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  3. 3. Land Reform • Refers to all sets of activities and measures that may or should be taken to improve or correct the defects or problems in the relations among men with respect to their rights to the land they till • Technically defined as an integrated set of measures designed to eliminate obstacles to economic and social development arising out of defects in the agrarian structure
  4. 4. Agrarian Reform • Defined as the rectification of the whole system of agriculture • The redistribution of lands, regardless of crops or fruits produced, to farmers and regular farmworkers who are landless • It comprises not only land reform but also the reform and development of complimentary institutional frameworks, rural education, and social welfare institutions
  5. 5. Agrarian Reform Measures Agrarian reform would, therefore, also cover the following: 1. Public health programs 2. Family planning 3. Education and training of farmers 4. Reorganization of land reforms agencies 5. Application of labor laws to agricultural workers 6. Construction of infrastructure facilities such as feeder roads, irrigation systems, etc., and the establishment of rural electrification 7. Organization of various types of voluntary associations 8. Providing employment opportunities to underemployed or surplus rural labor; and 9. Other services of a community development nature
  7. 7. Meaning of Agrarian Structure • Agrarian structure -a complex set of relationships within the agricultural sector tenure structure production structure structure of support services • Reforms in the agrarian structure -seek to remedy not only the defect in the distribution and use of land
  8. 8. Land Tenure Structure • One or more systems regulating the rights to a man’s ownership, control, and usage of land • A system which defines a person’s legal right and ownership over land, and the duties accompanying such right.
  9. 9. Production Structure • Includes the nature, type, and mode of operations to make land productive • Actual process of production producing the output • These activities take into consideration the: – Size – Location – Shape of production unit
  10. 10. Structure of Support Services • Involve credit, marketing, the supply of agricultural requisites, processing, storage • Immediate bearing on reforming of tenure and production structures • Insure the success of the farmer who has acquired a new tenure status as lessee • Prepare the lessee for land ownership • Assist the owner-cultivator to use the land more productively and increase income
  11. 11. Philippine Agrarian Structure • One of the main defects of our country agrarian structure was the high proportion of share tenancy in our country. • Latifundia or cacique system that the Filipinos had for decades made the life of Filipino tenants miserable
  12. 12. Latifundia or Cacique system 1. Inquilinato system 2. Kasama system 3. Takipan system 4. Talindua 5. Terciahan
  14. 14. Vital Position of Agriculture in National Economy • Agriculture forms the predominant industry in the Philippines – large portion of total working population is employed in agriculture. – has high export value and makes up an essential part of a countries Gross Domestic Product (GDP). • Agriculture can thus claim priority as the most important component of the economic structure.
  15. 15. • An effective agrarian reform is a precursor to successful economy • Agrarian reform has several effects to economy in terms of 1. Agricultural productivity 2. Poverty Reduction 3. Income and Living standards 4. Employment 5. Investment and capital formation 6. Impartiality on rural population Agrarian Reform & the economy
  17. 17. RA 6657 • Otherwise known as the “Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law (CARL)” • The act instituted the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program to promote social justice and industrialization, providing the mechanism for its implementation, and for other purposes
  18. 18. Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program • A response to the people’s clamor and expectations of a more effective land reform program that would supposedly correct the many flaws that plagued the previous land reform programs • the redistribution of public and private agricultural lands to farmers and farmworkers who are landless, irrespective of tenurial arrangement • CARP’s vision is to have an equitable land ownership with empowered agrarian reform beneficiaries who can effectively manage their economic and social development to have a better quality of life
  19. 19. Major features of RA 6657 • It provides for the coverage of all agricultural lands regardless of crops produced or tenurial status of the tiller • It recognizes as beneficiaries of the program all workers in the land given that they are landless and willing to till the land • It provides fro the delivery of support services to program beneficiaries • It provide for arrangements that ensure the tenurial security of farmers and farmworkers such as the leasehold arrangement, stock distribution option and production and profit sharing • It creates an adjudication body that will resolve agrarian disputes
  20. 20. Coverage of CARP 1. Government owned lands devoted to or suitable for agriculture; 2. Alienable and disposable lands of the public domain devoted to or suitable for agriculture; 3. Public domain lands in excess of the specific limits as determined by Congress; and 4. Private lands devoted to or suitable for agriculture regardless of the agricultural products raised or that can be raised thereon.
