of growth and decline of school-age populations Croatia -12.2%vary widely among the various regions of the world – from a decline Estonia -11.6%of 14 percent in Central and Eastern Europe to growth of 24 percent Montenegro -11.0% Slovenia -10.6%in sub-Saharan Africa. Table 1.1.1 shows that only three of the eight Serbia -10.5%regions of the world are expected to see notable increases: South Albania -10.4%and West Asia, Arab States and sub-Saharan Africa. With projected Hungary -10.3%changes in the range of 1 percent, North America and Western Czech Republic -8.1% Turkey -1.2%Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean are essentially stable. Central Asia Georgia -17.1%Central Asia, Central and Eastern Europe and East Asia and the Armenia -12.0%Pacific will have significant drop-offs in their school-age populations. Mongolia -8.7% Uzbekistan -3.7%The rates of projected changes of the school-age population also vary Azerbaijan -3.6%widely by country and range from projected declines of 23 percent in Kazakhstan -1.7%the Republic of Moldova and 22 percent in Belarus to a projected Turkmenistan -0.9%increase of 52 percent in Niger. Kyrgyzstan 0.6% Tajikistan 8.6%Most of the countries experiencing substantial declines in their East Asia Macao SAR, China -20.4%school-age population are located either in Central Asia or in Central and the Pacific Republic of Korea -15.2%and Eastern Europe. In addition to the Republic of Moldova, four Japan -12.6% Hong Kong SAR, China -9.4%countries in Central and Eastern Europe have projected declines of at Singapore -9.2%least 20 percent: Belarus, Lithuania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and China -9.2%Poland. Fourteen other countries in this region and three in East Asia Korea DPR -6.9%and the Pacific will see double-digit percentage declines, as will Thailand -4.7% Fiji -3.9%Georgia and Armenia in Central Asia. With a projected growth of Viet Nam -3.1%9 percent, Tajikistan is the only country in Central Asia that expects Fed. States of Micronesia -2.7%a significant increase in its school-age population and twelve other Myanmar -2.0%relatively small countries will see an increase in East Asia and the Indonesia -2.0% Samoa -0.2%Pacific, where the biggest increases will occur in small islands such as Cambodia 1.3%Timor-Leste, and Papua New Guinea. New Zealand 2.0% Australia 3.8%The region with the most vigorous growth – in terms of both percent- Malaysia 4.0%ages and absolute numbers – is sub-Saharan Africa. The school-age Brunei Darussalam 5.6%population in this region is projected to increase by 108 million, and Tonga 7.6%sub-Saharan Africa will account for two-thirds of the growth of 162 Philippines 8.9% Lao PDR 9.8%million persons in the four regions projected to have increases. Solomon Islands 17.6% Vanuatu 19.2%As seen in Map 1.1.1, all but three of the 44 sub-Saharan African Papua New Guinea 20.9%countries for which data are available – Mauritius, Cape Verde and Timor-Leste 34.8%South Africa – are expected to experience positive growth. The largest Source: United Nations Population Divisionnumber (20) will grow at a rate of 20 to 30 percent, and anotherseven will increase by more than 30 percent.Table 1.1.3 illustrates how great the variations can be among countries in the sameregion by listing the seven African countries with the lowest and highest school-age12
  • 15. population growth. The projections range from negative Table 1.1.3 Sub-Saharan African countries that havegrowth of 3.7 percent in Mauritius to an increase of the lowest and highest school-age population growth52 percent in Niger, which is in a category all by itself. Country Growth Country Growth Country Growth Niger 51.6% Benin 31.8% Botswana 2.5% Burkina Faso 37.9% Malawi 31.6% Lesotho 2.3%2. National wealth: a factor Uganda 37.0% Cape Verde -0.8%in educational participation Somalia 33.9% Zimbabwe 9.6% South Africa -1.3% Tanzania 33.5% Swaziland 6.8% Mauritius -3.7%and persistence Source: United Nations Population DivisionFigure 1.2.1 School-life expectancy rises with national wealthSchool-life expectancy and GDP per capita in US$ PPP, 2009 or latest year available Sub-Saharan African countries Other countries 20 New Zealand Australia Rep. of Korea Iceland Ireland Belarus Czech Republic Norway Lithuania Slovenia Spain Finland Denmark Netherlands United States Grenada Uruguay Estonia Portugal Greece Belgium of America Ukraine Kazakhstan Argentina Hungary Israel Italy Sweden School-life expectancy (years) 15 Mongolia Slovakia Japan Austria Switzerland Ecuador Romania Malta Cyprus Bolivia Lebanon Russian Saudi Arabia United Arab Kenya Belize Federation Emirates Peru Isl. Rep. Iran China Turkey Trinidad and Tobago India Bhutan Brazil Morocco Azerbaijan 10 Lesotho Benin Guinea Angola Mali Ethiopia Senegal Pakistan Chad Burkina Faso Central African Republic 5 Djibouti Niger Eritrea Dem. Rep. Congo 0 10 20 30 40 50 60Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics and World Bank GDP per capita in US$ PPP (thousands)In today’s knowledge-based global economy, countries income. Whereas 8 to 12 years of schooling is thehave strong incentives to provide higher levels of highest level achieved by low-income countries, it is theeducation and training to as many of their citizens as minimum for high-income countries.possible. National wealth can be measured by the sum The general pattern is thus clear: school-life expectancyof gross value added by all resident producers in the tends to increase as national wealth rises. Nevertheless,economy in current US dollars divided by the total SLE values above ten years can be found at all levels ofpopulation, or GDP per capita. It is strongly associated GDP per capita, and countries in the same economicwith rates of participation and persistence in education at stratum frequently have widely different SLEs. Mongoliaall levels, with wealthy countries tending to have is notable because, while it is a low-middle income country,consistently higher rates than their low wealth it has a SLE of 14 years. Australia’s SLE value of 20 is fivecounterparts. Nevertheless, the correlation between years higher than the 15 value of Austria, another high-levels of GDP per capita and the number of years of income country with a comparable GDP per capita.schooling is by no means linear. Figure 1.2.1 shows the direct relationship betweenA strong correlation exists around the world between per school-life expectancy and GDP per capita for allcapita income and school-life expectancy (SLE) – defined countries. In general, the higher a country’s GDPas the total number of years of schooling that a typical per capita, the higher the school-life expectancy. Forchild of a certain age is likely to spend in the education sub-Saharan African countries, which have been colouredsystem. differently, the GDP per capita is very low. As a result, theMap 1.2.1 and Table 1.2.1 show that all of the countries region presents some of the lowest SLEs, including lesswith SLE values in the highest category of 17 to 21 years than five years for Niger and Eritrea. Moreover, low levelsare classified high income. Likewise, all but one of the of GDP per capita are characterized by wide variations68 countries with SLE of 13 to 16 years are either between SLE levels. Some countries with similar levelsmiddle-high or high-income countries. At the other of wealth such as Guinea-Bissau and Niger present a bigend of the spectrum, all eight countries with SLE in the difference between their school-life expectancies whichlowest SLE category are either low income or low-middle are 9 and 5 years respectively. 13
  • 16. CHAPTER 1 Increased worldwide demand for quality schooling Faroe Islands 1. The FYR of Macedonia Map 1.2.1 School-life expectancy ratesIceland (Den.) 2. Albania rise with greater national wealth 3. Montenegro Sweden Finland 5. Bosnia and Herzegovina Norway National wealth and school-life expectancy Estonia United Latvia Russian Federation Kingdom Denmark Lithuania Greenland Netherlands Belarus (Denmark) see left Ireland Germany Poland Faroe Islands Republic of Iceland (Den.) Luxembourg Belgium Czech Moldova Kazakhstan Republic Norway Finland Slovakia Russian Federation Austria Ukraine United Sweden Estonia Switzerland Hungary Netherlands Latvia Slovenia Romania Canada Kingdom Denmark Liechtenstein France Belgium Lithuania Italy 5 Serbia Poland Belarus Ireland Germany Andorra 3 Bulgaria Georgia 10 11 Ukraine 1 Luxembourg Monaco 2 9 8 12 Kazakhstan Mongolia Liechtenstein Spain Turkey Armenia 7 13 Portugal San Marino Greece Azerbaijan Switzerland France Italy 6 5 4 Monaco 3 14 Georgia Uzbekistan Croatia United States 2 1 Kyrgyzstan Democratic People’sGibraltar Syrian of America Andorra Spain Marino San Armenia Azerbaijan Republic of Korea Cyprus Turkmenistan (UK) Tunisia Arab Rep. Portugal Greece Turkey Tajikistan Japan Malta Lebanon Syrian Jammu China Republic Morocco Gibraltar (UK) Cyprus Islamic Israel Iraq Bermuda (UK) Tunisia Malta Lebanon Arab Rep. Republic Afghanistan and Kashmir* of Korea Jordan Morocco Israel Iraq of Iran Bhutan Bahamas Jordan Algeria Libya Dominican Republic Kuwait Saudi Turks and Nepal Egypt Arabia British Virgin Islands Algeria Libya Saudi Bahrain Pakistan Cayman Caicos Is. Egypt Islands (UK) Anguilla (UK) Western Arabia Bangladesh Mexico (UK) Sahara United Cuba St. Kitts and Nevis Arab Emirates India Hong Kong SAR, China Cape Verde Myanmar Lao Antigua and Barbuda Mauritania Mali Qatar Oman Macao SAR, China Haiti Montserrat (UK) Niger P.D.R. Belize DominicaTable 1.2.1 School-life expectancy for different levels of national wealth Guatemala Jamaica Puerto St. Lucia Senegal Chad Sudan Yemen Aruba Rico Eritrea Thailand Honduras (USA) Barbados Gambia Burkina Cambodia Philippines School-life expectancy (in years) Nicaragua (Neth.) St. Vincent & Grenadines Guinea- Faso Nigeria Djibouti Viet Nam Marshall El Salvador Guinea Central African Grenada Bissau Ghana Islands Venezuela Republic Sri PalauNational income level 4 to 7 8 to 12 13 to 16 17 to 21 Total Costa Rica Panama Trinidad and Tobago Sierra Leone Côte South Ethiopia Sudan Lanka Brunei d’Ivoire Somalia Darussalam Suriname Liberia Cameroon Fed. States ofLow 3 8 - - 11 Colombia Micronesia Guyana Togo Benin Uganda Maldives MalaysiaLow-middle 5 32 1 - 38 Congo Kenya Equatorial Guinea Ecuador Gabon Singapore São Tomé and Príncipe Democratic IndonesiaMiddle-high - 17 23 - 40 Republic Rwanda of the Burundi Seychelles Papua NewHigh - 4 44 11 59 Congo United Republic Guinea Brazil of Tanzania Peru Timor-LesteTotal 8 61 68 11 148 Comoros AngolaSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics and World Bank Malawi Zambia Bolivia Zimbabwe Mozambique Mauritius Namibia Madagascar ParaguayTable 1.2.2 School-life expectancy for representative group of countries Botswanafrom the various income strata, 2009 or latest year available Australia see below Chile South SwazilandNational School-life expectancy (in years) Africa Uruguay Lesothoincome level 4 to 7 8 to 12 13 to 16 17 to 21 Argentina New ZealandLow Central African Republic Burundi Eritrea Ethiopia Niger Malawi Mozambique Guinea-BissauLow-middle Djibouti Cambodia Mongolia National wealth, GDP per capita 1. The FYR of Macedonia 8. Hungary 2. Albania 9. Austria Nauru Kiribati Pakistan India Low income (995$ or less) 3. Montenegro 10. Czech Republic Chad Gambia 4. Serbia 11. Slovakia Low-middle income (996 – 3945$) Senegal Ghana 5. Bosnia and Herzegovina 12. Republic of Moldova Solomon Burkina Faso Guinea Middle-high income (3,946 – 12,195$) 6. Croatia 13. Romania Islands Tokelau (NZ) High income (12,196$ or more) 7. Slovenia 14. Bulgaria TuvaluMiddle-high Armenia Algeria Samoa China Serbia No data See Europe inset for the relevant school-life expectancy figures. El Salvador Brazil Vanuatu Guatemala Colombia School-life expectancy Fiji Niue (NZ) Final boundary between the Republic of Sudan and the Paraguay Indonesia Less than 8 years Republic of South Sudan has not yet been determined. Tonga Cook IslandsHigh Oman Saudi Arabia Australia 8 – 12 years * Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. (NZ) Turkey Poland Denmark 13 – 16 years The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been Trinidad and Tobago Argentina Finland agreed upon by the parties. 17 – 21 years Botswana Mexico Iceland Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics and World Bank Greece NorwaySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics and World Bank14 15
  • 17. CHAPTER 1 Increased worldwide demand for quality schooling3. Countries differ in levels of Map 1.3.1 Two-thirds of countries devote 10 to 20 percent of public spending to educationcommitment to education Total public expenditure on education as % of total governmentOne indicator of how committed governments are to expenditureeducation is the proportion of their national budgets that Greenland (Denmark)they devote to education at all levels. This proportion, Faroe Islands (Den.) Icelandalong with the size of their overall public spending, Norway Finland Russian Federationdetermines the level of spending on education. Netherlands United Kingdom Denmark Sweden Estonia Latvia Canada Lithuania BelgiumMap 1.3.1 offers a global overview of how countries differ Ireland Germany Poland Belarus 10 11 Ukrainein the proportion of government expenditures devoted Luxembourg Liechtenstein 9 8 12 Kazakhstan 7 Mongoliato education. More than two-thirds (70 percent) devote Switzerland France Italy 6 5 4 13 Monaco 3 14 Georgia Uzbekistanbetween 10 and 20 percent of public spending to United States Andorra Spain Marino San 2 1 Armenia Azerbaijan Kyrgyzstan Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Turkmenistan Tajikistaneducation, and 18 percent spend a higher proportion. of America Portugal Greece Turkey Republic Japan Gibraltar (UK) Cyprus Syrian IslamicOnly one in eight countries devotes less than 10 percent Bermuda (UK) Tunisia Malta Lebanon Arab Rep. Republic Afghanistan Jammu and Kashmir* China of Korea Morocco Israel Iraq of Iranof public expenditures to education. Bahamas Jordan Kuwait Turks andDominican Republic Pakistan Nepal Bhutan Algeria Libya BahrainThe extent to which the public sector plays a role in the Cayman Caicos Is. British Virgin Islands Western Egypt Saudi Qatar Islands (UK) Anguilla (UK) Bangladeshprovision of goods and services helps to account for Mexico (UK) St. Kitts and Nevis Cape Sahara Arabia United Arab Emirates India Hong Kong SAR, China Cubadifferences in public education expenditure levels across Haiti Antigua and Barbuda Verde Mauritania Oman Myanmar Lao Macao SAR, China Montserrat (UK) P.D.R.countries. When governments actively finance and Belize Jamaica Dominica Mali Niger Sudan Eritrea Yemen Guatemala Honduras Puerto Rico St. Lucia Senegal Chad Thailandprovide such services, including education, public El Salvador Aruba (USA) Barbados Gambia Burkina Cambodia Philippinesexpenditure plays a redistributive role in society. When Nicaragua (Neth.) St. Vincent & Grenadines Guinea- Bissau Guinea Faso Djibouti Viet Nam Marshall Costa Rica Grenada Nigeria Islandsthe level of public services is low, spending on education Panama Venezuela Trinidad and Tobago Sierra Leone Côte Ghana Central South Ethiopia Sri Brunei Palau d’Ivoire African Sudan Lankais also likely to be low unless it represents a high Guyana Liberia Cameroon Republic Somalia Darussalam Fed. States of Colombia Micronesiaproportion of overall public spending. Suriname Togo Benin Uganda Maldives Malaysia Equatorial Guinea Congo Kenya Gabon SingaporeFigure 1.3.1 illustrates the extent to which national patterns differ Ecuador São Tomé and Príncipe Democratic Rwanda Republic Burundi Indonesia Seychellesin eleven representative countries, half of which have high levels of of the Congo Papua New United Republic Guineaspending on education and half with low levels, in the priority they give Brazil of Tanzania Timor-Lesteto education. In Georgia, for example, slightly less than half (42 percent) Peru Angola Comorosof GDP finds its way into public expenditure, but only 7.7 percent of Zambia Malawithese funds are spent on education. Côte d’Ivoire spends a relatively low Bolivia Mozambique18.7 percent of its GDP on public expenditures, but 24.6 percent of this Namibia Zimbabwe Madagascar Mauritiusgoes toward education. These different priorities between the two Paraguay Botswanacountries are reflected in the proportions of their GDP spent on education – Chile Australia see below Swaziland3.2 percent in the case of Georgia and 4.6 percent in Côte d’Ivoire. South Lesotho Africa Uruguay ArgentinaFigure 1.3.1 Size of public sector affects education expenditures New ZealandTotal government expenditure as a share of GDP and public education spending as a share of total government spending,selected countries, 2009 or latest year available Public expenditure on education as % of total government expenditure Total government expenditure as % of GDP 60 Increasing share of GDP spent on education Less than 10% 1. The FYR of Macedonia 8. Hungary 50 2. Albania 9. Austria Kiribati High revenue and [10% – 15%[ 3. Montenegro 10. Czech Republic Nauru High revenue priority to education 4. Serbia 11. Slovakia and low priority to [15% – 20%[ 40 5. Bosnia and Herzegovina 12. Republic of Moldova Solomon education Greater than 20% Islands Low revenue and 6. Croatia 13. Romania Tokelau (NZ) high priority to education No data 7. Slovenia 14. Bulgaria Tuvalu % 30 Samoa Low revenue and priority to education Final boundary between the Republic of Sudan and the Vanuatu 20 Republic of South Sudan has not yet been determined. Fiji Niue (NZ) * Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control Cook Islands 10 in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. Tonga (NZ) The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been agreed upon by the parties. 0 Central Cambodia-2 Macao Uruguay-3 Azerbaijan Georgia Mali Côte Swaziland-1 Djibouti-2 Lesotho-1 Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics African SAR, dIvoire-1 Republic-2 China-1Note: -1 refer to 2008 data; -2 refer to 2007 data; -3 refer to 2006 dataSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics and World Bank16 17
