Literary Terminologyabstractshort summary of ideas, or it can mean apart from concrete realitiesactive voiceoccurs when th...
Vocabulary
Vocabulary
Vocabulary
Vocabulary
Vocabulary
Vocabulary
Vocabulary
Vocabulary
Vocabulary
Vocabulary
Vocabulary
Vocabulary
Vocabulary
Vocabulary
Vocabulary
Vocabulary
Vocabulary
Vocabulary
Vocabulary
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Vocabulary
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Vocabulary

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Vocabulary

  1. 1. Literary Terminologyabstractshort summary of ideas, or it can mean apart from concrete realitiesactive voiceoccurs when the subject of the sentence performs the action expressed (e.g. The cat ate the mouse.)ad hominem fallacya general category of fallacies in which a claim or argument is rejected on the basis of some irrelevant fact about the author of or the person presenting the claim or argument. ad misericordiam fallacyThe fallacy comitted in trying to apeal for pity or symptahy in an argument in order to win the argument or have a conclusion acceptedaestheticshow it appeals to the sensesallegorytreatment of a subject under the guise of another, double meaningallusionan implicit reference to another work or personanapestic metrea metre comprised of two unstressd syllables and one stressedapostropheused to indicate theommission of one or more letters in a wordarchetypethe original pattern or model from which all things of the same kind are copied or basedargumentdiscussion/debate of different points of viewartistic unityhaving every part essential in some way or anotherautobiographicalwritten about oneselfbathosludicrous descent from the exualted or lofty to the common place, anticlimaxbegging the questiona type of logical fallacy in which the proposition to be proved is assumed implicitly or explicitly in the premisebibliography (Works Cited List)a collection of works used/citations Bidungsromana novel of all around self-developmentblack humourobscene or dark humourcacophonyharsh discordance of soundcaesuraa break or pause in a line of poetry dictated by the natural languagecanona fundamental principle or general rulecaptiona heading or description of a picture or chaptercaricaturea distorted view of a character or thingscatastrophea calamatous event; final event or conclusion, usually unfortunatecatharsisrelease from tension and fear following the climas of the story - the calm following the stormcharacter foila character which contrasts with the protagonist to highlight characteristics citationreferencing the work bieng quoted or usedclauseA clause is a grammatical unit that includes at a minimum a predicate and an explicit or impled subject and expresses a propositionclichéa trite overused expressionclimaxthe part in the story when a crises and resolution are reachedcoherencelogical interconnectioncolloquialismword, phrase or expression used in everyday speech and wriitngcomic reliefamusing scene, incident or speech introduced into serious or tragic elements in order to provide temporary release from tensioncompressionshortening a timeline to advance the storyconcept mapa diagram which shows various relationships between conceptsconfessional poetrypoetry which reflects the state of mind and feelings of the poetconflictthe tension in a situation between charctersconnotationsuggestion or implication evoked by a word or phrase over and above what it actually meansconsonanceclose repetition of identical consonant sounds before and after different vowels - e.g. slip-slopcontextsthe set of circustances or facts that surround a particular event or situationcritical analysisexamining things in a critical or close examining mannercritical essayan essay written examining an area in a close mannerdactylic metrea long syllable followed by two short syllablesDadaismthe style and techniques of a group of artists/writers in the early 20th centrury who exploited accidental and incongruous effects in their workdecoding skillsa critical component in the ability to readdenotationthe most literal and limited meaning of a worddependent clausea clause that cannot stand alone within a full sentence, whch acts as a noun, adjective or adverbdeus ex machina endingan unanticipated intervener who resolves a difficult situationdictiona style of speaking or writing dependent upon choice of wordsdidacticintended for instructiondisciplinea set system of rules and regulations documentarytelling of a story based on documentary evidencedomaina field of action, thought or influencedominant linean important line in a book or play which is central to the overall meaningdraftinga first or preliminary form of any writing subject to revision or copyingdramatic ironywhen the audience understands the implicaiton and meaning of a situation on stage but the characters do notdramatic monologuea poem in which there is one imaginary speaker addressing an imaginary audiencedramatic poetrya form of writing which expresses emotional feelings - involves a narrative poem of a person in a specific situationdramatic purposethe central emotional themedub poetryperformance poetry consisting of spoken words over reggae rhythmseditingrevisingeditorialarticle or publication expressing the opinion of the author/editoreditorial cartoona cartoon depicting a humorous rendition of the artist's feelings or opinions on a matterelegya mournfull or melancholy poem especially a funeral song or lament for the deadelisionthe ommission or slurring of a syllable in poetryemphasisspecial stress laid upon or importance attached