  21. 21. Compensation • Determination of Just Compensation • Valuation and Mode of Compensation 1. Cash payment under the following terms and conditions • For lands above 50 hectares – 25% cash • Fro lands above 24 -50 hectares – 30% cash 2. Shares of stock in government-owned or controlled corporations 3. Tax credits which can be used against any tax liability 4. Land Bank of the Philippines bonds
  22. 22. Sources of funds 1. Proceeds of the sales of Assets Privatization Trust 2. All receipts from assets recovered and from sales of ill-gotten wealth recovered through the Presidential Commission on Good Government 3. Proceeds of the disposition of the properties of the government in foreign countries 4. Portion of amounts accruing to the Philippines from all sources of official foreign aid grants and concessional enterprises, operated by multinational corporations and associations, shall be programmed for acquisition and distribution
  23. 23. 1. Land distribution 2. Leasehold Operation 3. Production and profit sharing 4. Stock distribution option 5. Commercial farm deferment Land Tenure Improvement Program Beneficiary Development 1. Credit Facilities 2. Technology 3. Infrastructures 4. Cooperatives 1. Agrarian Legal Assistance 2. Adjudication of Cases Agrarian Justice Delivery C O M P O N E N T S
  24. 24. Land Redistribution • Qualified Beneficiaries a. Agricultural lessees and share tenants b. Regular farmworkers c. Seasonal farmworkers d. Other farmworkers e. Actual tillers or occupants of public lands f. Collectives or cooperatives of the above beneficiaries g. Others directly working on the land • Distribution Limits • Award to Beneficiaries • Payment by Beneficiaries • Transferability of Awarded Lands • Financial Intermediary for the CARP
  25. 25. Support Services 1. Irrigation facilities 2. Infrastructure development and public works projects 3. Government subsidies for the use of irrigation 4. Price support and guarantee for all agricultral produce 5. Extending necessary credits to farmers and land-owners 6. Promoting, developing and extending
  26. 26. Support Programs • Land Bank of the Philippines • DPWH • National Irrigation Administration
  27. 27. HISTORY OF AGRARIAN REFORM Agrarian reform is a 100-year history of unfinished reforms after the United States took over the country from the Spaniards.
  28. 28. • There were no owner-cultivators (everyone can access the fruits of the soil), only communal land owned by the barangay which consisted of a datu, freemen, serfs and slaves. • Rice was the medium of exchange Pre-Spanish Period
  29. 29. • The Spaniards replaced this traditional system of land ownership, similar to existing systems among several indigenous communities today and distributed the land (haciendas) to the Spanish military and the clergy or established encomiendas (administrative districts). Spanish Period
  30. 30. Manuel Roxas (1946-1948) What happened to the estates took over by the HUKBALAHAP during the Japanese occupation? • These estates were confiscated and returned to its owners. Because of this, some of the farmer-tenants preferred to join the HUK movement rather than go back and serve their landlords under the same conditions prior to World War II.
  31. 31. Manuel Roxas (1946-1948) What were the key accomplishments during the Roxas administration? • Republic Act No. 34 was enacted to establish a 70-30 sharing arrangement between tenant and landlord. The 70% of the harvest will go to the person who shouldered the expenses for planting, harvesting and for the work animals. • It also reduced the interest of landowners’ loans to tenants at not more than 6%. • President Roxas also negotiated for the purchase of 8,000 hectares of lands in Batangas owned by the Ayala-Zobel family. These were sold to landless farmers.