  • 18. CHAPTER 1 Increased worldwide demand for quality schooling4. Compulsory education laws Map 1.4.1 Ten to fourteen years of education is the norm in most countriesoffer legal basis for education Compulsory educationThe concept of education as a basic right has long beenaffirmed in most developed countries and has been Greenland (Denmark)extended to developing countries as well. An important Faroe Islands (Den.) Icelandsignal of countries’ commitment to the right to Norway Finland Russian Federationeducation is the number of years for which education Netherlands United Kingdom Denmark Sweden Estonia Latvia Canadais compulsory. Belgium Lithuania Poland Belarus Ireland Germany 10 11 UkraineMap 1.4.1 illustrates how the number of years of Luxembourg Liechtenstein 9 8 12 Kazakhstan 7 Mongoliacompulsory education varies among countries. The Switzerland France Italy 6 5 4 13 Monaco 3 14 Georgia Uzbekistanlargest number of countries (105) are in the range of United States Andorra Spain Marino San 2 1 Armenia Azerbaijan Kyrgyzstan Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Turkmenistan Tajikistan10 to 14 years, while 67 make education compulsory of America Portugal Greece Turkey Republic Gibraltar (UK) Cyprus Syrian Islamic Japanfor 7 to 9 years. Only four countries have no such Bermuda (UK) Tunisia Malta Lebanon Arab Rep. Republic Afghanistan Jammu and Kashmir* China of Korea Morocco Israel Iraq of Iranrequirements at all. Bahamas Jordan Kuwait Turks and Dominican Republic Pakistan Nepal Bhutan Algeria Libya Bahrain Cayman Caicos Is. British Virgin Islands Egypt Islands (UK) Western Saudi Qatar Anguilla (UK) Bangladesh (UK) Sahara Arabia United Arab Emirates Mexico Cuba St. Kitts and Nevis Cape India Hong Kong SAR, China Antigua and Barbuda Verde Myanmar Lao Macao SAR, China Haiti Mauritania Oman Montserrat (UK) P.D.R. Belize Jamaica Dominica Mali Niger Guatemala Honduras Puerto Rico Senegal Chad Sudan Eritrea Yemen Thailand (USA) St. Lucia El Salvador Aruba Barbados Gambia Burkina Cambodia Faso Djibouti Philippines Nicaragua (Neth.) St. Vincent & Grenadines Guinea- Viet Nam Marshall Costa Rica Grenada Bissau Guinea Nigeria Islands Venezuela Ghana Sri Palau Panama Trinidad and Tobago Sierra Leone Côte Central South Ethiopia Brunei Guyana d’Ivoire African Sudan Lanka Liberia Cameroon Republic Somalia Darussalam Fed. States of Colombia Micronesia Suriname Togo Benin Uganda Maldives Malaysia Equatorial Guinea Congo Kenya Ecuador Gabon Democratic Rwanda Singapore São Tomé and Príncipe Indonesia Republic Burundi of the Seychelles Papua New Congo United Republic Guinea Brazil of Tanzania Timor-Leste Peru Comoros Angola Zambia Malawi Bolivia Mozambique Zimbabwe Mauritius Namibia Madagascar Paraguay Botswana Australia see belowFigure 1.4.1 How regions vary in compulsory education requirements Chile Swaziland South LesothoNumber of countries per region according to the number of compulsory years of education, 2009 Africa Uruguay 45 Argentina No compulsory education New 5 – 6 years Zealand 40 7 – 9 years 10 – 14 years 35 Number of countries 30 1. The FYR of Macedonia 8. Hungary No compulsory education 2. Albania 9. Austria Kiribati 5 – 6 years 3. Montenegro 10. Czech Republic Nauru 25 7 – 9 years 4. Serbia 11. Slovakia 5. Bosnia and Herzegovina 12. Republic of Moldova Solomon 20 10 – 14 years 6. Croatia 13. Romania Islands Tokelau (NZ) No data 7. Slovenia 14. Bulgaria Tuvalu Samoa 15 Final boundary between the Republic of Sudan and the Vanuatu Republic of South Sudan has not yet been determined. 10 Fiji Niue (NZ) * Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control Cook Islands in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. (NZ) The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been Tonga 5 agreed upon by the parties. Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics 0 South and Central Asia Central and Arab States East Asia and Sub-Saharan North America Latin America West Asia Eastern Europe the Pacific Africa and Western and the Europe CaribbeanSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics18 19
  • 19. CHAPTER 1 Increased worldwide demand for quality schoolingTable 1.4.1 Country distribution by region, according to compulsory education, 2009Count of country EducationRegion No compulsory education 5 to 6 years 7 to 9 years 10 to 14 years TotalSouth and West Asia 1 4 3 1 9Central Asia 6 3 9Central and Eastern Europe 11 9 20Arab States 3 6 10 19East Asia and the Pacific 2 3 15 13 33Sub-Saharan Africa 1 9 15 15 40North America and Western Europe 2 26 28Latin America and the Caribbean 4 9 28 41Total 4 23 67 105 199Source: UNESCO Institute for StatisticsAs can be seen in Figure 1.4.1 and Table 1.4.1, regions Three regions – Central Asia, Central and Easternvary widely in how they structure compulsory education. Europe, and North America and Western Europe – haveCountries that make education compulsory for ten or no countries where education is compulsory for less thanmore years represent a substantial majority in two seven years. Sub-Saharan Africa is notable because evenregions: Latin America and the Caribbean, and North though a majority of its countries require education forAmerica and Western Europe. Only one country – at least seven years and 15 are in the 10 to 14 yearsSri Lanka – does so in South and West Asia. At least half range, it accounts for nearly 40 percent of countries inof countries in the other five regions make education the 5 to 6 years range globally.compulsory for 7 to 9 years.Table 1.4.2 Countries with no compulsory education Table 1.4.4Region Country Countries with 5 to 6 years of compulsory educationSub-Saharan Africa Ethiopia Region CountrySouth and West Asia Bhutan East Asia and the Pacific Myanmar 5 yearsEast Asia and the Pacific Cambodia South and West Asia BangladeshEast Asia and the Pacific Tokelau South and West Asia Islamic Republic of IranSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics South and West Asia Pakistan Sub-Saharan Africa Equatorial Guinea Sub-Saharan Africa Madagascar Arab States Iraq 6 yearsTable 1.4.3 Countries in sub-Saharan Africa Arab States Saudi Arabiathat have 10+ years of compulsory education Arab States United Arab Emirates East Asia and the Pacific Malaysia Duration of East Asia and the Pacific Timor-LesteCountry compulsory education Latin America and the Caribbean ChileBotswana 10 years Latin America and the Caribbean HaitiCentral African Republic Latin America and the Caribbean NicaraguaCôte dIvoire Latin America and the Caribbean SurinameDemocratic Republic of the Congo South and West Asia NepalGhana Sub-Saharan Africa CameroonGuinea Sub-Saharan Africa BeninNamibia Sub-Saharan Africa GambiaSeychelles Sub-Saharan Africa Guinea-BissauTogo Sub-Saharan Africa RwandaBurkina Faso 11 years Sub-Saharan Africa SenegalCape Verde Sub-Saharan Africa Sierra LeoneCongo Source: UNESCO Institute for StatisticsGabonLiberiaMauritius 12 yearsSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics20
  • 20. CHAPTER 2Girls’ right to educationThe 1990 World Conference on Education for All, held greater than 1 means that boys are at a disadvantage. Forin Jomtien, Thailand, made it clear that Education for indicators where lower values are desirable (e.g. drop-outAll means educating both boys and girls and that rates) a GPI of less than 1 means that boys are at atreating both sexes equally – and in the process disadvantage, and a GPI greater than 1 means that girlsnarrowing the “gender gap” – is a matter of justice and are at a disadvantage.equality. Jomtien marked the beginning of intensified UNESCO has defined a GPI value between 0.97 and 1.03international support for assuring access to quality (after rounding) as the achievement of gender parity.Thiseducation for girls, a cause that was reaffirmed ten allows for some measurement error but does not imply ayears later at the World Education Forum in Dakar judgment about the acceptability of any particular leveland by the Millennium Development Goals of 2000. of disparity.Traditionally, all societies have given preference to males Discussions about gender equity have traditionallyover females when it comes to educational opportunity, focused on finding ways to help girls catch up with boysand disparities in educational attainment and literacy in terms of access, completion and long-termrates today reflect patterns which have been shaped by educational attainment. By such measures boys globallythe social and education policies and practices of the continue to enjoy significant advantages throughout thepast. As a result, virtually all countries face gender developing world. This is why both Education for Alldisparities of some sort. Given the strong correlations goals, as well as the MDGs, have put so much emphasisthat exist between GDP and educational attainment, all and invested so many resources over the last twocountries have incentives to make the best possible use decades in “gender equity” – meaning helping girlsof all of their human resources. catch up with boys.In discussing education and gender it is helpful to Many factors have contributed to the increase indistinguish between “gender parity” and “gender women’s participation in education, including the factequality”. that higher levels of education and training areGender parity aims at achieving equal participation for becoming necessary to ensure social mobilityi and togirls and boys in education. earn higher incomes. The global diffusion of ideasGender equality is understood more broadly as the right regarding gender equality has also been an importantto gain access and participate in education, as well as to factor, especially in developing countries.benefit from gender-sensitive and gender-responsive But the situation has become increasingly nuanced.educational environments and to obtain meaningful Developed countries now talk about gender gaps thateducation outcomes that ensure that education benefits favour females in education, and similar patterns aretranslate into greater participation in social, economic evident at some levels in developing countries evenand political development of their societies. Achieving though boys continue to enjoy an advantage in manygender parity is therefore understood as only a first step such countries. As girls’ educational expectations rise attowards gender equality. a faster pace than those of boysii, so does their academicDiscussions of gender differences in education are performance as measured by persistence, repetition,facilitated by a measure known as the Gender Parity academic achievement and transition into secondaryIndex (GPI). This measure is defined as the value of a education. Once they gain access to higher education,given indicator for girls divided by that value for boys. women exceed men in grades, evaluations and degreeA GPI value of 1 signifies that there is no difference in completions.iii This growth should be seen as a positivethe indicators for girls and boys. A GPI of less than 1 development that reflects the changing values andindicates that the value of an indicator is higher for boys attitudes related to the role and aspirations of womenthan for girls, while the opposite is true when the GPI is in society. Also relevant is the fact that stable socialgreater than 1. processes that make demands on mens masculinity, such as serving as soldiers or demands for labour callingFor indicators where higher values are desirable for physical strength for example construction or mining(e.g. school participation rates) a GPI value of less than 1 work, prevent men from participating in the tertiarymeans that girls are at a disadvantage, while a GPI education system, as they will have other alternatives.i Takyi-Amoako, E. (2008). “Poverty reduction and gender parity in education. An alternative approach”. S. Fennell and M. Arnot (eds.), Gender Education and Equality in a Global Context: Conceptual Frameworks and Policy Perspectives. London: Routledge, pp. 196–210.ii McDaniel, A. (2010). “Cross-national gender gaps in educational expectations: The influence of national-level gender ideology and educational systems”. Comparative Education Review. Vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 27–50.iii Buchmann, C., T. DiPrete and A. McDaniel (2008). “Gender inequalities in education”. Annual Review of Sociology. Vol. 34, pp. 319–337. 21
  • 21. CHAPTER 2 Girls’ right to education1. Female enrolment rising at Map 2.1.1 Gender parity achieved in two-thirds of countries at primary and/or secondary levelsgreater rate than among males Gender parity index for primary and secondary educationWhereas enrolments have been rising since 1970 forboth sexes, girls’ enrolments have been increasing faster Greenland (Denmark)than those of boys at both the primary and secondary Faroe Islands (Den.) Icelandlevels. This progress can be seen in the number of Norway Finlandcountries that have achieved gender parity at the two Netherlands United Sweden Estonia Latvia Russian Federation Canada Kingdom Denmarklevels. Females have also made significant gains at the Belgium Lithuania Poland Belarus Irelandtertiary level, and these will be discussed in Chapter 5. Luxembourg Germany 10 11 Ukraine 9 8 12 Kazakhstan Liechtenstein 7 MongoliaMap 2.1.1 shows the distribution of 184 countries Switzerland France Italy 6 5 4 13 Monaco 3 14 Georgia Uzbekistanshowing whether they have achieved gender parity, United States Andorra Spain Marino San 2 1 Armenia Azerbaijan Kyrgyzstan Democratic People’s Turkmenistan Tajikistan Republic of Koreadefined as having a GPI between 0.97 and 1.03, at of America Portugal Greece Turkey Gibraltar (UK) Cyprus Syrian Republic Japanvarious levels of education. The largest proportion Bermuda (UK) Tunisia Islamic Malta Lebanon Arab Rep. Republic Afghanistan Jammu and Kashmir* China of Korea Morocco Iraq(36 percent) has done so only at the primary level, but Bahamas Israel Jordan of Iran Kuwaitmore than two-thirds of countries (73 percent) have Turks and Dominican Republic Algeria Libya Bahrain Pakistan Nepal Bhutan Cayman Caicos Is. British Virgin Islands Egyptreached parity at either the primary or secondary levels Islands (UK) Anguilla (UK) Western Sahara Saudi Arabia Qatar Bangladesh (UK) United Arab Emiratesor both. Particularly interesting are the 9 countries that Mexico Cuba St. Kitts and Nevis Antigua and Barbuda Cape Verde India Myanmar Lao Hong Kong SAR, China Oman Macao SAR, Chinahave achieved parity in secondary schooling but have yet Haiti Belize Jamaica Montserrat (UK) Mauritania P.D.R. Dominica Mali Nigerto do so at the previous level. Guatemala Honduras Puerto Rico St. Lucia Senegal Chad Sudan Eritrea Yemen Thailand (USA) Gambia El Salvador Aruba Barbados Burkina Cambodia PhilippinesThe patterns of success in reaching parity vary widely Nicaragua (Neth.) St. Vincent & Grenadines Guinea- Bissau Guinea Faso Djibouti Viet Nam Marshall Costa Rica Grenada Nigeria Islandsby region. As seen in Figure 2.1.1, Central and Eastern Panama Venezuela Trinidad and Tobago Sierra Leone Côte Ghana Central South Ethiopia Sri Palau African Sudan Lanka BruneiEurope is the top region in terms of achieving parity at Guyana Liberia d’Ivoire Cameroon Republic Somalia Darussalam Fed. States of Colombia Micronesiaboth the primary and secondary level, with 18 of its 21 Suriname Togo Benin Uganda Maldives Malaysia Equatorial Guinea Congo Kenyacountries with data having done so. It is followed by two Ecuador Gabon Democratic Rwanda Singapore São Tomé and Príncipe Indonesiaregions where a majority of countries have done so: Republic Burundi of the Seychelles Papua NewCentral Asia, and North America and Western Europe. Brazil Congo United Republic Guinea of TanzaniaWith only one country in this category, South and West Peru Timor-Leste ComorosAsia ranks last in the number of countries reaching parity Angola Zambiaat both levels. Sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest Malawi Boliviaproportion of such countries: two out of 35. Mozambique Zimbabwe Mauritius Namibia Madagascar Paraguay Botswana Australia see below ChileFigure 2.1.1 SwazilandCentral and Eastern Europe the top region for parity at both primary and secondary levels South Africa Lesotho UruguayNumber of countries according to parity in primary and secondary education, 2009 Argentina New 40 Zealand Primary only 35 Secondary only 30 Neither primary nor secondary Number of countries Primary and secondary 25 1. The FYR of Macedonia 8. Hungary Parity achieved for primary education only 2. Albania 9. Austria Kiribati 20 Parity achieved for secondary education only 3. Montenegro 10. Czech Republic Nauru Parity achieved for neither primary nor secondary education 4. Serbia 11. Slovakia 15 5. Bosnia and Herzegovina 12. Republic of Moldova Solomon Parity achieved for primary and secondary education 6. Croatia 13. Romania Islands Tokelau (NZ) 10 No data 7. Slovenia 14. Bulgaria Tuvalu Samoa 5 Final boundary between the Republic of Sudan and the Vanuatu Republic of South Sudan has not yet been determined. Fiji Niue (NZ) 0 * Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control Cook Islands South and Arab States Sub-Saharan Central Asia East Asia and Latin America North America Central and in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. Tonga (NZ) West Asia Africa the Pacific and the and Western Eastern Europe The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been Caribbean Europe agreed upon by the parties.Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics22 23