toend rhymeoccurs at the end of a line of verseend-stoppedwhere the sense and meter conincide in a pause a the end of a lineenjambmentrunning on of a sentence beyond the second line of one couplet into the first line of the nextepic poema long narrative poemepigraphcan be an inscription on a statue or builiding, the writing on a coin, a quotation on the title page of a book or a motto heading a new section or paragraphepisodicpertaining to or of the nature of an episodeepistolarycontianed in or carried on in the form of lettersescape fictona fiction which provides phychological escape from everyday life - purely for entertainmentessaya composition of unfixed length which discusses formally or informally a topic or variety of topics - the most flexible and adaptable of all literary formseulogya speech or writing in praise of a person or thingeuphonyagreeable sounds pleasing to the ear, a harmonious or pleasing combination or succession of wordsexplicationan explanationexpositionwriting or speech primarily intended to convey information or explanationexpositorythe infromation at the start of a book or play that is essential to know about what has happened, or events to comeexpressive writingavoids the representaiton of external reality and instead projects highly personal visions of the worldextended metaphora metaphor that is extended thoughout an entire stanza or poemfablea fairy tale to teach a moral lessonfactthe truthfalling metreis when the metre moves from stressed to unstressedfeminine rhymewhen the words of two or more syllables rhyme - often used in humourous versefigurative languagelanguage that uses figures of speech e.g. metaphors, similes etc.figures of speechan expression which uses language in a non-literal or unusual way to achieve a rhetorical effectfolkloreit is literature which has been passed down orally by illeterate peoplefootgorup of syllables forming a metrical unit - a unit of rhymefootera note at the end of a pageformshape, sturcture and the manner in which a literary work is madeformalconventionalformal essaya structured essay written with citations and references to previous worksgenrea class or categoryglittering generalitiesemotionally appealing words so closely associated with highly-valued concepts and beliefs that they carry conviction without supporting information or reason (e.g. courage, patriotist, common sense etc.)graphical elementa symbol, emblom, icon or sign which is recognizable (e.g. a logo)groundlingsa spectator or reader of unsophisticated or uncultured tastesheptametera metrical line of seven feethexametera metrical line of six feethigh cultureis the culture of an elite such as the aristocracy or intelligentsiahubrisdesire beyond one's stationiambic metreconsists of a unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable and is thought to be the nearest to speech and is common in English verseidioman expression whose meaning is not predictable from the usual meanings of its constituent words (e.g. kick the bucket)imperfect rhymea rhyme between a stressed and an unstressed syllable. (e.g. wing, caring)implicationsan implied meaning, indirect indications, suggestions inferto derive by reasoninginferencethe act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true infomerciala long commercial that informs or instructsinformal essayhas formal structure but the content is less rigid and is written for pleasureinformational essayan essay that contains informationin medias resin or into the middle of a sequence of eventsinnocent-eye narratorThe character telling the story may be a child or a developmentally disabled individual; the narrator is thus naive. The contrast between what the innocent-eye narrator perceives and what the reader understands may produce an ironic effect.interpretive fictionA given situation purposed to explain or convery by action word or deedlanguage artsthe combined study of literature and languageliterary non-fictionbranch of writing which employs literary techniques and artistic vision usually associated with fiction or poetry to report on actual persons, places, or eventsliteraturewritings in which expression and form, in connection with ideas of universal inteest are characteristic or essential features - peotry, novels, etd.loaded wordswords that have negative or hurtful meaning which are likely to cause conflictloose sentencea type of sentence in which the main idea comes first followed by dependent grammatical units (e.g. he went to town to buy groceries, to visit his friends and go to the bookstore)low cultureLow culture is a derogatory term for some forms of popular culture - reality shows, bathroom humour etc.lyric poetrya type of emotional song-like poetrymajor sentenceA major sentence is a regular sentence; it has a subject and a predicate. For example: I have a ball.masculine rhymea single monosyllabic rhyme at the end of a line (thorn, scorn)metacognitionMetacognition is defined as " cognition about cognition" , or " knowing about knowing." metonymya figure of speech in which the name of an attribute or a thing is substituted for the thing itself eg. The stage, the crown, the bench metrearrangement of words in regularly measured patterns or rhythmic lines or versusmilieusomeones surrondinds/environmentminor sentencea minor sentence is an irregular type of sentence. It does not contain a finite verb. For example, " Mary!" " Yes." " Coffee." etc. Other examples of minor sentences are headings, stereotyped expressions (Hello!), emotional expressions (Wow!), proverbs, etc. This can also include nominal