  32. 32. Elpidio Quirino (1948-1953) What was the major program of the Quirino administration regarding agrarian reform? • Through Executive Order No. 355, the Land Settlement Development Corporation (LASEDECO) was established to accelerate and expand the peasant resettlement A ii ii Bureau of Agrarian Reform Information and Education program of the government. However, due to limited post-war resources, the program was not successful.
  33. 33. Ramon Magsaysay (1953-1957) Did President Magsaysay pursue land reform during his term? • Yes, President Magsaysay realized the importance of pursuing a more honest-to-goodness land reform program. He convinced the elite controlled congress to pass several legislation to improve the land reform situation, to wit:
  34. 34. Ramon Magsaysay (1953-1957) • R.A. No. 1400 (1955) : Land Reform Act or known as “Land to the Landless” Program which sought improvement in land tenure and guaranteed the expropriation of all tenanted landed estates. • R.A. No. 1266 (1955) Expropriation of Hacienda del Rosario, situated at Valdefuente, Cabanatuan City.
  35. 35. Ramon Magsaysay (1953-1957) • R.A. No. 1199 (1954): Agricultural Tenancy Act, basically governed the relationship between landholders and tenant- farmers. This law helped protect the tenurial rights of tenant tillers and enforced fair tenancy practices. • R.A. No. 1160 (1954): Free distribution of Resettlement and Rehabilitation and Agricultural land and an Act establishing the National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA).
  36. 36. Ramon Magsaysay (1953-1957) How did he implement the Agricultural Tenancy Act? • He established the Court of Agricultural Relations in 1955 to improve tenancy security, fix the land rentals on tenanted farms, and to resolve the many land disputes filed by the landowners and peasant organizations. • He also created the Agricultural Tenancy Commission to administer problems arising from tenancy. Through this Commission 28,000 hectares were issued to settlers.
  37. 37. Ramon Magsaysay (1953-1957) What were this administration’s key support programs on AR? • Creation of the Agricultural Credit and Cooperative Financing Administration (ACCFA), a government agency formed to provide warehouse facilities and assist farmers market their products. • Organization of Farmers Cooperatives and Marketing Associations (FACOMAs).
  38. 38. Ramon Magsaysay (1953-1957) • Resettlement program pursued through National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA) or RA No. 1160 of 1954, established to pursue the government’s resettlement program and to accelerate free distribution of agricultural lands to landless tenants and farmers. It particularly aimed to convince members of the HUKBALAHAP movement to return to a peaceful life by giving them homelots and farmlands settlement. • Establishment of an Agricultural and Industrial Bank to provide easier terms in applying for homestead and other farmland.
  39. 39. Ramon Magsaysay (1953-1957) Did these interventions improve the land ownership and tenancy situation? • Out of the targeted 300 haciendas for distribution, only 41 were distributed after its 7 years of implementation. This was due to lack of funds and inadequate support services provided for these programs. • Landlords continued to be uncooperative and critical to the program; and landownership and tenancy problems continued.
  40. 40. Carlos P. Garcia (1957-1961) Was there legislation on land reform under this administration? • There was no legislation passed in his term but he continued to implement the land reform programs of President Magsaysay.
  41. 41. Diosdasdo Macapagal (1961-1965) Why was President Diosdado Macapagal considered the “Father of Agrarian Reform”? • It was during his term that the Agricultural Land Reform Code or RA No. 3844 was enacted on August 8, 1963. This was considered to be the most comprehensive piece of agrarian reform legislation ever enacted in the country.
  42. 42. Diosdasdo Macapagal (1961-1965) Why was RA No. 3844 considered the most comprehensive piece of legislation ever enacted in the Philippines? • This Act abolished share tenancy in the Philippines. It prescribed a program converting the tenant farmers to lessees and eventually into owner-cultivators; • It aimed to free tenants from the bondage of tenancy and gave hope to poor Filipino farmers • It emphasized owner-cultivatorship and farmer independence, equity, productivity improvement and the public distribution of land.