  • 22. CHAPTER 2 Girls’ right to educationFigure 2.1.2 Majority of world’s children living in countries with gender parity at primary levelDistribution of world’s children by level of education by gender parity index for gross enrolment ratio, 2009 More males Parity More females 70 Proportion of children living in countries 60 50 at specified level (%) 40 30 20 10 0 Primary Lower secondary Upper secondarySource: UNESCO Institute for StatisticsAnother way to look at the issue is to calculate the At all three levels there are some countries in whichproportion of children who live in countries that have males are favoured and others in which females have theachieved gender parity. Figures 2.1.2 shows that a slight advantage. At the primary level, for example, 27 percentmajority (56 percent) of the world’s children who are at of children live in countries with more males in schoolprimary age live in countries that have achieved gender and only 17 percent in countries with more females. Theparity at the primary level. However, the proportion of same pattern is found at the lower secondary (49 versussuch children drops significantly to 29 percent at the 22 percent) and upper secondary (59 versus 26 percent)lower secondary level and to 15 percent at the upper levels.secondary level.24
  • 23. 2. Gender parity an issue in all countriesAlmost all countries face gender disparities of some kind, most African countries, such as Kenya, girls maythough the challenges vary widely among countries and experience domestic work overload, which reduces theireven at the different levels within countries. Although interest in pursuing education. Since it is commonlymany countries have achieved gender parity in terms of expected that girls should be married off at an early age,access and enrolment at the primary level, most face parents consider educating their daughters a waste ofcontinuing challenges related to issues such as late entry time and money. The girls are aware of their parents’into school, repetition and dropping out. At diverse perceptions regarding their education. They do not findstages of development, virtually all countries must it necessary to work hard because they assume that theyaddress gender disparities that shape the way boys and will probably drop out of school early.girls progress through education. 2. Constraints within society. These include pressure forIn some situations the challenge becomes one of how to early marriage, sexual harassment and violence in andincrease educational outputs for boys rather than girls. out of educational settings, religious constraints andMost developed countries have reached parity at the vulnerability to HIV and AIDS.primary level, but disparities in favour of girls sometimes 3. Policies of school system and educational practices.develop at the higher levels. In developing countries, School systems in countries of all kinds are not alwaysboys frequently have an advantage over girls with regard empowering for girls, nor are they sensitive to theirto access to education; but once they make it into needs through curricula, guidance and counselingschooling, girls often outperform boys both in terms of services, teaching methods and the presence ofeducational progression and academic performance. appropriate female role models.Female advantage in terms of educational attainmentcan also be found in situations where boys continue to 4. Benefits of education. Even when girls achieve parity inmaintain an enrolment advantage. access to education or academic performance, this parity does not always lead to equal benefits of education,Despite the continued existence of what is sometimes especially in the job market of developed countries. Wecalled the “boy problem” in some countries, the rights will discuss this point in Chapter 5.of girls to education continues to be inhibited in manydeveloping countries in important respects. In short, gender disparities and inequalities are prevalent within the schooling process in both rich and poor1. Constraints with families. In many countries girls take countries. Virtually all countries must address the genderon domestic responsibilities, including the care of disparities and inequalities that shape the ways in whichyounger siblings, and, depending on the country and boys and girls progress through the education system.the culture, boys often receive preferences when choiceshave to be made regarding education. For example, in 25
  • 24. CHAPTER 3Enrolment and gender trends:primary educationThe World Conference on Education for All in Jomtien Map 3.1.1 Pre-primary enrolmentin 1990 identified universal primary education (UPE) as apparent in most regions of the worldthe bedrock objective for achieving Education for All, Gross enrolment ratio in pre-primary educationand the Millennium Declaration did likewise. Since theout-of-school population has been disproportionately Greenlandfemale, the goal of UPE and the parallel goal of gender (Denmark) Faroe Islands (Den.)equality are inextricably connected. Iceland Finland Norway Russian FederationData show that significant progress has been made over United Sweden Estonia Canada Netherlands Kingdom Denmark Latvia Lithuaniathe last four decades in enhancing access to primary Belgium Ireland Poland Belarus Germanyeducation in all regions of the world and for both sexes. Luxembourg 10 11 Ukraine Kazakhstan Liechtenstein 9 12Moreover, primary school completion and school-life Switzerland 7 8 France Italy 6 5 4 13 Mongoliaexpectancy rates have been increasing, and there has Monaco 3 21 14 Georgia Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Democratic People’s United States Andorra Spain Marino San Armenia Azerbaijan Republic of Koreabeen a general narrowing of gender gaps at the primary of America Portugal Greece Turkey Turkmenistan Tajikistan Republiclevel. However, troubling trends include high repetition Bermuda (UK) Gibraltar (UK) Tunisia Cyprus Malta Lebanon Syrian Islamic Arab Rep. Republic Afghanistan Jammu and Kashmir* China of Korea Japanrates and large numbers of overage children in some Bahamas Morocco Israel Jordan Iraq of Irancountries and regions. Turks and Dominican Republic Algeria Libya Kuwait Bahrain Pakistan Nepal Bhutan Cayman Caicos Is. British Virgin Islands Egypt Islands (UK) Western Saudi Qatar Anguilla (UK) Bangladesh (UK) Sahara Arabia United Arab Emirates Mexico Cuba St. Kitts and Nevis Cape India Hong Kong SAR, China Antigua and Barbuda Verde Myanmar Lao Macao SAR, China1. Participation in pre-primary Haiti Belize Jamaica Montserrat (UK) Dominica Mauritania Mali Niger Oman P.D.R.education on the rise Guatemala Honduras El Salvador Aruba Puerto Rico (USA) St. Lucia Barbados Gambia Senegal Burkina Chad Sudan Eritrea Yemen Thailand Cambodia Philippines Nicaragua (Neth.) St. Vincent & Grenadines Guinea- Faso Djibouti Marshall Guinea Viet NamA growing body of research around the world has shown that Costa Rica Venezuela Grenada Bissau Ghana Nigeria Sri Palau Islands Panama Trinidad and Tobago Sierra Leone Côte Central South Ethiopiaparticipation in pre-primary education translates into better learning Guyana Liberia d’Ivoire African Sudan Cameroon Republic Somalia Lanka Brunei Darussalam Fed. States ofoutcomes once pupils enter primary school and move on to higher Colombia Suriname Togo Benin Uganda Maldives Malaysia Micronesialevels of education. A report from the Organisation for Economic Equatorial Guinea Congo Kenya Singapore Ecuador Gabon Democratic RwandaCo-operation and Development (OECD), for example, found that in São Tomé and Príncipe Republic Burundi Indonesia of the Seychellespractically all countries “15-year-old students who have attended Congo United Republic Papua New Guinea Brazilsome pre-primary school outperformed students who had not” on of Tanzania Timor-Lestethe reading portion of the 2009 Programme for International Study Peru Angola ComorosAssessment (PISA) that was administered to students in 65 countries. Zambia Malawi Bolivia MozambiqueIn examining trends at the pre-primary level it is important to keep Zimbabwe Mauritius Namibia Madagascarin mind that pre-primary education is not compulsory and frequently Paraguay Botswana seeinvolves out-of-pocket costs to the families. Moreover, the age of Less than 15% Australia below-left Chileparticipants varies from three to five or even six years, which means [15% – 30%[ Swaziland South Lesothothat the gross enrolment ratio may be higher than 100% in situations Uruguay [30% – 50%[ Africawhere students younger or older than the official age are enrolled. Argentina [50% – 75%[ [75% – 95%[ NewAs shown in Map 3.1.1, which depicts the gross enrolment ratios Nauru Kiribati Zealand Greater than 95%for pre-primary education in 178 countries, participation rates areminimal in about a fifth of countries (18 percent) but nearly universal No data Solomon Islands Tokelau (NZ)in another fifth (21 percent). Another 20 percent have participation Tuvalurates in the 50 to 75 percent range. Final boundary between the Republic of Sudan and the Samoa 1. The FYR of Macedonia 8. Hungary Republic of South Sudan has not yet been determined. 2. Albania 9. Austria Vanuatu 3. Montenegro 10. Czech Republic * Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control Fiji in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. Niue (NZ) 4. Serbia 11. Slovakia The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been Cook Islands 5. Bosnia and Herzegovina 12. Republic of Moldova agreed upon by the parties. Tonga (NZ) 6. Croatia 13. Romania Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics 7. Slovenia 14. Bulgaria26 27
  • 25. CHAPTER 3 Enrolment and gender trends: primary educationFigure 3.1.1 Growth seen in the majority of the regionsGross enrolment ratio in pre-primary education, by region and worldwide, 1990–2009 1990 2009 Male Female 90 80 70 Gross enrolment ratio (%) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Sub-Saharan Arab States Central Asia+1 South and East Asia and Central and Latin America North America World Africa West Asia the Pacific Eastern Europe and the and Western Caribbean EuropeNote: +1 1990 data for Central Asia refer to 1991Source: UNESCO Institute for StatisticsParticipation in pre-primary education increased steadily proportion of children involved in pre-primary educationbetween 1990 and 2009 for both sexes and in almost all is greatest in North America and Western Europe,regions of the world. As shown in Figure 3.1.1, the most followed by Latin America and the Caribbean and thendramatic gains took place in South and West Asia, where Central and Eastern Europe. Sub-Saharan Africa has theparticipation rates essentially tripled for both sexes. The lowest participation rates, slightly below the Arab States.Figure 3.1.2 Participation rates vary within regionsGross enrolment ratio in pre-primary education for selected countries and regions, 2009 or latest year available Minimum Regional average Maximum 140 Spain Hong Kong SAR, China 120 Czech Mexico Liberia-2 Republic Maldives United Arab 100 Emirates Gross enrolment ratio (%) 80 Georgia-1 United States of America 60 40 Guatemala-1 Bosnia and 20 Herzegovina -1 Tajikistan Myanmar Chad Djibouti Bhutan-1 0 Sub-Saharan Arab States Central Asia South and East Asia and Central and Latin America North America Africa West Asia the Pacific Eastern Europe and the and Western Caribbean EuropeNote: -1 refer to 2008 data; -2 refer to 2007 dataSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics28
  • 26. Participation rates for pre-primary education vary Policies and practices relating to pre-primary educationdramatically even within regions. These disparities can vary widely among various countries. Figure 3.1.3be seen in Figure 3.1.2 which provides data on eight provides information on the proportion of new entrantsregions showing the proportion of children enrolled in who enrol in primary school with prior experience in anpre-primary education compared to the total population Early Childhood Development program. The proportionsof children of pre-primary age. The figure also shows range from single digit percentages in Ethiopia, Djiboutithe highest and lowest values of GER per region. and Azerbaijan to virtually universal pre-primaryIn sub-Saharan Africa the ratio ranges from less than experience in Malaysia.4 percent in Chad to 110 percent in Liberia. In NorthAmerica and Western Europe the ratios extend from57 percent in the United States to 130 percent in Spain.Figure 3.1.3 Early childhood experience ranges from minimal to near-universalPercentage of new entrants in primary education with ECD(*) experience for selected countries, 2009 or latest year available Malaysia-1 Serbia Lebanon Uruguay-1 China United Arab Emirates Costa Rica Kuwait-2 El Salvador-1 Jordan-1 Peru-1 Morocco Nepal-1 Algeria Zambia Niger Azerbaijan Djibouti-2 Ethiopia-1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % -1 -2Note: (*) ECD - Early Childhood Development; refer to 2008 data; refer to 2007 dataSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics 29
  • 27. CHAPTER 3 Enrolment and gender trends: primary educationGender parity is strong in the area of pre-primary Map 3.1.2education. As shown in Map 3.1.2, girls and boys Gender parity widespread in pre-primary educationparticipate in pre-primary education at the same rates Gender parity index in pre-primary educationin a substantial majority (62 percent) of countries. Malesare favoured in 18 percent of countries and females in Greenland20 percent. (Denmark) Faroe Islands Iceland (Den.)One reason for the high level of parity in the earliest Norway Finland Russian Federationyears of schooling may be that, especially in developing United Sweden Estonia Canada Netherlands Kingdom Denmark Latvia Belgium Lithuaniacountries, it is the wealthier and better educated families Ireland Poland Belarus Germanywho enrol their children in pre-primary schools, and such Luxembourg 10 11 9 8 Ukraine Kazakhstan Liechtenstein 12families are more inclined to value schooling for both Switzerland 7 France Italy 6 5 4 13 Mongoliaboys and girls. Such is certainly the case in situations Monaco San 3 2 1 14 Georgia Armenia Azerbaijan Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Democratic People’s United States Andorra Spain Marino Republic of Koreawhere pre-school involves costs to the families. of America Portugal Greece Turkey Turkmenistan Tajikistan Gibraltar (UK) Cyprus Syrian Republic Japan Tunisia Islamic of Korea Bermuda (UK) Malta Lebanon Arab Rep. Republic Afghanistan Jammu and Kashmir* China Morocco Israel Iraq of Iran Bahamas Jordan Kuwait Turks and Dominican Republic Pakistan Nepal Bhutan Algeria Libya Bahrain Cayman Caicos Is. British Virgin Islands Egypt Islands (UK) Western Saudi Qatar Anguilla (UK) Bangladesh (UK) Sahara Arabia United Arab Emirates Mexico Cuba St. Kitts and Nevis Cape India Hong Kong SAR, China Antigua and Barbuda Verde Myanmar Lao Macao SAR, China Haiti Mauritania Oman Montserrat (UK) P.D.R. Belize Jamaica Dominica Mali Niger Guatemala Honduras Puerto Rico Senegal Chad Sudan Eritrea Yemen Thailand (USA) St. Lucia El Salvador Aruba Barbados Gambia Burkina Cambodia Faso Djibouti Philippines Nicaragua (Neth.) St. Vincent & Grenadines Guinea- Viet Nam Marshall Costa Rica Grenada Bissau Guinea Nigeria Islands Venezuela Ghana Sri Palau Panama Trinidad and Tobago Sierra Leone Côte Central South Ethiopia Brunei Guyana d’Ivoire African Sudan Lanka Liberia Cameroon Republic Somalia Darussalam Fed. States of Colombia Micronesia Suriname Togo Benin Uganda Maldives Malaysia Equatorial Guinea Congo Kenya Ecuador Gabon Democratic Rwanda Singapore São Tomé and Príncipe Indonesia Republic Burundi of the Seychelles Papua New Congo United Republic Guinea Brazil of Tanzania Timor-Leste Peru Comoros Angola Zambia Malawi Bolivia Mozambique Zimbabwe Mauritius Namibia Madagascar Paraguay Botswana Australia see below Chile Swaziland South Lesotho Africa Uruguay Argentina New Zealand 1. The FYR of Macedonia 8. Hungary Males favoured 2. Albania 9. Austria Kiribati Parity 3. Montenegro 10. Czech Republic Nauru Females favoured 4. Serbia 11. Slovakia 5. Bosnia and Herzegovina 12. Republic of Moldova Solomon No data 6. Croatia 13. Romania Islands Tokelau (NZ) 7. Slovenia 14. Bulgaria Tuvalu Samoa Final boundary between the Republic of Sudan and the Vanuatu Republic of South Sudan has not yet been determined. Fiji Niue (NZ) * Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control Cook Islands in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. (NZ) The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been Tonga agreed upon by the parties. Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics30 31