sentences like The more, the merrier.mnenonic deviceis a mind, memory or learning aidmonographsa highly detailed and throroughly documented study or paper written about a limited area or subject fieldmonometerIn poetry, a monometer is a line of verse with just one metrical footmoodstate or quality of feeling imparted by the written wordmotifa recurring subject, theme, idea, etc., esp. in a literary, artistic, or musical work.multimediathe combined use of several types of media eg. Art and literaturenon-sequiturIt is a comment which, due to its apparent lack of meaning relative to what it follows,[1] seems absurd to the point of being humorous or confusing, as in the following joke:Q: How many surrealists does it take to change a light bulb?A: Fish.The use of non sequitur in humor can be deliberate or unintentional. Literally, the expression is Latin for " it does not follow." [2] In other literature, a non sequitur can denote an abrupt, illogical, unexpected or absurd turn of plot or dialogue not normally associated with or appropriate to that preceding it.novellaa fictional prose narrative that is longer and more complex than a short story (e.g. a short novel)octametera metrical line of eight feetodea poem intended to be sungoral traditionOral tradition, oral culture and oral lore are messages or testimony transmitted orally from one generation to another. The messages or testimony are verbally transmitted in speech or song and may take the form, for example, of folktales, sayings, ballads, songs, or chants. In this way, it is possible for a society to transmit oral history, oral literature, oral law and other knowledges across generations without a writing system.oratureoral literature (orature was introduced to reduce the oxymoron, but oral literature persists)organizing principlea core assumption from which everything else by proximity can derive a classification or a valueparallelismto give two or more parts of the sentences a similar form so as to give the whole a definite pattern - I came, I saw, I conqueredparodya satirical imitation of a serious piece of literature or writing (e.g. The Life of Brian)passive voiceWhen the subject is the patient, target or undergoer of the action, it is said to be in the passive voice. (e.g. The mouse was eaten by the cat.)pathosthe quality or power that evokes a feeling of pity or compassionpentametera metrical line of five feetperfect rhymea rhyme of two words spelled or pronounced identically but have different meaning (e.g. rain and rein)periodical indexa type of reference source that lists periodical articles by subject or authorperiodicalsa published work that appears on a regular schedule eg. Newspapers, magazines etc.periodic sentenceis a sentence that is not grammatically complete until its endpersonathe narrator of or character in a literary work, sometimes identified with the authorpersonal essayan essay written from a personal point of viewperspectiveyour viewpoint on something based on what you knowphrasea group of words funcitoning as a single unit in a sentence e.g. at the end of the streetpicaresque novela satirical novel which depicts in humourous ways the adventures of a roguish hero who lives by his wits in a corrupt society pitchthe pace and tone of textplagiarizingto take and use ideas, writing etc. without giving creditplausiblehaving an appearance of truth or reasonpost hoc, ergo propter hoc fallacya fallacy that inappropriately proportions cause and effect. Since that event followed this one, that event must have been caused by this one prefixa small word placed in front of a word to change the meaning e.g. unhappy, substandard etc.prewritingPrewriting is the first step of the writing process, followed by drafting, revision, editing and publishingprimary sourcean original document pertaining to the event or subject of inquiryproducera person responsible for the financial and administrative aspects of a stage, film, television, or radio productionproofreadingchecking over work for errorproportionthe significance of a thing or event that an objective view revealspropsare objects or things used to create a scence, setting or effectprosaichaving the character or form of prose rather than poetryprose poemis poetry written in prose that departs from some of the usual practices associated with prose discourse, for the sake of heightened imagery or emotional effectquartoa type of book format that is formed from folding the original sheet into 4, hence the page size is a quarter of the original sheetrefraina phrase or verse recurring at intervals in a poem or songregistera book in which records of names, events etc. are keptrepresentingto set forth clearly with a view to influencing mattersrevisingto alter something in order to make corrections, improve or updaterhetorical devicea use of language which creates a literal effect without regard for literal significancerhetorical questiona question to which no answer is expected rising metreis when the metre moves from unstressed to stressedroad literaturestories about journeys on the roadsarcasmharsh or bitter ironysardonicscornful, mocking, disdainfully humouroussatirea literary composition in verse or prose in which human folly and vice are scorned and ridiculedsatirista writer of satiresscansionthe metrical analyses of verseschwathe mid-central, neutral vowel sound typically occurring in unstressed syllables in Englishsecondary sourceis a document or recording that relates or discusses information originally presented elsewheresight rhymeagreement in spelling but not in sound at the end