  43. 43. Diosdasdo Macapagal (1961-1965) What happened to the implementation of this Act? • The landed Congress did not provide effort to come up with a separate bill to provide funding for its implementation. A ii ii Bureau of Agrarian Reform Information and Education. However, this act was piloted in the provinces of Pangasinan, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija,Pampanga, Tarlac, Occidental Mindoro, Camarines Sur and Misamis Oriental. • It acquired a total of 18,247.06 hectares or 99.29% out of the total scope of 18,377.05 hectares. The program benefited 7,466 Farmer Beneficiaries.
  44. 44. Ferdinand E. Marcos (1965-1986) What was the heart of President Marcos’ Agrarian Reform Program? • Presidential Decree No. 27 became the heart of the Marcos reform. It provided for tenanted lands devoted to rice and corn to pass ownership to the tenants, and lowered the ceilings for landholdings to 7 hectares. The law stipulated that share tenants who worked from landholding of over 7 hectares could purchase the land they tilled, while share tenants on land less than 7 hectares would become leaseholders.
  45. 45. Ferdinand E. Marcos (1965-1986) How can this Agrarian Reform Program help the farmers? • His agrarian reform program was designed to uplift the farmers from poverty and ignorance and to make them useful, dignified, responsible and progressive partners in nation- building. His AR program was a package of service extended to farmers in the form of credit support, infrastructure, farm extension, legal assistance, electrification and development of rural institutions.
  46. 46. Ferdinand E. Marcos (1965-1986) What were the major components of President Marcos’ Agrarian Reform Program? 1. Land Tenure Program 2. Institutional Development 3. Physical Development 4. Agricultural Development ; and 5. Human Resources
  47. 47. Ferdinand E. Marcos (1965-1986) Why was President Marcos’ agrarian reform program labeled as “revolutionary” by some sectors?? • It was considered revolutionary for two reasons: 1. It was pursued under Martial Law and intended to make quick changes without going through legislative or technical processes; 2. It was the only law in the Philippines ever done in handwriting.
  48. 48. Ferdinand E. Marcos (1965-1986) What were some of the limitations of his agrarian reform program? • Scope of program was limited only to tenanted, privately- owned rice and corn lands; • Monopoly of businessmen in the coconut and sugar industries. Foreign and local firms were allowed to use large tracks of land for their business;
  49. 49. Ferdinand E. Marcos (1965-1986) • Declaration of Martial Law leading to the arrest of several farmer leaders without due process of law due to suspension of the Writ of Habias Corpus. • Implementation of the programs were not included in the provision of PD 27. • Excluding about 3.5 Million landless and tenant farmers under plantation crops.
  50. 50. Corazon C. Aquino ( 1986-1982) Why did Pres. Aquino put AR as cornerstone of her administration? • She believed that “The stewardship of the land that the landlords were said to have neglected shall now pass, as the law is implemented, to the tillers. That stewardship should weigh as heavily on the many as it did on the few. The same bottom line applies to them: the wisest use of the land for the greatest generation of wealth for themselves and for the entire nation”. (Speech during the signing of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program Bill, June 10, 1988)
  51. 51. Corazon C. Aquino ( 1986-1982) What AR legislations and issuances passed under her administration? • Proclamation 131, instituted the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP) as a major program of the government. It provided for a special fund known as the Agrarian Reform Fund (ARF) in the amount of 50 Billion pesos to cover the estimated cost of the program for the period 1987-1997.
  52. 52. Corazon C. Aquino ( 1986-1982) • EO 129-A, reorganized the Department of Agrarian Reform and expanded in power and operations. (The Record and Legacy of the Aquino Administration in AR: Executive Summary, Planning Service, DAR) EO 228, declared full ownership of the land to qualified farmer-beneficiaries covered by PD 27. It also regulated (fixed) the value of remaining rice and corn lands for coverage provided for the manner of payment by the farmer-beneficiaries and the mode of compensation (form of payment) to the landowners.