  • 28. CHAPTER 3 Enrolment and gender trends: primary education2. Growing number of countries Map 3.2.1 Gross enrolment ratios vary across regionsachieving universal primary education Gross enrolment ratio in primary educationUniversal primary education (UPE) has long been the Greenland (Denmark)situation in most developed countries, and considerable Faroe Islands Iceland (Den.)progress has been made in making primary schooling Norway Finlandaccessible to children in developing countries as well. Netherlands United Sweden Estonia Latvia Russian Federation Canada Kingdom DenmarkProgress has been especially strong over the last decade, Belgium Lithuania Poland Belarus Irelandwhen a growing number of countries have achieved UPE. Luxembourg Germany 10 11 Ukraine 9 8 KazakhstanGirls’ enrolment has been increasing at a faster rate than Liechtenstein 7 13 12 Mongolia Switzerland France Italy 6 5 4that of boys, which has helped to close the gender gap at Monaco 3 14 Georgia Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan San 21 Armenia Azerbaijan Democratic People’sthe primary level. United States of America Andorra Portugal Spain Marino Greece Turkey Turkmenistan Tajikistan Republic of Korea Gibraltar (UK) Cyprus Syrian Republic JapanMap 3.2.1 offers a global overview of the number of Bermuda (UK) Tunisia Islamic Malta Lebanon Arab Rep. Republic Afghanistan Jammu and Kashmir* China of Korea Morocco Iraqcountries with respect to their gross enrolment ratio (GER). Bahamas Israel Jordan of Iran KuwaitThe primary level GER expresses the number of children, Turks and Dominican Republic Algeria Libya Bahrain Pakistan Nepal Bhutan Cayman Caicos Is. British Virgin Islands Egyptregardless of age, who are enrolled in primary school as Islands (UK) Anguilla (UK) Western Sahara Saudi Arabia Qatar Bangladesh (UK) United Arab Emiratesa percentage of the corresponding population in the Mexico Cuba St. Kitts and Nevis Antigua and Barbuda Cape Verde India Myanmar Lao Hong Kong SAR, China Macao SAR, Chinatheoretical age group for this level of education. The GER Haiti Montserrat (UK) Mauritania Oman P.D.R. Belize Jamaica Dominica Mali Nigercan exceed 100 percent if there are significant numbers Guatemala Honduras Puerto Rico St. Lucia Senegal Chad Sudan Eritrea Yemen Thailand (USA)of under- or over-age children enrolled in primary schools. El Salvador Aruba Nicaragua (Neth.) Barbados Gambia Burkina Faso Djibouti Cambodia Philippines St. Vincent & Grenadines Guinea- Viet Nam Marshall Costa Rica Grenada Bissau Guinea Nigeria Islands Venezuela Ghana Sri Palau Panama Trinidad and Tobago Sierra Leone Côte Central South Ethiopia Brunei Guyana d’Ivoire African Sudan Lanka Liberia Cameroon Republic Somalia Darussalam Fed. States ofFigure 3.2.1 Colombia Suriname Togo Benin Malaysia Micronesia Uganda MaldivesMajority of children living in countries with high gross enrolment ratios Equatorial Guinea Congo Kenya Ecuador Gabon Democratic Rwanda Singapore São Tomé and Príncipe IndonesiaDistribution of world’s children by levels of gross enrolment ratio in primary education, 2009 Republic Burundi of the Seychelles Papua New 100 Congo United Republic Guinea Brazil of Tanzania Timor-Leste 90 Peru Comoros Percentage of children living in countries Angola Zambia 80 Malawi Bolivia Mozambique at specified GER level (%) 70 Zimbabwe Mauritius Namibia Madagascar 60 Paraguay Botswana Australia see below 50 Chile Swaziland South Lesotho 40 Africa Uruguay 30 Argentina New Zealand 20 10 0 Less than 80 [80 – 90[ [90 – 98[ Greater than 98 1. The FYR of Macedonia 8. Hungary Gross enrolment ratio (%) Less than 80% 2. Albania 9. Austria KiribatiSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics [80% – 90%[ 3. Montenegro 10. Czech Republic Nauru [90% – 98%[ 4. Serbia 11. Slovakia 5. Bosnia and Herzegovina 12. Republic of Moldova Solomon Greater than 98% 6. Croatia 13. Romania Islands Tokelau (NZ)Nearly three-quarters (73 percent) of the 194 countries Figure 3.2.1 shows that whereas 72 percent of countries No data 7. Slovenia 14. Bulgaria Tuvalu Samoafor which data are available reported a gross enrolment report a GER greater than 98 percent, 77 percent of the Final boundary between the Republic of Sudan and theratio over 98 percent, a sign of near-universal primary world’s children live in such countries. Put another way, Republic of South Sudan has not yet been determined. Vanuatu Fijienrolment. Only 4 percent of countries have a GER a majority of children live in countries that have a high * Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control Niue (NZ) Cook Islandsbelow 80 percent, meaning that at least one in five of GER. At the other end of the spectrum only 3 percent of in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been Tonga (NZ)their children do not have access to primary schools. children live in the 5 percent of countries that have GERs agreed upon by the parties.Since countries vary widely in the size of their below 80 percent. Source: UNESCO Institute for Statisticspopulations, the number of countries at various GERlevels may not be an accurate reflection of where theworld stands with regards to primary enrolment.32 33
  • 29. CHAPTER 3 Enrolment and gender trends: primary educationOne way of measuring universal participation in primary Map 3.2.2education is to examine the net enrolment rate (NER), Steady progress seen toward universal primary educationwhich is calculated by dividing the number of students Net enrolment rate in primary educationof a particular age group – in this case primary level –by the number of children in the population of that age Greenlandgroup. In other words, unlike GER, NER indicates the (Denmark) Faroe Islands (Den.)actual share of the particular age group that should be Iceland Finland Norwayenrolled in primary schools; therefore this rate can never United Sweden Estonia Russian Federation Netherlands Kingdom Denmark Latviaexceed 100%. Canada Belgium Lithuania Ireland Poland Belarus GermanyMap 3.2.2 shows that the largest proportion of countries Luxembourg 10 11 9 8 Ukraine Kazakhstan Liechtenstein 12(44 percent) have NERs in the range of 85 to 95 percent. Switzerland 7 France Italy 6 5 4 13 MongoliaAbout a tenth have near-universal primary enrolment Monaco San 3 2 1 14 Georgia Armenia Azerbaijan Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Democratic People’s United States Andorra Spain Marino Republic of Korealevels of 98 percent or above, while slightly less than of America Portugal Greece Turkey Turkmenistan Tajikistan Republic Japanone in ten show rates of less than 75 percent. Overall, Bermuda (UK) Gibraltar (UK) Tunisia Cyprus Syrian Islamic Malta Lebanon Arab Rep. Republic Afghanistan Jammu and Kashmir* China of KoreaGERs tend to be higher than NERs – which makes sense Bahamas Morocco Israel Jordan Iraq of Iran Kuwaitgiven that many children in primary schools are Turks andDominican Republic Algeria Libya Bahrain Pakistan Nepal Bhutan Caicos Is.over-aged due to late entrance to school. Cayman Islands (UK) British Virgin Islands Anguilla (UK) Western Egypt Saudi Qatar Bangladesh (UK) Sahara Arabia United Arab Emirates Mexico Cuba St. Kitts and Nevis Cape India Hong Kong SAR, ChinaNet enrolment rates have been rising in most countries Antigua and Barbuda Verde Myanmar Lao Macao SAR, China Haiti Mauritania Omanover the last decade – a pattern that can be seen in Belize Jamaica Montserrat (UK) Dominica Mali Niger P.D.R. Puerto Rico Sudan Eritrea YemenFigure 3.2.2. Among countries where the NER has Guatemala Honduras (USA) St. Lucia Senegal Chad Thailand El Salvador Aruba Barbados Gambia Burkina Cambodiadeteriorated, most of the declines are either relatively Nicaragua (Neth.) St. Vincent & Grenadines Guinea- Faso Djibouti Viet Nam Philippines Marshall Bissau Guineasmall, such as the drop in Nigeria from 64 to 63 percent, Costa Rica Venezuela Grenada Trinidad and Tobago Sierra Leone Ghana Nigeria Central South Ethiopia Sri Palau Islands Panama Côte Bruneior are occurring in countries that already had Guyana Liberia d’Ivoire African Sudan Cameroon Republic Somalia Lanka Darussalam Fed. States ofnear-universal NER in 2000. Colombia Suriname Togo Benin Uganda Maldives Malaysia Micronesia Equatorial Guinea Congo Kenya Ecuador Gabon Democratic Rwanda Singapore São Tomé and Príncipe Indonesia Republic Burundi of the Seychelles Papua New Congo United Republic Guinea Brazil of Tanzania Timor-Leste Peru Comoros Angola Zambia Malawi Bolivia Mozambique Zimbabwe Mauritius Namibia MadagascarFigure 3.2.2 Net enrolment rates rising in most countries Paraguay Botswana Australia see belowChanges in net enrolment ratios in primary education, 2000–2009 Chile Swaziland South Lesotho United Republic of United Arab Africa 100 Emirates Uruguay Tanzania Bahamas Burundi Madagascar Rwanda Togo Argentina Net enrolment ratios Mozambique Morocco Kyrgyzstan Fiji New Zambia 90 Iraq Zealand have progressed Bhutan Comoros Indonesia Paraguay since 2000 Ethiopia Kenya Lao PDR Azerbaijan Albania Oman Cape 80 Mali Swaziland Mauritania Jamaica Verde Guinea Senegal Ghana Lesotho Occupied Yemen Palestinian 70 Gambia Territory Burkina Faso Pakistan 1. The FYR of Macedonia 8. Hungary Nigeria Less than 75% 2. Albania 9. Austria NER in 2009 (%) 60 Niger Kiribati Côte dIvoire [75% – 85%[ 3. Montenegro 10. Czech Republic Nauru Equatorial Guinea [85% – 95%[ 4. Serbia 11. Slovakia 50 5. Bosnia and Herzegovina 12. Republic of Moldova Solomon Djibouti [95% – 98%[ 6. Croatia 13. Romania Islands Tokelau (NZ) 40 Greater than 98% 7. Slovenia 14. Bulgaria Tuvalu Eritrea Samoa No data 30 Final boundary between the Republic of Sudan and the Vanuatu Republic of South Sudan has not yet been determined. Fiji Niue (NZ) 20 Net enrolment ratios * Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control Cook Islands have deteriorated in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. (NZ) The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been Tonga since 2000 agreed upon by the parties. 10 Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 NER in 2000 (%)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics34 35
  • 30. CHAPTER 3 Enrolment and gender trends: primary educationFigure 3.2.3 Sub-Saharan Africa leading gains in gross enrolment ratios for both sexesGross enrolment ratio in primary education by region and worldwide, 1970–2009 1970 2009 Male Female 140 120 Gross enrolment ratio (%) 100 80 60 40 20 0 Sub-Saharan Arab States South and North America Central and Central Asia* Latin America East Asia and World Africa West Asia and Western Eastern Europe and the the Pacific* Europe CaribbeanNote: * Data for Central Asia is from 1980–2009; * Data for East Asia and the Pacific is from 1975–2009Source: UNESCO Institute for StatisticsA general upward trend in primary level gross enrolment Other significant gains for females were registered in theratios has occurred for both males and females since Arab States and in South and West Asia. The only regions1970. As shown in Figure 3.2.3, the most dramatic gains to show declines in GERs were Central Asia, where thehave been registered among both sexes in sub-Saharan ratio for both females and males dropped by aroundAfrica, where the GERs rose from 62 to 106 percent for 8 percentage points, Central and Eastern Europe,males and more than doubled, from 43 to 97 percent, for where both the male and female ratios dropped belowfemales. 100 percent and East Asia and the Pacific, where the GERFigure 3.2.4 Primary enrolments keeping pace with population growthPercentage change in enrolment and population in primary education by gender, 1999–2009 Male enrolment Female enrolment Population 70 60 50 40 Growth rate (%) 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 Central Asia Central and East Asia and Latin America North America Arab States South and Sub-Saharan Eastern Europe the Pacific and the and Western West Asia Africa Caribbean EuropeSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics36
  • 31. for males dropped from 119 to 110 percent. It is Figure 3.2.4 shows that the number of primary agenoteworthy to mention however that declines of the GER children was either steady or declined somewhat in mostthat occur when the latter remains near 100 percent, are regions of the world between 1999 and 2009 due tomostly due to fewer over/under aged pupils being slower population growth. Primary enrolments generallyenrolled and do not project a step back for the region. moved in parallel to the population trends, although inThe ratios are virtually identical for males and females in Central Asia and in East Asia and the Pacific enrolment declines were slightly less severe than the populationNorth America and Western Europe. The ratio is higher drop-offs.for males than for females in six of the other sevenregions. The exception is East Asia and the Pacific, Three regions of the world – Arab States, South and Westwhere females have a slight edge. The highest GER Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa – showed growth in the(119 percent) is for males in Latin America and the school-age population, and in all three cases primaryCaribbean, while the lowest (93 percent) is for females in enrolments grew at even faster rates. Another sign ofthe Arab States. The largest gaps in favour of males are in improvement in access to primary education is the factsub-Saharan Africa and in the Arab States. that the enrolment rates of girls rose faster than those of boys in all three regions.An obvious question that arises is how the changes inenrolment compare with the overall growth of the Figure 3.2.5 reports data on the primary level grossschool-age population? Are there any signs that gains enrolment ratio for 32 selected countries. The largestin access to education are being negated by rising gap in favour of boys is in Afghanistan, where boyspopulation levels? In general, the answer seems to be no. outnumber girls by a ratio of three to two. By contrast,Enrolments are more than keeping pace with population girls have the edge in four countries: China, Mauritania,growth. Armenia and Bangladesh.Figure 3.2.5 Gross enrolment ratio higher for boys in some countries and girls in othersGross enrolment ratio in primary education for selected countries, 2009 or latest year available Male Female 140 120 100 Gross enrolment ratio (%) 80 60 40 20 0 Monaco Benin Syrian Arab Republic Congo Afghanistan Cameroon Mozambique+1 Cambodia Togo Timor-Leste Dominican Republic Morocco Algeria Grenada Ethiopia Chad Central African Republic Mali Cape Verde Dem. Rep. of the Congo Guinea Pakistan Burkina Faso+1 Côte dIvoire Sudan Niger+1 Djibouti Eritrea China Mauritania Armenia BangladeshNote: +1 refer to 2010 dataSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics 37