of lines of verse (e.g. have and grave)situational ironyis the disparity of intention and resultslice-of-life storya story that portrays a " cut-out" sequence of events in a character's lifesocial dramatista writer whose works deal with significant social issuessoliliquya long speech by a character as if no one is aroundsonneta class of poetry with 14 lines of definite patternspeakerthe person speaking spondaic metrea metrical foot of two stressed or long syllables e.g. cold feedstanzaA stanza is part of a poem consisting of a group of lines, set off by a space, that usually has a set pattern of meter and rhymestatement of facta single sentence or assertion based on factstatement of opiniona single sentence or assertion based on opinionstereotypea simplified and standardized conception or image stereotypingto characterize or regard as a stereotypestream-of-consciousness storya story that attempts to depict the multitudinous thoughts and feelings which pass through the mind - interior monologuestyledisctinctive or characteristic mode of wrtingsubplota plot subordinate to the main plot of a literary work or filmsuffixan affix which follows the word to which it was added (e.g. kindly, elderly)suspenseA literary device in which the author maintains the audience's attention through the buildup of events, the outcome of which will soon be revealedsymbolsomething used for or regarded as something representing something elsesymbolismrepresenting things with symbolssynecdocheA figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole (as hand for sailor), the whole for a part (as the law for police officer)taga quotation added for special effecttetrametera metrical line of four feettextthe main body of matter in a manuscript, book, newspaper etc.themea unifying or dominant ideathesaurusa book of synonymstiltinga verbal debatetitle page versothe left page, opposite the title page in a booktomea book, especially on ethat is heavy large or learnedtoneManner of expression in speech or writingtragedya dramatic composition dealing with a serious or somber themetragic flawA flaw in the character of the protagonist of a tragedy that brings the protagonist to ruin or sorrowtragic heroa literary character who makes an error of judgement or has a fatal flaw that combines with fate and external forces brings on a tragedytranisitional expressionan expression used to flow one idea from another (e.g. at the same time, in conclusion, to illustrate)trimetera metrical line of three feettriple rhymea rhyme of involving three syllables (vanity/humanity)trochaic metrea metrical foot containing a stresed followed by an unstressed syllable, producing a fally rhythmunderstatementto state or represent less strongly than the facts would bear outunitythe state of being one (or whole) unreliable narratora narrator whose credibility has been seriously compromised usually due to lack of knowledge, deliberate attempt to deceive or psychological instabilityurban legendmodern story of obscure origin with little or no supporting evidencevaluesa set of consistent beliefsverbal ironyis a disparity of expression and intention: when a speaker says one thing but means anotherverisimilitudethe appearance or semblance of truthversea stanza or a succession of meterical feet villanellea class of poem with 19-lines of fixed form consisting of five tercets and a final quatrain on two rhymesvoiceexpression in written wordsvolumea collection of written or printed sheets bound together constituting a bookweasel wordsa word that tempers the forthrightness of a statement making one's views misleadingwebbingthe intricate set or pattern of circumstances relating events or people in a storywhite spacethe portion of the paper not covered in print - empty, blank portionwide-angle lensa wide perspective when writingWorks Cited list (Bibliography)a structured list of references used in your wrtingwriter's handbooka handbook of advice, writing rules etc. for writerswriting promptanything that prompts creative thought<br />Dramatic/Visual composition/Film Terminologyart (visual) essayan essay which uses visual components to tell a storyaerial shotcamera view from abovecinematographythe art or technique of movie photography, including shooting and developmentcostume designera person who researchers period clothing and then design costumes for a film or stage productionclose-up shotcamera view from close to the object, person, view etc. so they take up most of the framecomposition the plan, placement or arrangement of the elements of art in a workdissolveto fade out a shot or scene while simultaneously fading into the nextdollyinga segment in which the camera is mounted on a wheeled platform that is pushed on rails while the picture is being takendirectora person responsible for interpretive aspects of a production, supervises integration of all the elements required to realize the writer's conceptiondubto insert a new sound tract, often a sychronized translation of the original dialogue, into a filmeye-level shota camera angle where the camera is at the level of human eyesfade-into appear gradually by becoming lighterfade-outto disappear gradually by becoming darkerhigh-angle shotthe camera looks down on the subject from a high locaiotn making the actor/s appear more vulnerablepanningto take a camera shot while rotating the camera on its horizontal or vertical axis to keep the moving person or object in view or to allow the film to record a panaramalong shotHigh angle shots also make the figure or object seem vulnerable or powerless.low-angle shotis a