  53. 53. Corazon C. Aquino ( 1986-1982) • EO 229, provided the administrative processes for land registration or LISTASAKA program, acquisition of private land and compensation procedures for landowners. It specified the structure and functions of units that will coordinate and supervise the implementation of the program. • RA 6657 or Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law (CARL), an act instituting a comprehensive agrarian reform program to promote social justice and Industrialization, providing the mechanism for its implementation and for other purposes.
  54. 54. Corazon C. Aquino ( 1986-1982) Were there measures to speed up CARP implementation? • To strengthen CARP and fast track its implementation, President Aquino issued the following Executive Orders (EO): • E.O. No. 405 , gave the Land Bank of the Philippines the primary responsibility for the land valuation function in order for DAR to concentrate its efforts on the identification of landholdings and beneficiaries, the distribution of acquired lands, and the other sub-components of the program.
  55. 55. Corazon C. Aquino ( 1986-1982) • E.O. No. 406, emphasized that CARP is central to the government’s efforts to hasten countryside agro-industrial development and directed the implementing agencies to align their respective programs and projects with CARP. • This created CARP implementing teams from the national to the municipal levels and gave priority to 24 strategic operating provinces where the bulk of CARP workload lies.
  56. 56. Corazon C. Aquino ( 1986-1982) • E.O. No. 407 - directed all government financing institutions (GFIs) and government owned and controlled corporations (GOCCs) to immediately transfer to DAR all their landholdings suitable for agriculture. • E.O. No. 448 – pursued the policy that government should lead efforts in placing lands for coverage under CARP. It directed the immediate turn-over of government reservations, no longer needed, that are suitable for agriculture.
  57. 57. Corazon C. Aquino ( 1986-1982) What were the other accomplishments of the Aquino administration in the implementation of the agrarian reform program? • Grants and budgetary support from official development assistance (ODA) circles • Recognition of agrarian reforms as a worthwhile social investment • Improvement of the status of tenant-tillers
  58. 58. Corazon C. Aquino ( 1986-1982) • Introduction of the present adjudication system • Program of support services for farmer beneficiaries to become productive and transform them into entrepreneurs • Promotion of livelihood and agro-industrial projects • Support and active involvement in program implementation of key stakeholders
  59. 59. Corazon C. Aquino ( 1986-1982) What were some of the challenges faced by the administration in the implementation of CARP? • Failure to address the loopholes of CARP particularly for land valuation, retention limits, coverage, exemption/exclusion, commercial farming, and stock distribution • Absence of clear guidelines on land use conversion • Absence of measures to protect the rights of the tribal communities over their ancestral domain • Major budgetary shortfall of Agrarian Reform Fund (ARF) • Many changes of leadership in DAR which led to lack of continuity in priority programs
  60. 60. Corazon C. Aquino ( 1986-1982) • Inability to distribute the prioritized private agricultural lands • Land valuation controversies • Inter-agency coordination problems • Allegation that EO 229 opened the door for politicians and landlords to shortcut processes in CARP implementation • Allegation on misuse of foreign funds intended for CARP projects • Allegation on lack of political will, leadership and genuine commitment to implement the program.
  61. 61. Fidel V. Ramos (1992-1998) What did he do for CARP? • When President Fidel V. Ramos formally took over in 1992, his administration came face to face with publics who have lost confidence in the agrarian reform program. His administration committed to the vision “Fairer, faster and more meaningful implementation of the Agrarian Reform Program.