  • 32. CHAPTER 3 Enrolment and gender trends: primary education3. Significant progress in gender parity Map 3.3.1 Two-thirds of countries show gender parity in primary schoolsat the primary level Gender parity index in primary educationAlthough boys continue to have a slight edge in accessto primary education in some areas, girls have been the Greenland (Denmark)principal beneficiaries of the trend toward higher gross Faroe Islands (Den.) Icelandenrolment ratios. These gains are reflected in data on Norway Finland Russian Federationgender parity. Netherlands United Kingdom Denmark Sweden Estonia Latvia Canada Lithuania BelgiumMap 3.3.1 depicts the gender parity index at the primary Ireland Germany Poland Belarus 10 11 Ukrainelevel for 193 countries. It shows that nearly two-thirds Luxembourg Liechtenstein 9 8 12 Kazakhstan 7 13 Mongolia(128) of these countries have achieved gender parity. Switzerland France Italy 6 5 4 Monaco 3 14 Georgia UzbekistanBoys have the edge in all but 8 of the 65 countries that United States Andorra Spain Marino San 2 1 Armenia Azerbaijan Kyrgyzstan Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Turkey Turkmenistan Tajikistando not show gender parity. Examples of these countries of America Portugal Greece Republic Japan Gibraltar (UK) Cyprus Syrian Islamicare shown in Table 3.3.1. Bermuda (UK) Morocco Tunisia Malta Lebanon Arab Rep. Republic Afghanistan Jammu and Kashmir* China of Korea Israel Iraq of Iran Bahamas Jordan KuwaitTable 3.3.1 Examples of countries with more girls and more boys Turks and Dominican Republic Pakistan Nepal Bhutan Algeria Libya Bahrain Cayman Caicos Is. British Virgin Islands Egypt Islands (UK) Western Saudi Qatar Anguilla (UK) BangladeshCountries with more females enrolled, 2009 or Countries with more males enrolled, 2009 or (UK) Sahara Arabia United Arab Emirates Mexico Cuba St. Kitts and Nevis Cape India Hong Kong SAR, Chinalatest year available latest year available Antigua and Barbuda Verde Myanmar Lao Macao SAR, China Haiti Mauritania Oman Montserrat (UK) P.D.R.Country GPI Country GPI Belize Jamaica Dominica Mali Niger Guatemala Honduras Puerto Rico Senegal Chad Sudan Eritrea Yemen Thailand (USA) St. LuciaMauritania 1.08 Somalia-2 0.55 El Salvador Aruba Barbados Gambia Burkina Cambodia Philippines Nicaragua (Neth.) Faso DjiboutiNauru-1 1.06 Afghanistan 0.67 St. Vincent & Grenadines Guinea- Bissau Guinea Viet Nam Marshall Costa Rica Grenada Nigeria IslandsKiribati-1 1.04 Chad 0.70 Panama Venezuela Trinidad and Tobago Sierra Leone Côte Ghana Central South Ethiopia Sri Palau Lanka BruneiBangladesh 1.04 Central African Republic+1 0.71 Guyana Liberia d’Ivoire African Sudan Cameroon Republic Somalia Darussalam Fed. States ofSenegal 1.04 Yemen-1 0.80 Colombia Suriname Togo Benin Malaysia Micronesia Uganda MaldivesChina 1.04 Angola-1 0.81 Equatorial Guinea Congo KenyaMalawi 1.03 Côte dIvoire 0.81 Ecuador São Tomé and Príncipe Gabon Democratic Rwanda Singapore IndonesiaArmenia 1.03 Niger+1 0.82 Republic Burundi of the Seychelles Papua New +1 -1Note: refer to 2010 data; refer to 2008 data; -2 refer to 2007 data Congo United Republic Guinea Brazil of TanzaniaSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics Timor-Leste Peru Comoros Angola ZambiaTable 3.3.1 provides lists of eight countries that have more females in primary Malawischools as well as eight with more males. The range varies from the 1.08 Bolivia Mozambique Mauritius Zimbabweadvantage of females in Mauritania to the 0.55 in favour of males in Somalia. Namibia Madagascar Paraguay BotswanaWhile almost all countries have made progress towards gender parity, there are Chile Australia see below Swazilandsignificant differences among regions. Moreover, while the gap between regions South Lesothowith high and low levels of gender parity has narrowed, it still remains significant. Uruguay Africa Argentina NewFigure 3.3.1 Pace of movement toward gender parity varies among regions Males favoured 1. The FYR of Macedonia 8. Hungary Zealand 2. Albania 9. AustriaPercentage of countries within parity range in primary education, 1970–2009 Parity 3. Montenegro 10. Czech Republic Females favoured 4. Serbia 11. Slovakia 100 5. Bosnia and Herzegovina 12. Republic of Moldova Central and No data 6. Croatia 13. Romania 90 Eastern Europe 7. Slovenia 14. Bulgaria North America 80 and Western Kiribati Final boundary between the Republic of Sudan and the Nauru Percentage of countries (%) Europe Republic of South Sudan has not yet been determined. 70 Central Asia Solomon 60 Figure 3.3.1 depicts the percentage of and East Asia and the Pacific – * Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. Islands Tokelau (NZ) Latin America and the countries in each region that have been about half of countries had The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been Tuvalu agreed upon by the parties. 50 Caribbean within the range of gender parity (0.97 to 1.03) achieved parity in 1970, and Samoa Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics 40 East Asia and from 1970 to 2009. The eight regions fall into this proportion has grown. Vanuatu the Pacific Fiji three categories. Countries in three regions – Niue (NZ) 30 South and The greatest gains were registered by the three regions that had the Cook Islands North America and Western Europe, Central West Asia lowest proportions in 1970 – the Arab States, sub-Saharan Africa, and Tonga (NZ) 20 Asia, and Central and Eastern Europe – Arab States South and West Asia. These regions continue to lag behind the other five, began in 1970 with relatively high levels 10 Sub-Saharan but the gap is narrowing. The most dramatic gains came in sub-Saharan Africa of parity and have maintained these levels 0 Africa and the Arab States, where the proportion of countries achieving despite a dip in the 1980s. In two other 1970 1980 1990 2000 2009 parity quadrupled over the four decades from 1970 to 2009.Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics regions – Latin America and the Caribbean,38 39
  • 33. CHAPTER 3 Enrolment and gender trends: primary education4. Repetition a continuing obstacle Map 3.4.1 Repetition rates vary widely among different regionsto progress in school Percentage of repeaters in primary educationAlmost all countries face disparities in the way pupilsprogress through school, with girls usually doing so in Greenland (Denmark)a more timely manner than boys. Repetition of grades Faroe Islands (Den.) Icelandis an important determinant of whether or not pupils Norway Finland Russian Federationpersist and eventually complete primary school. Netherlands United Kingdom Denmark Sweden Estonia Latvia CanadaRepetition rates are an indication of the internal Belgium Lithuania Poland Belarus Irelandinefficiencies of education systems, and some studies Luxembourg Germany 10 11 Ukraine 9 8 Kazakhstanon student learning have questioned the pedagogical Liechtenstein 7 13 12 Mongolia Switzerland France Italy 6 5 4benefits of holding pupils back. Monaco 3 14 Georgia Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Andorra San 21 Armenia Azerbaijan Democratic People’s United States Spain Marino Republic of Korea Turkmenistan TajikistanThe global average for the proportion of pupils who of America Portugal Greece Turkey Republic Gibraltar (UK) Cyprus Syrian Japanrepeat grades during their primary years is 4.9 percent – Bermuda (UK) Tunisia Islamic Malta Lebanon Arab Rep. Republic Afghanistan Jammu and Kashmir* China of Korea Morocco Israel Iraq4.6 percent among females and 5.2 percent among Bahamas Jordan of Iran Kuwaitmales. But as seen in Map 3.4.1, the proportions vary Turks and Caicos Is. Dominican Republic Algeria Libya Bahrain Pakistan Nepal Bhutan Cayman British Virgin Islands Egyptwidely among various regions and countries. Nearly a Islands (UK) Anguilla (UK) Western Sahara Saudi Arabia Qatar Bangladesh (UK) United Arab Emiratesthird of countries have minimal percentages of less than Mexico Cuba St. Kitts and Nevis Antigua and Barbuda Cape Verde India Myanmar Lao Hong Kong SAR, China Macao SAR, China Oman1 percent, while around a quarter have percentages Haiti Belize Jamaica Montserrat (UK) Mauritania P.D.R. Dominica Mali Nigerbetween 1 percent and 5 percent. At the other end of the Guatemala Honduras Puerto Rico (USA) St. Lucia Senegal Chad Sudan Eritrea Yemen Thailand Gambiaspectrum, there are nine countries in which more than El Salvador Aruba Nicaragua (Neth.) Barbados St. Vincent & Grenadines Guinea- Burkina Faso Djibouti Cambodia Philippines Viet Nam Marshallone in five pupils repeat a grade. Costa Rica Grenada Bissau Guinea Nigeria Islands Venezuela Ghana Sri Palau Panama Trinidad and Tobago Sierra Leone Côte Central South Ethiopia Brunei African Sudan LankaRepetition of grades is highest in Burundi, where nearly Guyana Liberia d’Ivoire Cameroon Republic Somalia Darussalam Fed. States of Colombia Micronesiaone in three (32 percent) pupils repeat a grade, and all of Suriname Togo Benin Uganda Maldives Malaysia Equatorial Guinea Congo Kenyathe ten countries with the highest percentages are also in Ecuador Gabon Democratic Rwanda Singapore São Tomé and Príncipe Indonesiasub-Saharan Africa. Republic Burundi of the Seychelles Papua New Congo United Republic Guinea Brazil of Tanzania Timor-Leste Peru Comoros Angola Zambia Malawi Bolivia Mozambique Zimbabwe Mauritius Namibia Madagascar Paraguay Botswana Australia see below Chile Swaziland South Lesotho Africa Uruguay Argentina New Zealand 1. The FYR of Macedonia 8. Hungary Less than 1% 2. Albania 9. Austria Kiribati [1% – 5%[ 3. Montenegro 10. Czech Republic Nauru [5% – 10%[ 4. Serbia 11. Slovakia 5. Bosnia and Herzegovina 12. Republic of Moldova Solomon [10% – 20%[ 6. Croatia 13. Romania Islands Tokelau (NZ) Greater than 20% 7. Slovenia 14. Bulgaria Tuvalu Samoa No data Final boundary between the Republic of Sudan and the Vanuatu Republic of South Sudan has not yet been determined. Fiji Niue (NZ) * Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control Cook Islands in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. (NZ) The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been Tonga agreed upon by the parties. Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics40 41
  • 34. CHAPTER 3 Enrolment and gender trends: primary educationTable 3.4.1 shows how repetition levels differ among The largest proportions of repeaters are found in Latinregions. The practice is negligible in Central Asia and America and the Caribbean and in sub-Saharan Africa,in North America and Western Europe, both of which where the proportion of one in ten students is more thanrecord percentages below 1 percent. Less than 1.5 percent double the global average. As shown in Table 3.4.2, ten ofof students are held back in two other regions: Central the countries with the highest repetition rates are inand Eastern Europe and East Asia and the Pacific. sub-Saharan Africa.Table 3.4.1 Largest proportions of repeaters found in Table 3.4.2 Countries with highest percentage of repeaters,Latin America and the Caribbean and sub-Saharan Africa 2009 or latest year availableRegional percentage of repeaters, 2009 or latest year available Country Repetition rateRegion Percentage Burundi 32.3Arab States 6.9 Comoros-1 24.4Central and Eastern Europe 1.2 São Tomé and Príncipe-1 24.2Central Asia 0.1 Togo 22.9East Asia and the Pacific 1.5 Chad 22.8Latin America and the Caribbean 8.5 Central African Republic+1 20.7North America and Western Europe 0.8 Lesotho 20.5South and West Asia-1 4.8 Madagascar 20.4Sub-Saharan Africa 9.7 Equatorial Guinea+1 20.4World 4.9 Congo 19.7 Note: +1 refer to 2010 data; -1 refer to 2008 dataRegional percentage of repeaters by gender, 2009 or latest year available Source: UNESCO Institute for StatisticsRegion Female MaleArab States 5.7 8.0Central and Eastern Europe 1.5 0.9Central Asia 0.1 0.1East Asia and the Pacific 1.3 1.8Latin America and the Caribbean 8.2 8.7North America and Western Europe 1.3 0.3South and West Asia-1 4.8 4.9Sub-Saharan Africa 8.9 10.5World 4.6 5.2Note: -1 refer to 2008 dataSource: UNESCO Institute for StatisticsFigure 3.4.1 Boys are more likely to repeat than girlsPercentage of repeaters for selected countries, 2009 or latest year available Male Female 30 25 Percentage of repeaters (%) 20 15 10 5 0 São Tomé and Príncipe-1 Equatorial Guinea+1 Lesotho Timor-Leste Swaziland-2 Suriname-1 Iraq-2 Namibia Vanuatu Nicaragua-1 Morocco Algeria Cape Verde Lebanon Thailand-2 Aruba Uruguay-1 Tunisia Dominican Republic British Virgin Islands Macao SAR, China DominicaNote: +1 refer to 2010 data; -1 refer to 2008 data; -2 refer to 2007 dataSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics42
  • 35. Figure 3.4.2 Male repeaters outnumber females in 75 percent of countries As already noted, boys are farPercentage of countries according to repetition rates more likely than girls to be More male repeaters repeaters at the primary level. More female repeaters More female repeaters Table 3.4.1 shows that this 5% Parity Less than 1% pattern applies to all regions [1% – 5%[ except for Central Asia, where 10.7% [5% – 10%[ there are negligible repetition Parity 1.7% [10% – 20%[ rates for both sexes and for More male repeaters 20% Greater than 20% 75% 0.6% Central and Eastern Europe, 5.3% and North America and Western 1.7% Europe where the repetition rates for females are slightlySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics higher. Figure 3.4.2 indicates thatTable 3.4.3 Some countries have more female repeaters male repeaters outnumber Male Female females in 75 percent of repetition repetition countries, while female repeatersRegion Country rate rate are more numerous in onlyCountries with gender parity in repetition rates, 2009 or latest year available 5 percent. The other 20 percent of countries are at parity. It isArab States Occupied Palestinian Territory - -East Asia and the Pacific Cook Islands+1 - - interesting to note that half ofEast Asia and the Pacific Japan-1 - - the countries that are at parityLatin America and the Caribbean Anguilla-1 - - have very low repetition rates.Latin America and the Caribbean Bahamas-1 - -Latin America and the Caribbean Cayman Islands-1 - - Figure 3.4.1 depicts the extentNorth America and Western Europe Austria - - to which a higher percentageNorth America and Western Europe Canada-3 - - of boys repeat in 22 selectedNorth America and Western Europe Iceland - -North America and Western Europe Liechtenstein - - countries. The differences rangeNorth America and Western Europe San Marino - - from 2.5 percentage points inNorth America and Western Europe Sweden - - Vanuatu to a 5.5 pointNorth America and Western Europe United Kingdom-1 - - differential in Suriname.North America and Western Europe United States of America - -Central and Eastern Europe Belarus-1 0.1 0.1 Male and female repetitionCentral and Eastern Europe Ukraine 0.1 0.1 rates can be similar in countriesCentral Asia Tajikistan 0.2 0.2 where the overall repetition ratesEast Asia and the Pacific Myanmar 0.4 0.4Arab States Bahrain 1.9 1.9 fall in different levels. As seen inSouth and West Asia India 3.4 3.5 Table 3.4.3, such parity exists inSub-Saharan Africa Niger+1 4.4 4.5 Myanmar (0.4 for both sexes),Sub-Saharan Africa Senegal 7.4 7.6 Nepal (14.0 for males, 14.1 forArab States Djibouti 9.9 10.1Sub-Saharan Africa Burkina Faso+1 10.1 10.1 females) and Burundi (32.3 forSub-Saharan Africa Uganda 11.5 11.9 both sexes).Sub-Saharan Africa Mali+1 12.9 12.8South and West Asia Nepal+1 14.0 14.1Sub-Saharan Africa Benin 14.3 14.3Sub-Saharan Africa Democratic Republic of the Congo 15.6 15.2Sub-Saharan Africa Malawi 18.4 19.0Sub-Saharan Africa Côte dIvoire 18.7 18.9Sub-Saharan Africa Central African Republic+1 20.9 20.6Sub-Saharan Africa Comoros-1 24.4 24.5Sub-Saharan Africa Burundi 32.3 32.3Countries where there are more female repeaters, 2009 or latest year availableArab States Qatar 0.5 0.5Arab States Jordan-1 0.6 0.6Arab States Oman 1.3 1.6Central and Eastern Europe Turkey -1 2.1 2.2Latin America and the Caribbean Antigua and Barbuda 5.4 6.7Sub-Saharan Africa Liberia-1 6.5 6.9 Note: +1 refer to 2010 data; -1 refer to 2008 data;Sub-Saharan Africa Guinea 14.7 16.1 -2 refer to 2007 data; -3 refer to 2006 dataSub-Saharan Africa Chad 22.3 23.6 Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics 43
  • 36. CHAPTER 3 Enrolment and gender trends: primary education5. Dropout a threat Map 3.5.1 Dropout rates vary widely among different regionsto universal primary education Dropout rate in primary educationA major obstacle to reaching the goal of universal Greenland (Denmark)primary education is the high dropout rates that Faroe Islands Iceland (Den.)characterize many countries. The causes of dropping Finland Norwayout, or “school wastage”, are mostly rooted in the overall Netherlands United Sweden Estonia Latvia Russian Federation Canada Kingdom Denmarksocial and economic environment and those that stem Belgium Lithuania Ireland Poland Belarusfrom the way the school system itself is organized and Luxembourg Germany 10 11 Ukraine Kazakhstanoperates. Data show that dropout rates are highly Liechtenstein 7 9 8 13 12 Mongolia Switzerland France Italy 6 5 4sensitive to the national economic context. Studies in Monaco 3 14 Georgia Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan San 21 Armenia Azerbaijan Democratic People’scertain less developed countries, for example, have United States of America Andorra Spain Marino Greece Turkey Turkmenistan Tajikistan Republic of Korea Portugalshown a significant and positive correlation between Gibraltar (UK) Cyprus Syrian Islamic Republic Japan Bermuda (UK) Tunisia Malta Lebanon Arab Rep. Republic Afghanistan Jammu and Kashmir* China of Koreadropout rates and the percentage of people having a Morocco Israel Iraq of Iran Bahamas Jordanvery poor income, since even when public schools are Dominican Republic Kuwait Pakistan Nepal Bhutan Turks and Algeria Libya Bahrainostensibly free, parents must bear various direct costs Cayman Caicos Is. British Virgin Islands Western Egypt Saudi Qatar Islands (UK) Anguilla (UK) Bangladeshto educate their children such as purchasing school Mexico (UK) St. Kitts and Nevis Cape Sahara Arabia United Arab Emirates India Hong Kong SAR, China Cubasupplies, textbooks, etc. A poor economy can also be the Antigua and Barbuda Verde Mauritania Oman Myanmar Lao Macao SAR, China Haiti Montserrat (UK) P.D.R.cause of having classrooms with unfavourable working Belize Jamaica Dominica Mali Niger Sudan Eritrea Yemen Guatemala Honduras Puerto Rico Senegal Chad Thailandconditions and teachers that have poor teaching skills. El Salvador Aruba (USA) St. Lucia Barbados Gambia Burkina Cambodia PhilippinesHigh dropout rates are also observed in countries where Nicaragua (Neth.) St. Vincent & Grenadines Guinea- Bissau Guinea Faso Djibouti Viet Nam Marshall Costa Rica Grenada Nigeria Islandsthere is high mortality amongst adults (e.g. Tanzania). In Panama Venezuela Trinidad and Tobago Sierra Leone Côte Ghana Central South Ethiopia Sri Brunei Palau African Sudan Lankathese situations, the child may be needed to care for the Guyana Liberia d’Ivoire Cameroon Republic Somalia Darussalam Fed. States of Colombia Micronesiaill or replace them in different economic activities. As a Suriname Togo Benin Uganda Maldives Malaysia Equatorial Guinea Congo Kenyaresult, the child may attend fewer hours or drop out of Ecuador Gabon Democratic Rwanda Singapore São Tomé and Príncipe Indonesiaschool. Republic Burundi of the Seychelles Papua New Congo United Republic GuineaMap 3.5.1 and Figure 3.5.1 show how rates vary across Brazil of Tanzania Timor-Lestethe world, with the number of countries spread fairly Peru Comoros Angolaevenly across the five categories. For sub-Saharan Africa, Zambia Malawinearly two-thirds of the countries (63 percent) have a Bolivia Mozambiquedropout rate greater than 30 percent, compared to only Namibia Zimbabwe Madagascar Mauritius13 percent in the remaining regions of the world. Paraguay Botswana Australia see belowGlobally, 48 countries have rates of less than 5 percent, Chile Swazilandwhere only one (Mauritius) is in sub-Saharan Africa, South Africa Lesotho Uruguaywhile 33 others register rates greater than 30 percent, Argentinaof which 20 are located in sub-Saharan Africa. New ZealandFigure 3.5.1 Dropout rates high in two out of three sub-Saharan countriesPercentage of countries according to dropout rates in primary education for sub-Saharan Africa and the remaining regionsof the world, 2009 1. The FYR of Macedonia 8. Hungary Less than 1% 2. Albania 9. Austria Kiribati Dropout rate [1% – 5%[ 3. Montenegro 10. Czech Republic Nauru Less than 1% 4. Serbia 11. Slovakia [5% – 15%[ 3% [1% – 5%[ 5. Bosnia and Herzegovina 12. Republic of Moldova Solomon 6% 13% 12% [5% – 15%[ [15% – 30%[ 6. Croatia 13. Romania Islands Tokelau (NZ) [15% – 30%[ Greater than 30% 7. Slovenia 14. Bulgaria Tuvalu Greater than 30% Samoa No data 14% Final boundary between the Republic of Sudan and the Vanuatu 28% Remaining Republic of South Sudan has not yet been determined. Sub-Saharan Fiji Niue (NZ) regions of * Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control Africa the world Cook Islands in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. (NZ) 33% The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been Tonga 63% agreed upon by the parties. Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics 28%Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics44 45
