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Advanced Beeginners - Bee diseases
 

Advanced Beeginners - Bee diseases

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Intended for new beekeepers with some limited experience of handling bees or those preparing for their BBKA Basic Assessment.

Intended for new beekeepers with some limited experience of handling bees or those preparing for their BBKA Basic Assessment.

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    Advanced Beeginners - Bee diseases Advanced Beeginners - Bee diseases Document Transcript

    • Beekeeping in your 2nd Year © ÉRIC TOURNERET Session 1 - Basic Bee HusbandryThursday, 28 February 13 1How doth the little busy beeImprove each shining hourAnd gather honey all the dayFrom every opening flower!Issac Watts
    • Session 1 - Basic Bee HusbandryThursday, 28 February 13 1How doth the little busy beeImprove each shining hourAnd gather honey all the dayFrom every opening flower!Issac Watts
    • Our Objective To turn you from someone who has bees into a Bee-keeper. Re-enforce key skills and knowledge Cover more advanced subjects Prepare you for the BBKA Basic AssessmentThursday, 28 February 13 2
    • Novice Beekeeping Agenda Week 1 Basic Bee Husbandry & IPM Week 2 Swarm Management & Collection Week 3 Queen Rearing for BeeginnersThursday, 28 February 13 3
    • Basic Bee HusbandryThursday, 28 February 13 4
    • The Rule of 3 Eggs take 3 days from laying to hatchingThursday, 28 February 13 5These are details that every beekeeper should know by heart - When inspecting brood in a hive, the beekeeper should be able to judge not only what is happening now, but what willhappen over the next few days.
    • The Rule of 3 Eggs take 3 days from laying to hatching Worker larvae take 6 days to pupate Drone +1 days Queen – 1 daysThursday, 28 February 13 5These are details that every beekeeper should know by heart - When inspecting brood in a hive, the beekeeper should be able to judge not only what is happening now, but what willhappen over the next few days.
    • The Rule of 3 Eggs take 3 days from laying to hatching Worker larvae take 6 days to pupate Drone +1 days Queen – 1 days Sealed worker brood takes 12 days to hatch Drone +2 days Queen -4 daysThursday, 28 February 13 5These are details that every beekeeper should know by heart - When inspecting brood in a hive, the beekeeper should be able to judge not only what is happening now, but what willhappen over the next few days.
    • The Rule of 3 Eggs take 3 days from laying to hatching Worker larvae take 6 days to pupate Drone +1 days Queen – 1 days Sealed worker brood takes 12 days to hatch Drone +2 days Queen -4 days Workers live 3 weeks in Hive and 3 weeks foraging (in summer)Thursday, 28 February 13 5These are details that every beekeeper should know by heart - When inspecting brood in a hive, the beekeeper should be able to judge not only what is happening now, but what willhappen over the next few days.
    • The Rule of 3 Eggs take 3 days from laying to hatching Worker larvae take 6 days to pupate Drone +1 days Queen – 1 days Sealed worker brood takes 12 days to hatch Drone +2 days Queen -4 days Workers live 3 weeks in Hive and 3 weeks foraging (in summer) Workers live 6 months (in winter)Thursday, 28 February 13 5These are details that every beekeeper should know by heart - When inspecting brood in a hive, the beekeeper should be able to judge not only what is happening now, but what willhappen over the next few days.
    • The Rule of 3 Eggs take 3 days from laying to hatching Worker larvae take 6 days to pupate Drone +1 days Queen – 1 days Sealed worker brood takes 12 days to hatch Drone +2 days Queen -4 days Workers live 3 weeks in Hive and 3 weeks foraging (in summer) Workers live 6 months (in winter) Queens live ~3 yearsThursday, 28 February 13 5These are details that every beekeeper should know by heart - When inspecting brood in a hive, the beekeeper should be able to judge not only what is happening now, but what willhappen over the next few days.
    • The Rule of 3 Eggs take 3 days from laying to hatching Worker larvae take 6 days to pupate Drone +1 days Queen – 1 days Sealed worker brood takes 12 days to hatch Drone +2 days Queen -4 days Workers live 3 weeks in Hive and 3 weeks foraging (in summer) Workers live 6 months (in winter) Queens live ~3 years Drones live ~3 monthsThursday, 28 February 13 5These are details that every beekeeper should know by heart - When inspecting brood in a hive, the beekeeper should be able to judge not only what is happening now, but what willhappen over the next few days.
    • Larval DevelopmentThursday, 28 February 13 6This is probably the most important slide in the entire course - Understanding the timescales of larval development goes a long way to making you a competent beekeeper.All eggs are laid vertically in the cell on day one. By day 3-4 to egg will be on it’s side and will hatch into a larva.Worker Bees - Fed royal jelly from hatching for three days and then fed bee bread until day 9 when it is sealed in its cell until it emerges on Day 21.Drone Bees - Fed royal jelly from hatching for three days and then fed bee bread until day 10 and then sealed in its cell until it emerges on day 24.Queen Bees - Fed on royal jelly until day 8 when sealed in their cell until emerging on day 16.