shot from a camera positioned low on the vertical axis, often at knee height, looking upmedium shota camera shot from a medium distance which work well to show both facial expressions and body languagelighting technicianare people who rig and control electric lights for art and entertainment venues (theater or live music venues) or in video, television, or film productionphoto essayis a set or series of photographs that are intended to tell a story or evoke a series of emotions in the viewerplaywright is a person who writes dramatic literature or drama, usually for performance in front of an audiencereader's theatreminimal theatre in support of literature and reading (e.g. minimal costumes, sets, props, acting etc.)revenge playthe revenge play is a form of tragedy (e.g Hamlet)shooting scriptis the version of a screenplay used during the production of a motion picturescreenplaya motion picturescriptthe manuscript of a play, motion picture, or radio or television broadcastset designera person who creates the scenery for theatre, film or televisionsetto arrange the scenery, properties, lights etc. for an act or scenespliceConnection of two or more pieces of linear material such as film or audio tapespecial effectsillusions used in the film, television, theater, or entertainment industries to simulate the imagined events in a story sound technicianis a person responsible for dealing with the recording and reproduction of sound through mechanical and electronic meanssplit screena type of process photography in which two or more shots are juxtaposed and projected simultaneously on the screenstage directionsis specific terminology used to facilitate the precise movement and positioning of actors on the stagestagehandsare people who move properties, regulate lighting etc. in a theatrical productionstage managera person who assumes full responsibility for the stage during a producton of a play and oversees the movement of the props, scenery etc.superimposethe placement of an image or video on top of an already-existing image or video, usually to add to the overall image effect, but also sometimes to conceal something telephoto lensis a specific construction of a long focal length photographic lens in which the physical length of the lens is shorter than the focal length, having the effect of magnifying the objecttrackinga filming technique whereby the camera tracks beside the actor/object (e.g. alongside moving horses or vehicles)visualsthe picture elements as opposed to the sound elements in films, television etc.voice-overa production technique where a non-diegetic voice is broadcast live or pre-recorded in radio, television, film, theatre and/or presentationwipea gradual transition in film editing<br />Assessment Terminologyabsentmissingaccurateprecise or correctadeptproficientadequatemeeting standardsambiguousno clear answer, several possible meaningsappropriatemeeting what is expectedaptlydone wellastuteperceptiveawkwardnot well planned, constructedclarityhow clear something iscoherencewhether or not things fit togethercompetentcapable of meeting expectations or requirmentscomprehensionability to understandcomprehensiveall encompassing, large in scopeconfusedunsureconsideredwell thought throughcontrolling ideacentral or main idea/themeconventionalnormal or usual, conforming to accepted standardsconvincingbelievabledictionstyle of speechdiscerniblepossible to understanddicerningan understandingdistinctunique in nature/qualityeffectiveproducing intended or expected resultsefficientproductive use of time and resourcesexcellentexceeding or above standards, well done!!fluentfamiliar withgeneralizednon-specifichaphazarduntidy and not well thought outilluminatingsheds light on a subjectimplied thesisunstated but supported central ideaimprecisenot preciseinaccuratenot accurateinappropriatenot appropriateindistinctnot distinctineffectivenot effectiveinsightfulable to extract inner meaning, perceptive, intuitive understandingirrelevantnot important and extraneousintegratedsmoothly worked in, coordinated to provide a harmonious and interrelated wholejarringabrupt and startlingjudiciousrule bound, good discriminating judgementlimitedlackingmatters of choicechoosing the arguments to support your thesismatters of correctnessusing grammer and spelling and punctuation in a proper mannermechanicsthe technical aspects of writingobscureblock from view or far-fetched idea, vague or uncertainovergeneralizedto be unspecific beyond appropriate or justified limitsoversimplifiedto simply to the point of error, distortion or misrepresentationpeer assessmentto have your work judged by your academic equalsperceptiveinsightfulpersuasiveto be able to convince of an idea through argumentplausiblecould have happened, believablepolishedwell honedprecisedetailedproficientaptpurposefulintentionalpoornot well donerelevantconnected with the matter in handsatisfactorymeeting acceptable standardssensiblehaving sound judgementskillfulhaving good abilitystraightforwardsimple and directsuperficialdealt with on the surface, lacking depthsustainedto keep up or keep goingsyntacticof or pertianing to syntaxsyntaxrules or patterns of language and writingthesisa central theme or ideathesis statementmain idea stated in a single sentenceunderdevelopednot well developedundevelopednot developed at allundiscerningnot discerning, lacking insightunifying effectbringing things together to make a wholeunintelligibleunclear, not understoodvaguenot specificvalidwell foundedSS30-1 Related Issue #1 - IdentityLiberalisma political or social philosophy