  • 37. CHAPTER 3 Enrolment and gender trends: primary educationFigure 3.5.2 How dropout rates vary among countriesDropout rates for selected countries, primary education, 2009 or latest year available Countries with lowest dropout rates Countries with highest dropout rates 80 70 60 Dropout rate (%) 50 40 30 20 10 0 Occupied Palestinian Territory-3 United Arab Emirates-3 Djibouti-1 Mauritania-2 Czech Republic-1 Slovenia-1 Turkey-2 Bulgaria-1 Tajikistan-2 Kazakhstan Georgia-1 Mongolia-2 Japan-1 Hong Kong SAR, China-2 Lao PDR-2 Cambodia-2 Argentina-2 Cuba-1 Guatemala-2 Nicaragua-2 Italy-2 Finland-1 Belgium-1 Malta-2 Sri Lanka-3 Iran-1 Nepal-2 Pakistan-1 Mauritius-1 Botswana-4 Mozambique Chad-4 Arab States Central and Central Asia East Asia and Latin America North America South and Sub-Saharan Eastern Europe the Pacific and the and Western West Asia Africa Caribbean EuropeNote: -1 refer to 2008 data; -2 refer to 2007 data; -3 refer to 2006 data; -4 refer to 2005 dataSource: UNESCO Institute for StatisticsThe range of dropout rates is wide within various Figure 3.5.3 demonstrates both the wide range ofcountries and regions. Figure 3.5.2 shows the rates at dropout rates among various countries and the fact thatfour different levels for selected countries in each region. the number of countries with higher male rates is almostThe largest dropout problem is found in Chad, where twice as large as those with higher female rates.nearly three-quarters (70 percent) of pupils drop out Figure 3.5.4 shows the pattern for 27 selected countries –before completing the full primary education cycle. As 17 with higher rates for boys and 10 in which girls have ashown in Figure 3.5.1, sub-Saharan Africa is notable for higher rate. Substantial gaps favouring females are foundthe fact that whereas 63 percent of countries have rates in Lesotho, where the rates are 62 percent for boys andabove 30 percent, only 3 percent have rates in the zero to 44 percent for girls, and in Sudan and Aruba, where boys5 percent range. are more than five times as likely to drop out of primaryGender is a significant factor in school survival in almost school as girls. The largest gap favouring males exists inevery country in the world regardless of its state of Togo, where the rate is 38 percent for females and onlydevelopment, with boys usually dropping out at much 24 percent for males.higher rates than girls.46
  • 38. Figure 3.5.3 Boys more likely than girls to leave schoolDropout rates by gender for all countries with available data, 2009 or latest year available 80 Chad-4 70 Mozambique Dropout rate higher for girls in Central African 49 countries Republic 60 Malawi-1 Ethiopia-1 -2 Liberia Mauritania-2 Female dropout rate (%) 50 Uganda-1 Madagascar-1 Zambia-1 Nicaragua-2 Côte Guinea-1 -1 Cambodia-2 Lesotho-3 Gambia d’Ivoire 40 Senegal-1 Niger Pakistan-1 Togo-2 Guatemala-2 Djibouti-1 Nepal-2 Burundi-2 Vanuatu-1 Burkina Faso 30 -2 Ghana-1 Lao PDR-2 São Tomé and Príncipe -3 Democratic Republic of the Congo-2 Eritrea-1 Swaziland-3 Suriname Dropout rate higher for boys in -2 Mali El Salvador United Republic of Tanzania-1 84 countries Marshall Islands-1 Honduras -2 20 -1 Ecuador-3 Philippines-2 Guyana Paraguay-1 Bolivia-2 Indonesia-2 Saudi Panama -1 -1 Arabia-2 Dominica-2 Cape Verde-2 Namibia -1 Liechtenstein 10 St Lucia-1 Venezuela-1 Colombia-3 Latvia-1 -4 -1 Malta-2 Bhutan-1 Botswana Israel Qatar-2 Aruba-1 Argentina-2 Sudan-2 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Male dropout rates (%)Note: -1 refer to 2008 data; -2 refer to 2007 data; -3 refer to 2006 data; -4 refer to 2005 dataSource: UNESCO Institute for StatisticsFigure 3.5.4 Examples of male/female dropout rates among countriesDropout rates by gender for selected countries, 2009 or latest year available Male Female 80 70 60 Dropout rate (%) 50 40 30 20 10 0 Chad-4 Central African Rep. Liberia-2 Guinea-1 Togo-2 Ghana-1 São Tomé and Príncipe-2 Dem. Rep. Congo-2 Marshall Islands-1 Saudi Arabia-2 Ethiopia-1 Lesotho-3 Nicaragua-2 Cambodia-2 Burundi-2 Suriname-3 Philippines-2 United Rep. of Tanzania-1 Indonesia-2 Namibia-1 Colombia-3 Bhutan-1 Sudan-2 Aruba-1 Malta-2 Venezuela-1 Qatar-2Note: -1 refer to 2008 data; -2 refer to 2007 data; -3 refer to 2006 data; -4 refer to 2005 dataSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics 47
  • 39. CHAPTER 3 Enrolment and gender trends: primary education6. Primary level completion rates Map 3.6.1 Primary completion rates at least 95 percent in half of countrieson the rise Primary completion rateDropout rates by definition have a negative impact onschool completion rates. By lowering the number of Greenland (Denmark)students who drop out at the primary level, countries Faroe Islands (Den.) Icelandwill not only increase their primary school completion Norway Finlandrates but set the stage for progression through lower Netherlands United Sweden Estonia Latvia Russian Federation Canada Kingdom Denmarksecondary and post-compulsory education and training. Belgium Lithuania Poland Belarus Ireland Germany 10 11 UkraineMap 3.6.1 depicts the primary completion rates for 173 Luxembourg Liechtenstein 9 8 12 Kazakhstan 7 Mongoliacountries around the world. It shows that around half of Switzerland France Italy 6 5 4 13 Monaco 3 14 Georgia Uzbekistancountries (45 percent) have rates of 95 percent or higher. United States Andorra Spain Marino San 2 1 Armenia Azerbaijan Kyrgyzstan Democratic People’s Turkmenistan Tajikistan Republic of KoreaAt the other end of the spectrum, a quarter of countries of America Portugal Greece Turkey Gibraltar (UK) Cyprus Syrian Republic Japanhave no more than four out of five pupils who complete Bermuda (UK) Tunisia Islamic Malta Lebanon Arab Rep. Republic Afghanistan Jammu and Kashmir* China of Korea Morocco Israel Iraqprimary education. Bahamas Jordan of Iran Kuwait Turks and Dominican Republic Pakistan Nepal Bhutan Algeria Libya BahrainFor the world as a whole, primary completion rates rose Cayman Caicos Is. British Virgin Islands Western Egypt Saudi Qatar Islands (UK) Anguilla (UK) Bangladeshsignificantly over the last decade for both sexes. As shown Mexico (UK) St. Kitts and Nevis Cape Sahara Arabia United Arab Emirates India Hong Kong SAR, China Cubain Figure 3.6.1, the rates for girls increased from 78 to Antigua and Barbuda Verde Mauritania Oman Myanmar Lao Macao SAR, China Haiti Montserrat (UK) P.D.R.87 percent, while those for males grew from 84 to Belize Jamaica Dominica Mali Niger Sudan Eritrea Yemen Guatemala Honduras Puerto Rico Senegal Chad Thailand90 percent. Completion rates are higher for boys in all El Salvador Aruba (USA) St. Lucia Barbados Gambia Burkina Cambodia Philippinesbut two of the regions: Latin America and the Caribbean, Nicaragua (Neth.) St. Vincent & Grenadines Guinea- Bissau Guinea Faso Djibouti Viet Nam Marshall Costa Rica Grenada Nigeria Islandsand East Asia and the Pacific. Panama Venezuela Trinidad and Tobago Sierra Leone Côte Ghana Central South Ethiopia Sri Palau African Sudan Lanka Brunei Guyana d’Ivoire Cameroon Republic Somalia Darussalam Liberia Fed. States ofThe largest gains occurred in the three regions that Colombia Suriname Togo Benin Malaysia Micronesia Uganda Maldivesstarted at a relatively low base in 1999: sub-Saharan Equatorial Guinea Congo Kenya Gabon SingaporeAfrica, South and West Asia, and the Arab States. Ecuador São Tomé and Príncipe Democratic Rwanda Republic Burundi Indonesia SeychellesIn sub-Saharan Africa, for example, completion rates of the Congo Papua New United Republic Guineajumped from 47 to 64 percent for girls and from 55 to Brazil of Tanzania Timor-Leste71 percent for boys. Latin America and the Caribbean is Peru Comoros Angolanotable because by 2009 the primary completion rate Zambia Malawihad surpassed 100 percent for both sexes. Changes were Bolivia Mozambiqueboth modest and mixed in the other four regions that Namibia Zimbabwe Madagascar Mauritiusstarted at relatively high levels in 1999. Paraguay Botswana Australia see below Chile Swaziland South Lesotho Africa Uruguay ArgentinaFigure 3.6.1 Rise seen in most regions and among both sexes New ZealandPrimary completion rates by region and gender, 1999–2009 1999 2009 Male Female 110 100 1. The FYR of Macedonia 8. Hungary Less than 80% 2. Albania 9. Austria Primary completion rate (%) Kiribati [80% – 90%[ 3. Montenegro 10. Czech Republic Nauru 90 [90% – 95%[ 4. Serbia 11. Slovakia 5. Bosnia and Herzegovina 12. Republic of Moldova Solomon 80 [95% – 100%[ 6. Croatia 13. Romania Islands Tokelau (NZ) Greater than 100% 7. Slovenia 14. Bulgaria Tuvalu 70 Samoa No data Final boundary between the Republic of Sudan and the Vanuatu 60 Republic of South Sudan has not yet been determined. Fiji Niue (NZ) * Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control Cook Islands 50 in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. (NZ) The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been Tonga agreed upon by the parties. 40 Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics Sub-Saharan South and Arab Latin America Central and East Asia Central North America World Africa West Asia States and the Eastern and the Asia and Western Caribbean Europe Pacific* EuropeNote: * 2009 data for East Asia and the Pacific refers to 2007Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics48 49
  • 40. CHAPTER 3 Enrolment and gender trends: primary educationFigure 3.6.2 Global primary completion rates up from 73 to 88 percentPrimary completion rates by region, 1970–2009 100 90 Latin America and the 80 Caribbean North America 70 and Western Primary completion rate (%) Europe 60 Central Asia East Asia and 50 the Pacific Central and Eastern Europe 40 South and West Asia 30 Arab States Sub-Saharan 20 Africa World 10 0 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009Source: UNESCO Institute for StatisticsFigure 3.6.3 Countries differ in primary completion rates by genderPrimary completion rates by gender for selected countries, 2009 or latest year available Male Female 120 100 Primary completion rate (%) 80 60 40 20 0 Bangladesh+1 Lesotho+1 Nicaragua Anguilla Suriname Namibia+1 Bhutan+1 Honduras Philippines Tonga-2 Afghanistan Chad+1 Central African Rep.+1 Dem. Rep. of the Congo+1 Yemen Togo+1 Guinea+1 Benin+1 Iraq-1 ComorosNote: +1 refer to 2010 data; -1 refer to 2008 data; -2 refer to 2007 dataSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics50
  • 41. Figure 3.6.2 depicts the growth in primary completion The trajectories by which pupils progress throughrates in the various regions over four decades starting primary school vary considerably. Students enter primaryin 1970. For the world as a whole the rate rose from school at different ages. Some repeat one or more73 percent in 1970 to 80 percent by 1985. It then grades, and those who drop out do so at various stagesremained steady until 1999, when it began climbing in their primary schooling. One way to examine theseto the current level of 88 percent. trajectories is to compare net enrolment ratios (NER) with primary completion rates; if the completion rate forGrowth in the primary completion rate was relatively a country is higher than the net enrolment ratio, thesteady over the four decades for both the Arab States andSouth and West Asia, whereas sub-Saharan Africa lost country probably has substantial numbers of pupils who enter school late, repeat grades and/or re-enter schoolground between the mid-1980s and the late 1990s. after dropping out. A completion rate that is lower thanConsistent with the data in Figure 3.6.1, the last decadehas produced spurts in all of the regions that did not the net enrolment ratio is a sign that large numbers of pupils drop out during the early grades.already have high primary completion rates.Depending on the country, completion rates can be Figure 3.6.4 provides data for 22 countries where the primary completion rate is higher than the NER becausehigher for either boys or girls. Figure 3.6.3 gives of high levels of over-age entrants to the last grade. Forexamples of ten countries in each category. 38 countries the reverse is true because of low levels of internal efficiency.Figure 3.6.4 Schooling trajectories vary among countriesNet enrolment rate and primary completion rate, selected countries, 2009 Primary completion rate Net enrolment rate in primary education 140 120 100 80 (%) 60 40 Primary completion rate is higher than Primary completion rate is lower than Net enrolment rate Net enrolment rate (indicates late entry, high levels 20 (indicates high levels of drop out in the early grades) of repetition and/or re-entry following drop out) 0 Eritrea Congo Nigeria Jamaica Dominican Republic Marshall Islands Paraguay Botswana Macao SAR, China Malta Liechtenstein Seychelles Cook Islands Uruguay Qatar Georgia St Vincent and the Grenadines Indonesia Colombia Guyana Maldives Grenada Bulgaria Honduras Dominica Belgium São Tomé and Príncipe Vanuatu Madagascar Guatemala British Virgin Islands Anguilla Morocco Cambodia Nicaragua Montserrat Cameroon Uganda Lao PDR Benin Togo Swaziland Burundi Iraq Malawi Bangladesh Rwanda Mozambique Mauritania Mali Ethiopia Guinea Yemen Senegal Burkina Faso Central African Republic Côte dIvoire Equatorial Guinea Niger DjiboutiSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics 51