  62. 62. What were his contributions to CARP? • Republic Act No. 7881, 1995 – Amended certain provisions of RA 6657 and exempted fishponds and prawns from the coverage of CARP. • Republic Act No. 7905, 1995 – Strengthened the implementation of the CARP. • Executive Order No. 363, 1997 – Limits the type of lands that may be converted by setting conditions under which limits the type of lands that may be converted by setting conditions under which specific categories of agricultural land are either absolutely non-negotiable for conversion or highly restricted for conversion. Fidel V. Ramos (1992-1998)
  63. 63. Fidel V. Ramos (1992-1998) • Republic Act No. 8435, 1997 (Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act AFMA) – Plugged the legal loopholes in land use conversion. • Republic Act 8532, 1998 (Agrarian Reform Fund Bill) – Provided an additional Php50 billion for CARP and extended its implementation for another 10 years.
  64. 64. JOSEPH ESTRADA • widened the coverage of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP) to the landless peasants in the country side. • Distributed 266,000 hectares of land to175,000 farmers in the start of his career. • EO 151(executive order 151)- – also known as Farmer’s Trust Fund, which allows the voluntary consolidation of small farm operation into medium and large scale integrated enterprise that can access long-term capital.
  65. 65. Gloria Macapagal Arroyo • landless farmers and farmworkers will receive a family sized farms and not just compensations from the owner where they work in • Year 2002: – DAR was able to distribute 111,772 hectares to 75,560 agrarian reform beneficiaries (ARBs), over 11 percent of the target of 100,000 hectares set by President Arroyo during her state-of-the- nation address. • January to March 2003, DAR distributed 11,095 hectares, higher than the 10,307 hectares and 10,033 hectares distributed during the same period in 2001 and 2002, respectively.
  66. 66. Gloria Macapagal Arroyo • KALAHI Agrarian Reform Zones – which are contiguous agrarian reform communities (ARCs) where support services for ARBs will be given more focus and are envisioned to become hubs of agro-industrial development. • Land Tenure Improvement – DAR will remain vigorous in implementing land acquisition and distribution component of CARP. The DAR will improve land tenure system through land distribution and leasehold.
  67. 67. Gloria Macapagal Arroyo • CARP not only involves the distribution of lands but also included package of support services which includes: credit assistance, extension services, irrigation facilities, roads and bridges, marketing facilities and training and technical support programs. • DAR will transform the agrarian reform communities (ARCs), an area focused and integrated delivery of support services, into rural economic zones that will help in the creation of job opportunities in the countryside. • To help clear the backlog of agrarian cases, DAR will hire more paralegal officers to support undermanned adjudicatory boards and introduce quota system to compel adjudicators to work faster on agrarian reform cases.
  68. 68. Benigno Simeon S. Aquino III The DAR said that: • P10 billion of its total budget for next year will go to land tenure’s improvement, which include landowners’ compensation; • P7.3 billion to program beneficiaries’ development made up of support services in the form of basic rural infrastructure projects and skills development program; • P1 billion to agrarian justice delivery.
  69. 69. • The 6,000-hectare Hacienda Luisita sugar plantation is owned by the Cojuangco family, of which President Benigno Aquino is the leading scion. When his mother, Corazon Aquino, assumed the presidency in the aftermath of the Marcos dictatorship, she was immediately confronted with demands from working people for concessions, including for land for the country’s impoverished peasantry. Benigno Simeon S. Aquino III
  70. 70. • The Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) and Presidential Agrarian Reform Council (PARC) have asked the Supreme Court (SC) to order the distribution of 4,915.75 hectares of sugarland to 6,296 original farmer-beneficiaries. -Government wants Luisita distributed to tenants By Edu Punay (The Philippine Star) Benigno Simeon S. Aquino III
  71. 71. Reasons of some failures in the Program • The program stopped at the land redistribution and failed to provide the other companion measures necessary for success • The farmers are not prepared to take over the responsibilities given to them because they were not organized and did not have proper orientation needed for such undertaking • There was haphazard planning on the part of the government officials who were initiating the program
  72. 72. Thank You! Presented By: Caloy, Florabelle T. Badon, Minda Luz L. Bambo, Kerr Arvin Z. Evangelio, Mark