advocating freedom of the individualIndividualisma social theory advocating the liberty, rights or independent action of the individualCommon Good the common good describes a specific philosophy, ethic, moral or political belief that is shared and beneficial for all (or most) members of a given communityCollectivisma term used to describe any moral, political, or social outlook, that stresses human interdependence and the importance of a collective, rather than the importance of separate individualsIdeologya particular principle, position or policy that guides an individual, social movement, institution, class or large groupProgressivismfavouring or advocating progress, change, improvement or reform as opposed to wishing to maintain things as they areIndividual Rights & Freedomsthe rights and freedoms of the individualCompetitionrivalry offered by a competitorEconomic Freedomis the freedom to produce, trade and consume any goods and services acquired without the use of force, fraud or theftThe Rule of Lawsimply means that the law is above everyone and it applies to everyonePrivate Popertyrefers to tangible and intangible things owned by individuals or firms over which their owners have exclusive and absolute legal rightsPublic Propertyassets owned by a state, community or government rather than individuals or private firmCollective Responsibility & Interestsgroups shared responsibilities and interestsCooperationworking or acting together for a common purpose or benefitEconomic Equalitythe idea of having similar economic circumstance amongst different nationsCollective Normsthe beliefs and philosophies etc. of the majority in a groupSS30-1 Related Issue #2 - Resistance to LiberalismJohn Lockewas an English philosopher. Locke is considered the first of the British empiricists, but is equally important to social contract theory. His ideas had enormous influence on the development of epistemology and political philosophy, and he is widely regarded as one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers, classical republicans, and contributors to liberal theory. Baron de Montesquieuwas a French social commentator and political thinker who lived during the Era of the Enlightenment. He is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, taken for granted in modern discussions of government and implemented in many constitutions throughout the world. He was largely responsible for the popularization of the terms feudalism and Byzantine EmpireAdam Smithwas a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of political economy. One of the key figures of the Scottish Enlightenment, Smith is the author of The Theory of Moral Sentiments and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. The latter, usually abbreviated as The Wealth of Nations, is considered his magnum opus and the first modern work of economics. Adam Smith is widely cited as the father of modern economicsJohn Stuart Millwas an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century whose works on liberty justified freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state control.[2] He was an exponent of utilitarianism, an ethical theory developed by Jeremy Bentham, although his conception of it was very different from Bentham's. He clearly set forth the premises of the scientific method.Laissez Faire Capitalismthe idea of separation of economy and stateIndustrializationrapid growth of mechanical productionThe Class Systema system where people are separated based on wealth, social status etc.Limited Governmentis a government where any more than minimal governmental intervention in personal liberties and the economy is not usually allowed by law, usually in a written ConstitutionClassic Conservatismrefers to various political and social philosophies that support tradition and the status quoMarxismis the political philosophy and economic practice based upon a materialist interpretation of history, a critical analysis of capitalism, a theory of social change, and an atheist view of human liberation derived from the work of Karl MarxSocialismrefers to various theories of economic organisation advocating public or direct worker ownership and administration of the means of production and allocation of resources, and a society characterised by equal access to resources for all individuals with an egalitarian method of compensationWelfare Capitalismthe combination of a capitalist economic system with a welfare stateLabour Standardsare standards designed to eliminate unjust and inhumane labour practicesUnionsa number of persons joined together for a common purpose, often to ensure the rights of workers in the workplaceUniversal Suffragethe right to vote for all persons over a certain ageWelfare Statea state in which the welfare of the people in such matters as social security, health and education, housing and working conditions is the responsibility of the governmentHuman Rights the " basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitledFeminismthe doctrine advocating social, political nad all other rights of women equal to those of menCommunismis a family of economic and political ideas and social movements related to the establishment of an egalitarian, classless and stateless society based on common ownership and control of the means of production and property in general, as well as the name given to such a society.Fascisma government system led by a dictator having complete powerExpansionismrefers to the doctrine of a nation's expanding its territorial base (or economic influence) usually by means of