  • 42. CHAPTER 3 Enrolment and gender trends: primary education7. Out-of-school children a continuing Map 3.7.1 Children not in school heavily concentrated in three regionschallenge Rate of out-of-school childrenRecent progress in expanding access to primaryeducation worldwide, and the narrowing of the gender Greenland (Denmark)gap, have translated into a decline in both absolute Faroe Islands (Den.) Icelandnumbers, as well as the rate, of children out of school. Norway FinlandDespite this progress, however, large numbers of Netherlands United Sweden Estonia Latvia Russian Federation Canada Kingdom Denmarkchildren still lack access to schooling. Data show that in Belgium Lithuania Poland Belarus Ireland2009 there were 68 million out-of-school primary-age Luxembourg Germany 10 11 Ukraine 9 8 Kazakhstanchildren around the world. Liechtenstein 7 13 12 Mongolia Switzerland France Italy 6 5 4 Monaco 3 14 Georgia UzbekistanAs seen in Map 3.7.1, about one in seven countries United States Andorra Spain Marino San 2 1 Armenia Azerbaijan Kyrgyzstan Democratic People’s Turkmenistan Tajikistan Republic of Korea(15 percent) have minimal proportions of such children of America Portugal Greece Turkey Gibraltar (UK) Cyprus Syrian Republic Japanof 0 to 1 percent, but another fifth of countries Bermuda (UK) Tunisia Islamic Malta Lebanon Arab Rep. Republic Afghanistan Jammu and Kashmir* China of Korea Morocco Israel Iraq(20 percent) have rates of more than 15 percent. In 19 Bahamas Jordan of Iran Kuwaitof these countries more than one in five children are out Turks and Dominican Republic Algeria Libya Bahrain Pakistan Nepal Bhutan Cayman Caicos Is. British Virgin Islands Egyptof school. Islands (UK) Anguilla (UK) Western Sahara Saudi Arabia Qatar Bangladesh Mexico (UK) St. Kitts and Nevis United Arab Emirates Cuba Cape India Hong Kong SAR, ChinaFigure 3.7.1 shows the regional rate of out-of-school Antigua and Barbuda Verde Mauritania Oman Myanmar Lao Macao SAR, China Haiti Montserrat (UK) P.D.R.children in primary education, as well as the range, Belize Jamaica Dominica Mali Niger Sudan Eritrea Yemen Guatemala Honduras Puerto Rico Senegal Chad Thailandalong with the lowest and highest values in the region. El Salvador Aruba (USA) St. Lucia Barbados Gambia Burkina Cambodia PhilippinesThe regions with the highest rate of out-of-school Nicaragua (Neth.) St. Vincent & Grenadines Guinea- Bissau Guinea Faso Djibouti Viet Nam Marshall Costa Rica Grenada Nigeria Islandschildren are sub-Saharan Africa and the Arab States. Panama Venezuela Trinidad and Tobago Sierra Leone Côte Ghana Central South Ethiopia Sri Palau African Sudan Lanka BruneiIt is interesting to observe that the regions with the Guyana Liberia d’Ivoire Cameroon Republic Somalia Darussalam Fed. States of Colombia Micronesiahighest rates also have the highest variation. In the Suriname Togo Benin Uganda Maldives Malaysia Equatorial Guinea Congo KenyaArab States for example, where the regional rate is Ecuador Gabon Democratic Rwanda Singapore São Tomé and Príncipe Indonesia13.7 percent, the rate of out-of-school children goes Republic Burundi of the Seychelles Papua Newas low as 0.6 percent (for Tunisia) up to 55.4 percent Brazil Congo United Republic Guinea of Tanzania(for Djibouti). Peru Timor-Leste Comoros Angola Zambia Malawi Bolivia MozambiqueFigure 3.7.1 How out-of-school rates vary among regions Zimbabwe Mauritius Namibia MadagascarOut-of-school rate for primary school-age children for selected countries and regions, 2009 or latest year available Paraguay Botswana Australia see below Minimum Regional average Maximum Chile Swaziland 70 South Lesotho Africa Eritrea Uruguay Argentina 60 New Djibouti Zealand Rate of out-of-school children (%) 50 40 1. The FYR of Macedonia 8. Hungary Less than 1% Pakistan 2. Albania 9. Austria Kiribati [1% – 5%[ 3. Montenegro 10. Czech Republic Nauru 30 [5% – 15%[ 4. Serbia 11. Slovakia 5. Bosnia and Herzegovina 12. Republic of Moldova Solomon [15% – 20%[ 6. Croatia 13. Romania Islands Tokelau (NZ) Marshall Islands-2 Jamaica-1 7. Slovenia 14. Bulgaria Tuvalu Greater than 20% 20 Andorra Montenegro+1 Samoa Azerbaijan No data Final boundary between the Republic of Sudan and the Vanuatu Republic of South Sudan has not yet been determined. 10 Fiji Niue (NZ) * Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control Cook Islands Islamic Rep. in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. (NZ) United The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been Tonga Kingdom-1 Japan Bulgaria Mongolia of Iran-2 Tunisia Madagascar-2 Cuba agreed upon by the parties. 0 North America East Asia Latin America Central and Central Asia South and Arab States Sub-Saharan Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics and Western and the and the Eastern West Asia Africa Europe Pacific Caribbean Europe Note: +1 refer to 2010 data; -1 refer to 2008 data; -2 refer to 2007 data Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics52 53
  • 43. CHAPTER 3 Enrolment and gender trends: primary educationFigure 3.7.2 The global population of out-of-school children isMost out-of-school children living in three regions heavily concentrated in three regions of the world:Distribution of out-of-school children, 2009 sub-Saharan Africa, South and West Asia, and East Asia and the Pacific. As seen in Figure 3.7.2, together these Central Asia 1% 2% 3% Central and Eastern Europe regions account for more than four out of five 4% North America and (81 percent) out-of-school primary age children. The Western Europe 9% Latin America and the problem of out-of-school children is particularly serious Caribbean 45% Arab States in sub-Saharan Africa. Figure 3.7.3 shows that nearly four East Asia and the Pacific out of ten (39 percent) of countries in this region have 12% South and West Asia rates above 20 percent, versus only 4 percent for the Sub-Saharan Africa remaining regions of the world. Within these regions, however, the patterns vary considerably. As seen in Figure 3.7.1, the percentages in 24% sub-Saharan Africa range from 63 percent in Eritrea to aSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics negligible percentage of 0.7 percent in Madagascar. Likewise, the proportions in Latin America and the Caribbean range from less than 1 percent in Cuba orFigure 3.7.3 How sub-Saharan Africa compares to world Belize to 20 percent in Jamaica.Country distribution according to the out-of-school rate for primary school-age Despite the substantial number of children who remainchildren, 2009 out of school, the proportion is actually declining even Less than 10% 10 – 20% Greater than 20% though the overall school-age populations continue to increase. Figure 3.7.4 shows that the rates of out-of- 4% school children were relatively stable between 1999 and 18% 2009 for most regions and declined dramatically in the 39% three areas where the problem had been most severe: 42% Remaining South and West Asia, Arab States, and sub-Saharan Sub-Saharan regions Africa of the world Africa. Progress was greatest in sub-Saharan Africa, 78% where, despite a number of countries with large out-of-school populations, the overall rate fell from 19% 41 to 23 percent.Source: UNESCO Institute for StatisticsFigure 3.7.4 Out-of-school rates declining, including in sub-Saharan AfricaRate of out-of-school children by region, 1999 and 2009 1999 2009 45 40 Rate of out-of-school children (%) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 North America East Asia Central Asia Central and Latin America South and Arab States Sub-Saharan and Western and the Eastern and the West Asia Africa Europe Pacific Europe CaribbeanSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics54
  • 44. As with the overall numbers of out-of-school children, Figure 3.7.6 shows the decline in proportions ofthe share of girls has been declining. Figure 3.7.5 out-of-school children by sex in sub-Saharan Africaindicates that globally the proportion of girls among and South and West Asia. The most dramatic gainsout-of-school children has gone down steadily, from were among girls in South and West Asia, where the60 percent in 1990 to 53 percent in 2009. The most percentages were halved, from 24 to 10 million children.dramatic decline has taken place in East Asia and thePacific, where the proportion was almost halved, from70 to 40 percent in 2007.Figure 3.7.5 Decline of percentage of female out-of-school children greatest in East Asia and the PacificPercentage of female out-of-school children of primary age, by region and worldwide, 1990–2009 1990 2000 2009 80 Percentage of female out-of-school children (%) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Arab States Central and Central Asia East Asia Latin America North America South and Sub-Saharan World Eastern and the and the and Western West Asia (*) Africa Europe (*) Pacific (*) Caribbean EuropeNote: (*) 1990 data for Central and Eastern Europe refers to the year 1993; 2009 data for East Asia and the Pacific refer to 2007; 2009 data for South and West Asia refer to 2008Source: UNESCO Institute for StatisticsFigure 3.7.6 Dramatic gains in girls’ school participation seen in South and West AsiaOut-of-school trends, 1990–2009 Sub-Saharan Africa, female Sub-Saharan Africa, male South and West Asia, female (*) South and West Asia, male (*) Remaining regions of the world 120 100 26.90 Out-of-school children (millions) 27.57 80 12.20 11.73 60 20.56 23.57 22.58 6.58 40 9.56 17.06 18.63 13.32 20 20.99 22.43 16.07 0 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2009Note: (*) 2009 data for South and West Asia refer to 2008Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics 55
  • 45. CHAPTER 3 Enrolment and gender trends: primary education8. Overage children more likely to drop out of schoolPrimary pupils may be overaged because they start making the transition to lower secondary education.school late or repeat grades. Being overage in school In general, boys are much more likely than girls to beaffects boys and girls for different reasons. As boys in overage for their grades. Figure 3.8.1 shows that boys arepoor and rural families become older, they face demands most likely to be overage in 86 of the countries that havefor their labour outside the home. Girls are often not achieved gender parity (defined as having a GPIwithdrawn to take on domestic tasks or prepare for early between 0.97 and 1.03), while girls are likely to be so inmarriage, which is prevalent in regions such as South only seven countries. Where boys are disproportionatelyand West Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. overage the margins tend to be higher than they arePupils who are two or three years older than the target when girls are overage. In Swaziland, for example,age for their grade are at greater risk of dropping out of 63 percent of boys are overage as opposed to onlyschool, of poor academic performance and of not 42 percent of girls.Figure 3.8.1 Boys more likely than girls to be overage at the end of primary schoolPercentage of overage boys and girls in the last grade of primary education, 2008 or latest year available 90 Mozambique Liberia 80 Boys who are overage as % of all boys in the last grade Lesotho Guinea-Bissau Boys are more likely to be overage than girls 70 Equatorial Guinea Madagascar Comoros Swaziland Chad Timor-Leste 60 Angola Malawi Ghana Lao PDR Botswana Burundi Uganda Central African Republic 50 Kenya Namibia Bhutan Zambia Nicaragua Marshall Islands Dominican Rep. Ethiopia 40 Togo Netherlands Antilles Suriname Morocco Eritrea Cambodia 30 Belize El Salvador Benin Colombia Yemen British Virgin Burkina Faso Islands Algeria Vanuatu 20 Djibouti Trinidad & Tobago Mali Bolivia Grenada Lebanon Girls are more likely to be overage than boys 10 Andorra Myanmar Isl. Rep. of Iran Bangladesh 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Girls who are overage as % of all girls in the last gradeNote: For this chart, overage pupils are those who are two years or more older than the target age for their gradeSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics9. Special challenges of poor children and those in rural areasThroughout the world enrolment in primary school tends children of primary age correlates with whether pupilsto be highly correlated with socioeconomic status and come from rich or poor families and whether they livegeographic location. Children in the lowest economic in urban or rural areas. The primary adjusted netquintiles are more likely to be out of school than peers attendance rate measures the percentage of primaryfrom higher quintiles and to cite lack of money as their school-age children who attend either primary orreason for not attending school. Likewise children from secondary school.rural areas are more likely to be out of school than those These data show some consistent patterns. Among bothfrom urban areas. males and females, children from families in the highestFigures 3.9.1 and 3.9.2 provide data for 15 sub-Saharan quintile of household wealth consistently participate inAfrican countries showing how school attendance of school at higher rates than children of the same sex from56
  • 46. Figure 3.9.1 Primary school attendance highest in wealthy householdsPrimary adjusted net attendance rate: Richest versus poorest wealth quintile Rich female Poor female Rich male Poor male National average 100 90 80 70 Primary ANAR (%) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Burkina Faso Niger Mali Ethiopia Mozambique Nigeria Dem. Rep. Congo Ghana Madagascar Tanzania Zambia Uganda Cameroon Malawi KenyaSource: Demographic and Health SurveyFigure 3.9.2 Attendance also higher in urban than in rural areasSchool attendance of primary school-age children: Urban versus rural areas Urban female Rural female Urban male Rural male National average 100 90 80 70 Primary ANAR (%) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Burkina Faso Niger Mali Ethiopia Mozambique Nigeria Dem. Rep. Congo Ghana Madagascar Tanzania Zambia Uganda Cameroon Malawi KenyaSource: Demographic and Health Surveyhouseholds in the lowest quintiles. Likewise, attendance the 95 percent for rich males. Likewise, urban males tendrates for children of both sexes who live in urban areas to participate at higher rates than urban females, but inare consistently higher than the comparable rates for Kenya the female rate of 95 percent is above the malechildren in rural areas. rate of 92 percent.The data show some differences in patterns among the In general, the largest disparities among the sexes occurtwo sexes. In most countries rich males enrol at higher in countries with the lowest attendance rates. Suchrates than rich females, but there are some exceptions. countries also tend to have the largest gaps betweenIn Cameroon, for example, the attendance rate of urban and rural and between rich and poor.97 percent among rich females is slightly higher than 57
  • 47. CHAPTER 4Enrolment and gender trends:secondary educationThe previous chapter documented the progress that Map 4.1.1 Secondary gross enrolment ratios varyhas been made toward the goals of enhancing access amongst different regionsto education and closing the gender gap. Although the Gross enrolment ratio in secondary educationgains have not been as rapid as those at the primarylevel, countries around the world are making steady Greenlandprogress toward increased access to secondary (Denmark) Faroe Islands (Den.)education. In secondary education, especially the upper Iceland Finland Norwaysecondary level, students typically have more academic United Sweden Estonia Russian Federation Netherlands Kingdom Denmark Latviaoptions than at the primary level. They can usually Canada Belgium Lithuania Poland Belaruschoose from a range of general and specialized study Ireland Germany 10 11 Ukraine Luxembourgprogrammes offering different levels of instruction Liechtenstein 7 9 8 13 12 Kazakhstan Mongoliaand leading to different career paths. Some of those Switzerland France Italy 6 5 4 Monaco 3 14 Georgia Uzbekistan 21 Kyrgyzstan Democratic People’sprogrammes focus on preparing students for tertiary United States Andorra Spain Marino San Armenia Azerbaijan Republic of Korea of America Portugal Greece Turkey Turkmenistan Tajikistaneducation, while others prepare them for direct entry Gibraltar (UK) Cyprus Syrian Islamic Republic Japan Tunisia Malta Lebanon Arab Rep. Republic Afghanistan of Koreainto the labour force. Bermuda (UK) Morocco Israel Iraq of Iran Jammu and Kashmir* China Bahamas Jordan Kuwait Turks and Dominican Republic Pakistan Nepal BhutanThe extent to which girls are disproportionately excluded Cayman Caicos Is. British Virgin Islands Algeria Libya Egypt Bahrain Qatar Islands (UK) Western Saudi Bangladeshfrom education is higher at the secondary level than in Mexico (UK) Anguilla (UK) St. Kitts and Nevis Sahara Arabia United Arab Emirates Hong Kong SAR, China Cuba Cape Indiaprimary education and increases further from the lower Antigua and Barbuda Verde Mauritania Oman Myanmar Lao Macao SAR, China Haiti Montserrat (UK) P.D.R.to the upper secondary levels. There may be various Belize Jamaica Dominica Mali Niger Guatemala Honduras Puerto Rico Sudan Eritrea Yemenreasons for this: Emotional and physical dangers may (USA) St. Lucia Gambia Senegal Chad Thailand El Salvador Aruba Barbados Burkina Cambodia Philippinesincrease as girls grow into young women and face sexual Nicaragua (Neth.) St. Vincent & Grenadines Guinea- Faso Djibouti Viet Nam Marshall Grenada Bissau Guinea Nigeria Islandsharassment and assault and social demands to conform Costa Rica Panama Venezuela Trinidad and Tobago Sierra Leone Côte Ghana Central South Ethiopia Sri Palau Lanka Bruneito traditional gender roles. Lack of bathrooms and other Guyana Liberia d’Ivoire African Sudan Cameroon Republic Somalia Darussalam Fed. States of Colombia Micronesiasanitary facilities can be a problem, and the daily journey Suriname Togo Benin Uganda Maldives Malaysia Congoto school can be unsafe for girls and young women in Ecuador Equatorial Guinea Gabon Democratic Rwanda Kenya Singapore São Tomé and Príncipe Indonesiacommunities around the world. Traditional conceptions Republic Burundi of the Seychelles Papua Newof appropriate roles for both women and men are often Brazil Congo United Republic Guinea of Tanzaniapronounced in the technical and vocational aspects of Timor-Leste Peru Comorossecondary education. Angola Zambia Malawi Bolivia Mozambique Zimbabwe Mauritius1. Gross enrolment ratios rising Paraguay Namibia Botswana Madagascarat secondary level Chile Australia see below-left Swaziland SouthPatterns of gross secondary enrolment ratios around Less than 80% Africa Lesotho Uruguaythe world reveal a polarized picture. Among the 187 [80% to 90%[ Argentinacountries with data, shown in Map 4.1.1, more than four [90% to 98%[ Kiribati New Zealandout of ten (43 percent) countries have GERs of less than Greater than 98% Nauru80 percent, while nearly a quarter (27 percent) have rates No data Solomonof 98 percent or more – which approaches universal Islands Tokelau (NZ)secondary enrolment. Tuvalu Samoa 1. The FYR of Macedonia 8. Hungary Final boundary between the Republic of Sudan and the Republic of South Sudan has not yet been determined. Vanuatu 2. Albania 9. Austria * Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control 3. Montenegro 10. Czech Republic Fiji Niue (NZ) in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. 4. Serbia 11. Slovakia The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been Cook Islands 5. Bosnia and Herzegovina 12. Republic of Moldova agreed upon by the parties. Tonga (NZ) 6. Croatia 13. Romania Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics 7. Slovenia 14. Bulgaria58 59
  • 48. CHAPTER 4 Enrolment and gender trends: secondary educationFigure 4.1.1 Upward trend in secondary GER seen in all regions and for both sexesRegional gross enrolment ratio in secondary education by region and worldwide, 1970–2009 1970 2009 Male Female 120 100 Gross enrolment ratio (%) 80 60 40 20 0 Sub-Saharan South and Arab States Latin America East Asia and North America Central and Central World Africa West Asia and the the Pacific and Western Eastern Asia (*) Caribbean Europe Europe (*)Note: (*) 1970 data for Central and Eastern Europe refer to 1971. Data for Central Asia goes back to 1993Source: UNESCO Institute for StatisticsThere has been a general upward trend in secondary level the highest of all regions for both males and femalesGERs in all regions for both males and females. Between in 1971.1970 and 2009 the global average GER for males rose With GERs above 100 percent for both males andfrom 48 to 69 percent, while that for females increased females, North America and Western Europe has thefrom 39 to 67 percent. highest secondary level gross enrolment ratio. The lowestAs seen in Figure 4.1.1, the largest gains took place in ratios are found in sub-Saharan Africa, which was at theLatin America and the Caribbean, where the GER for bottom of the table in 1970 and is the only region thatfemales soared from 27 to 93 percent and that for males still has GERs below 45 percent for both sexes.rose from 28 to 86 percent. Females made impressive Males have higher GERs than females in five regions,progress in the Arab States, East Asia and the Pacific, while females have the edge in Latin America and theand South and West Asia. Males also made substantial Caribbean and in East Asia and the Pacific. The GERs areprogress in the Arab States, where their GER rose from almost the same for both sexes in North America and30 to 71 percent. The smallest gains were registered in Western Europe.Central and Eastern Europe, where the GER was already60
  • 49. Figure 4.1.2 Secondary enrolment rising faster than school-age population in most regionsPercentage change in enrolment and population in secondary education by gender, 1999–2009 Male enrolment Female enrolment Population 100 80 60 Growth rate (%) 40 20 0 -20 -40 Central and East Asia and Central Asia Latin America North America South and Arab States Sub-Saharan Eastern Europe the Pacific and the and Western West Asia Africa Caribbean EuropeSource: UNESCO Institute for StatisticsAs indicated in Figure 4.1.2, the number of secondary a population loss was Central and Eastern Europe, whereage children either held steady or increased between there was a parallel decline in secondary enrolment. The1999 and 2009 in almost all regions of the world. surge in secondary enrolment was particularly strongNevertheless, in almost all of these regions secondary among females in South and West Asia and among bothenrolment levels also rose and did so at even faster rates sexes in sub-Saharan Africa.than the population growth. The only region to registerFigure 4.1.3 Patterns of gross enrolment ratio by gender vary among countriesGross enrolment ratio for secondary education for selected countries, 2009 or latest year available Male Female 140 Gross enrolment ratio (%) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Ireland Dominica Brazil-1 Qatar Libya-3 Costa Rica Mongolia Tunisia Uruguay-1 Argentina-1 Kiribati-1 Lebanon Philippines-1 Venezuela Suriname-1 Bermuda+1 Saudi Arabia Tajikistan-1 Turkey-1 Yemen-4 Morocco-2 Iraq-2 Afghanistan Togo-2 Mali+1 Dem. Rep. Congo Guinea Benin-4 Eritrea ChadNote: +1 refer to 2010 data; -1 refer to 2008 data; -2 refer to 2007 data; -3 refer to 2006 data; -4 refer to 2005 dataSource: UNESCO Institute for StatisticsFigure 4.1.3 presents the gross enrolment ratios in an edge, the differences are not all that large. Forsecondary education for 30 selected countries. The GERs countries where males have higher GERs than females,are higher for males than for females in half of these the gap tends to be greater, such as for Afghanistan, Togocountries. A striking feature of these data is that, with the and Yemen.exception of Qatar, for the countries where females have 61
  • 50. CHAPTER 4 Enrolment and gender trends: secondary educationThe net enrolment rate (NER) describes the proportion Map 4.1.2 Net enrolment rates in lower secondaryof children in the appropriate age group for a particular education vary widelylevel of education who are actually enrolled in school. Net enrolment rate in lower secondary educationMap 4.1.2 shows how the NERs for lower secondaryeducation vary in countries around the world. Enrolment Greenlandat the secondary level is important because it is widely (Denmark) Faroe Islands (Den.)regarded as an upward extension of primary level Iceland Finland Norwayschooling, where universal enrolment is an important United Sweden Estonia Russian Federation Netherlands Kingdom Denmark Latviaobjective. Canada Belgium Lithuania Ireland Poland Belarus GermanyRecent data show a wide distribution of net enrolment Luxembourg 10 11 9 8 Ukraine Kazakhstan Liechtenstein 12patterns at the lower secondary level. About one in five Switzerland 7 France Italy 6 5 4 13 Mongoliacountries register NERs of less than 75 percent, with a Monaco San 3 2 1 14 Georgia Armenia Azerbaijan Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Democratic People’s United States Andorra Spain Marino Republic of Koreacomparable proportion in the range of 98 to 100 percent. of America Portugal Greece Turkey Turkmenistan Tajikistan Republic JapanOne third of countries (30 percent) have NERs between Bermuda (UK) Gibraltar (UK) Tunisia Cyprus Syrian Islamic Malta Lebanon Arab Rep. Republic Afghanistan Jammu and Kashmir* China of Korea Morocco85 and 95 percent. Bahamas Israel Jordan Iraq of Iran Kuwait Turks andDominican Republic Pakistan Nepal BhutanSimilar disparities are seen at the regional level, as can be Cayman Caicos Is. British Virgin Islands Algeria Libya Egypt Bahrain (UK) Western Saudi Qatarseen in Figure 4.1.4 offering data on each of the eight Islands (UK) Anguilla (UK) Sahara Arabia United Arab Emirates Bangladesh Mexico Cuba St. Kitts and Nevis Cape India Hong Kong SAR, Chinaregions of the world for the lower secondary level, as well Antigua and Barbuda Verde Oman Myanmar Lao Macao SAR, China Haiti Mauritaniaas the countries that have the highest and lowest NERs. Belize Jamaica Montserrat (UK) Dominica Mali Niger P.D.R. Puerto Rico Sudan Eritrea YemenThe greatest variations are found in sub-Saharan Africa, Guatemala Honduras (USA) St. Lucia Gambia Senegal Chad Thailand El Salvador Aruba Barbados Burkina Cambodiawhere the NERs range from 22 percent in Niger to nearly Nicaragua (Neth.) St. Vincent & Grenadines Guinea- Faso Djibouti Viet Nam Philippines Marshall Bissau Guinea Nigeria100 percent in Seychelles. Costa Rica Panama Venezuela Grenada Trinidad and Tobago Sierra Leone Ghana Central South Ethiopia Sri Palau Islands Côte Brunei Guyana d’Ivoire African Sudan Lanka Liberia Cameroon Republic Somalia Darussalam Fed. States of Colombia Micronesia Suriname Togo Benin Uganda Maldives Malaysia Equatorial Guinea Congo Kenya Ecuador Gabon Democratic Rwanda Singapore São Tomé and Príncipe Indonesia Republic Burundi of the Seychelles Papua New Congo United Republic Guinea Brazil of Tanzania Timor-Leste Peru ComorosFigure 4.1.4 NERs range widely within regions Angola Zambia MalawiNet enrolment rate in lower secondary education for selected countries and regions Bolivia Mozambique Maximum Regional average Minimum Zimbabwe Mauritius Namibia Madagascar Paraguay Botswana Seychelles Sri Lanka-3 Kuwait Japan Hungary Brazil Kazakhstan+1 Finland Australia see below 100 Chile Swaziland South Lesotho 90 Africa Uruguay Bulgaria Argentina Georgia-2 New 80 Andorra Zealand 70 Guatemala-1 Net enrolment rate (%) Myanmar 60 1. The FYR of Macedonia 8. Hungary 50 Less than 75% 2. Albania 9. Austria Kiribati [75% to 85%[ 3. Montenegro 10. Czech Republic Nauru 40 [85% to 95%[ 4. Serbia 11. Slovakia Pakistan Djibouti-1 5. Bosnia and Herzegovina 12. Republic of Moldova Solomon [95% to 98%[ 6. Croatia 13. Romania Islands Tokelau (NZ) 30 7. Slovenia 14. Bulgaria Tuvalu Greater than 98% Samoa No data 20 Final boundary between the Republic of Sudan and the Vanuatu Niger-1 Republic of South Sudan has not yet been determined. Fiji Niue (NZ) 10 * Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control Cook Islands in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. (NZ) The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been Tonga 0 agreed upon by the parties. Sub-Saharan South and Arab East Asia Central and Latin Central North Africa West Asia-2 States and the Eastern America Asia America Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics Pacific-1 Europe and the and Western Caribbean EuropeNote: +1 refer to 2010 data; -1 refer to 2008 data; -2 refer to 2007 data; -3 refer to 2006 dataSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics62 63
  • 51. CHAPTER 4 Enrolment and gender trends: secondary education2. Upward trends in secondary level Map 4.2.1 Gender parity at secondary level reached in more than one-third of countriesgender parity Gender parity index in secondary educationAs at the primary level, there has been a general upwardtrend in the percentage of countries reaching gender Greenland (Denmark)parity in secondary education, although the pattern has Faroe Islands (Den.) Icelandnot been steady across the various regions. Norway Finland Russian Federation United Sweden EstoniaAs illustrated in Map 4.2.1, gender parity has been Canada Netherlands Kingdom Denmark Latvia Lithuania Belgiumachieved at the overall secondary level (lower and upper Ireland Germany Poland Belarus 10 11 Ukrainecombined) in slightly more than one-third of countries Luxembourg Liechtenstein 9 8 12 Kazakhstan 7 Mongolia(39 percent). The remaining countries are almost equally Switzerland France Italy 6 5 4 13 Monaco 3 14 Georgia Uzbekistandivided between those where males are favoured United States Andorra Spain Marino San 2 1 Armenia Azerbaijan Kyrgyzstan Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Turkmenistan Tajikistan(31 percent) and those where females have the edge of America Portugal Greece Turkey Republic Gibraltar (UK) Cyprus Syrian Islamic Japan(30 percent). Table 4.2.1 presents a list of selected Bermuda (UK) Tunisia Malta Lebanon Arab Rep. Republic Afghanistan Jammu and Kashmir* China of Korea Morocco Israel Iraq of Irancountries which have the lowest and highest values Bahamas Jordan Kuwaitof the gender parity index in secondary education. Turks and Caicos Is. Dominican Republic Algeria Libya Bahrain Pakistan Nepal Bhutan Cayman British Virgin Islands Egypt Qatar Islands (UK) Western Saudi Bangladesh Anguilla (UK) Sahara Arabia Mexico (UK) St. Kitts and Nevis United Arab Emirates Cuba Cape India Hong Kong SAR, China Antigua and Barbuda Verde Myanmar Lao Macao SAR, China Haiti Mauritania Oman Montserrat (UK) P.D.R. Belize Jamaica Dominica Mali Niger Guatemala Honduras Puerto Rico Senegal Chad Sudan Eritrea Yemen Thailand (USA) St. Lucia El Salvador Aruba Barbados Gambia Burkina Cambodia Faso Djibouti Philippines Nicaragua (Neth.) St. Vincent & Grenadines Guinea- Viet Nam Marshall Costa Rica Grenada Bissau Guinea Nigeria Islands Venezuela Ghana Sri Palau Panama Trinidad and Tobago Sierra Leone Côte Central South Ethiopia Brunei Guyana d’Ivoire African Sudan Lanka Liberia Cameroon Republic Somalia Darussalam Fed. States of Colombia Micronesia Suriname Togo Benin Uganda Maldives Malaysia Equatorial Guinea Congo Kenya Ecuador Gabon Democratic Rwanda Singapore São Tomé and Príncipe Indonesia Republic Burundi of the Seychelles Papua New Congo United Republic Guinea Brazil of Tanzania Timor-Leste Peru Comoros Angola Zambia Malawi Bolivia Mozambique Zimbabwe Mauritius Namibia Madagascar Paraguay Botswana Australia see below Chile Swaziland South Lesotho Africa Uruguay ArgentinaTable 4.2.1 Some countries favour males, some females, at secondary level New ZealandGender parity index for selected countries, 2009 or latest year availableMales favoured Females favouredCountry GPI Country GPI 1. The FYR of Macedonia 8. Hungary Males favoured 2. Albania 9. Austria KiribatiChad 0.41 Nicaragua -1 1.12 Parity 3. Montenegro 10. Czech Republic NauruSomalia -2 0.46 Namibia -1 1.14 Females favoured 4. Serbia 11. Slovakia 5. Bosnia and Herzegovina 12. Republic of Moldova SolomonAfghanistan 0.49 Libya -3 1.15 No data 6. Croatia 13. Romania Islands Tokelau (NZ)Togo -2 0.53 Bermuda +1 1.15 7. Slovenia 14. Bulgaria Tuvalu SamoaCentral African Republic 0.56 Cape Verde 1.15 Final boundary between the Republic of Sudan and the VanuatuDemocratic Republic of the Congo 0.56 Nauru -1 1.16 Republic of South Sudan has not yet been determined. Fiji Niue (NZ) -1Guinea 0.59 Honduras 1.21 * Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control Cook Islands in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. (NZ)Mali 0.65 Suriname -1 1.22 The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been Tonga agreed upon by the parties.Niger +1 0.66 Lesotho 1.28 Source: UNESCO Institute for StatisticsSierra Leone -2 0.66 Qatar 1.32Note: GPI in tables is adjusted +1 refer to 2010 data; -1 refer to 2008 data; -2 refer to 2007 data; -3 refer to 2006 dataSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics64 65
  • 52. CHAPTER 4 Enrolment and gender trends: secondary education3. Gross enrolment ratios different Map 4.3.1 Enrolments highest at lower secondary levelat lower and higher secondary levels Gross enrolment ratio in lower secondary educationGross enrolment ratios are much higher at the lower Greenland (Denmark)secondary level, which is commonly viewed as an Faroe Islands (Den.) Icelandextension of compulsory primary schooling, than they Norway Finlandare at the upper secondary level. Maps 4.3.1 and 4.3.2 Netherlands United Kingdom Denmark Sweden Estonia Latvia Russian Federation Canadadocument how countries around the world are Belgium Lithuania Poland Belarus Irelanddistributed according to their GERs at the lower and Luxembourg Germany 10 11 Ukraine 9 8 Kazakhstanupper secondary levels respectively. Liechtenstein 7 13 12 Mongolia Switzerland France Italy 6 5 4 Monaco 3 14 Georgia Uzbekistan 21 Kyrgyzstan Democratic People’s United States Andorra Spain Marino San Armenia Azerbaijan Republic of Korea of America Portugal Greece Turkey Turkmenistan Tajikistan Gibraltar (UK) Cyprus Syrian Republic Japan Tunisia Islamic of Korea Bermuda (UK) Malta Lebanon Arab Rep. Republic Afghanistan Jammu and Kashmir* China Morocco Israel Iraq of Iran Bahamas Jordan Kuwait Turks and Dominican Republic Pakistan Nepal Bhutan Algeria Libya Bahrain Cayman Caicos Is. British Virgin Islands Egypt Islands (UK) Western Saudi Qatar Anguilla (UK) Bangladesh (UK) Sahara Arabia United Arab Emirates Mexico Cuba St. Kitts and Nevis Cape India Hong Kong SAR, China Antigua and Barbuda Verde Myanmar Lao Macao SAR, China Haiti Mauritania Oman Montserrat (UK) P.D.R. Belize Jamaica Dominica Mali Niger Guatemala Honduras Puerto Rico Senegal Chad Sudan Eritrea Yemen Thailand (USA) St. Lucia El Salvador Aruba Barbados Gambia Burkina Cambodia Faso Djibouti Philippines Nicaragua (Neth.) St. Vincent & Grenadines Guinea- Viet Nam Marshall Costa Rica Grenada Bissau Guinea Nigeria Islands Venezuela Ghana Sri Palau Panama Trinidad and Tobago Sierra Leone Côte Central South Ethiopia Brunei Guyana d’Ivoire African Sudan Lanka Liberia Cameroon Republic Somalia Darussalam Fed. States of Colombia Micronesia Suriname Togo Benin Uganda Maldives Malaysia Equatorial Guinea Congo Kenya Ecuador Gabon Democratic Rwanda Singapore São Tomé and Príncipe Indonesia Republic Burundi of the Seychelles Papua New Congo United Republic Guinea Brazil of Tanzania Timor-Leste Peru Comoros Angola Zambia Malawi Bolivia Mozambique Zimbabwe Mauritius Namibia Madagascar Paraguay BotswanaBox 4.1 The adjusted gender parity index Chile Australia see below Swaziland One of the difficulties in presenting the GPI is that the South Lesotho Africa scale of disadvantage for girls or boys is not represented Uruguay symmetrically around 1. For example, a GPI of 0.5 indicates Argentina New that the female value of the indicator being reviewed is half Zealand the male value whilst a GPI of 1.5 (also 0.5 units away from parity) indicates the male value of the indicator is two-thirds of the female value (not half ). Consequently, when boys are underrepresented in a given indicator, it appears more drastic than when girls are disadvantaged. Less than 80% 1. The FYR of Macedonia 8. Hungary 2. Albania 9. Austria Kiribati Thus, for the analysis and figures presented in chapters 4 and [80% to 90%[ 3. Montenegro 10. Czech Republic Nauru 5, the GPI is adjusted to present disadvantages symmetrically [90% to 98%[ 4. Serbia 11. Slovakia for both genders. The adjusted GPI is derived from the 5. Bosnia and Herzegovina 12. Republic of Moldova Solomon Greater than 98% 6. Croatia 13. Romania Islands Tokelau (NZ) standard GPI, yet values greater than 1 are slightly different as No data 7. Slovenia 14. Bulgaria Tuvalu the adjusted GPI presents disparities on a comparable scale. Samoa The adjusted GPI uses the following methodology: when the Final boundary between the Republic of Sudan and the Vanuatu Republic of South Sudan has not yet been determined. ratio of female to male values of a given indicator is less than Fiji Niue (NZ)