military aggressContainment - Truman Doctrine and Domino TheoryContainment was a United States policy using military, economic, and diplomatic strategies to temper the spread of Communism, enhance America’s security and influence abroad, and prevent a " domino effect" .Deterrenceact of deterring Brinksmanshipis the practice of pushing a dangerous situation to the verge of disaster in order to achieve the most advantageous outcome e.g. Cuban missile crisisDétenteinternational situation where previously hostile nations not involved in an open war de-escalate tensions through diplomacy and confidence-building measuresNon-alignmneta national policy repudiating political or military alliance with a world powerLiberation Movementsan organization fighting a rebellion against a colonial power, often seeking independence based on a nationalist identity and an anti-imperialist outNeo-Conservatisma movement in favour of political, economic and social conservatism Environmentalismany person who advocates or works to protect nature or natural resources from pollution or its effectsPost-modernismOf or relating to art, architecture, or literature that reacts against earlier modernist principles, as by reintroducing traditional or classical elements of style or by carrying modernist styles or practices to extremesExtremisma tendency or disposition to go to extremesSS30-1 Related Issue #3 - Contemporary LiberalismConsensusgeneral agreement or concordDirect vs. Representative Democracysystem of government in which either the actual governing is carried out by the people governed (direct democracy), or the power to do so is granted by them (as in representative democracy)Authoritarianisma form of government characterized by an emphasis on the authority of state in a republic or union. It is a political system controlled by typically non-elected rulers who usually permit some degree of individual freedomCommand Economiesan economy where supply and price are regulated by the governmentFree market econtomiesa market economy without intervention and regulation by government except to regulate against force or fraudTraditional economiesan economic system in which resources are allocated by inheritance and which has a strong social network and is based on indigenous technology and methodsMixed economiesis an economic system that includes a variety of public and government control, or a mixture of capitalism and socialismAmerican Bill of Rightsis the name by which the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution are known which protects the basic principles of human libertyCanadian Charter of Rights and freedomsthe rights and freedoms set out for Canadian citizensQuebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedomsis a statutory bill of rights and human rights code passed by the National Assembly of Quebec on June 27, War Measures Acta Canadian statute that allows the government to assume sweeping emergency powers in the event of war, invasion, or insurrection, real or apprehendedPatriot Actis an act that allows authorites to conduct surveillance without judicial reviewDebta liability or obligation to pay or render somethingPovertythe state or condition of having little or no money, goods or means of supportRacisma belief or doctrine that inherent differences among the various human races determines cultural or human acheivement, usually believing ones own race is superiorPandemicsis an epidemic of infectious disease that is spreading through human populations across a large region; for instance a continent, or even worldwideTerrorismthe systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion. One form is the use of violence against noncombatants for the purpose of gaining publicity for a group, cause, or individualCensorshipis the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or inconvenient to the government or media organizations as determined by a censor.Illiberalismis a governing system in which, although elections take place, citizens are cut off from knowledge about the activities of those who exercise real power because of the lack of civil liberties. It is not an 'open society'. This may be because a constitution limiting government powers exists, but its liberties are ignored, or to the simple absence of an adequate legal constitutional framework of libertySS30-1 Related Issue #3 - Contemporary LiberalismThe Human Conditionrefers to the distinctive features of human existenceDissentto differ in sentiment or opinion from the majority, particularly in politicsCivilitycourtesy or politenessCivil Disobedienceis the active refusal to obey certain laws, demands and commands of a government, or of an occupying power, without resorting to physical violencePolitical Participationan individuals participation in politicsCitizen Advocacyrepresenting the rights and interests of another person as if they were one's ownHumanitarian Crisesis an event or series of events which represents a critical threat to the health, safety, security or wellbeing of a community or other large group of peopleCivil rights movementsorganized groups fighting for civil liberties for allAnti-war movementsorganized protests against warMcCarthyism (Red Scare)is the politically motivated practice of making accusations of disloyalty, subversion, or treason without proper regard for evidencePro-democracy movementsare protests for democracy (e.g. Tiananmen Square )Collective and individual actionthe actions of the individual or of a group of individuals<br />

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