    • Reading Combs - Your key skill! This is the most important skill for any beekeeperThursday, 28 February 13 7At each inspection, you need to understand the state of the brood comb and any changes or developments from the last visit. You first need to understand what a“normal” comb looks like at through the year so that you can pick up on any differences.
    • Reading Combs - Your key skill! This is the most important skill for any beekeeper Looking at brood comb and the bees on it, tells you exactly what is going on inside the hiveThursday, 28 February 13 7At each inspection, you need to understand the state of the brood comb and any changes or developments from the last visit. You first need to understand what a“normal” comb looks like at through the year so that you can pick up on any differences.
    • Reading Combs - Your key skill! This is the most important skill for any beekeeper Looking at brood comb and the bees on it, tells you exactly what is going on inside the hive Is the queen present?(even if you can’t find her)Thursday, 28 February 13 7At each inspection, you need to understand the state of the brood comb and any changes or developments from the last visit. You first need to understand what a“normal” comb looks like at through the year so that you can pick up on any differences.
    • Reading Combs - Your key skill! This is the most important skill for any beekeeper Looking at brood comb and the bees on it, tells you exactly what is going on inside the hive Is the queen present?(even if you can’t find her) Are the bees healthy? Any diseases present?Thursday, 28 February 13 7At each inspection, you need to understand the state of the brood comb and any changes or developments from the last visit. You first need to understand what a“normal” comb looks like at through the year so that you can pick up on any differences.
    • Reading Combs - Your key skill! This is the most important skill for any beekeeper Looking at brood comb and the bees on it, tells you exactly what is going on inside the hive Is the queen present?(even if you can’t find her) Are the bees healthy? Any diseases present? Are there enough stores? Should I harvest?Thursday, 28 February 13 7At each inspection, you need to understand the state of the brood comb and any changes or developments from the last visit. You first need to understand what a“normal” comb looks like at through the year so that you can pick up on any differences.
    • Reading Combs - Your key skill! This is the most important skill for any beekeeper Looking at brood comb and the bees on it, tells you exactly what is going on inside the hive Is the queen present?(even if you can’t find her) Are the bees healthy? Any diseases present? Are there enough stores? Should I harvest? Is there enough space currently in the hive?Thursday, 28 February 13 7At each inspection, you need to understand the state of the brood comb and any changes or developments from the last visit. You first need to understand what a“normal” comb looks like at through the year so that you can pick up on any differences.
    • Reading Combs - Your key skill! This is the most important skill for any beekeeper Looking at brood comb and the bees on it, tells you exactly what is going on inside the hive Is the queen present?(even if you can’t find her) Are the bees healthy? Any diseases present? Are there enough stores? Should I harvest? Is there enough space currently in the hive? Will they swarm soon?Thursday, 28 February 13 7At each inspection, you need to understand the state of the brood comb and any changes or developments from the last visit. You first need to understand what a“normal” comb looks like at through the year so that you can pick up on any differences.
    • Reading Combs - Your key skill! This is the most important skill for any beekeeper Looking at brood comb and the bees on it, tells you exactly what is going on inside the hive Is the queen present?(even if you can’t find her) Are the bees healthy? Any diseases present? Are there enough stores? Should I harvest? Is there enough space currently in the hive? Will they swarm soon? Are they trying to replace the Queen? (supercedure)Thursday, 28 February 13 7At each inspection, you need to understand the state of the brood comb and any changes or developments from the last visit. You first need to understand what a“normal” comb looks like at through the year so that you can pick up on any differences.
    • Reading Combs - Your key skill! This is the most important skill for any beekeeper Looking at brood comb and the bees on it, tells you exactly what is going on inside the hive Is the queen present?(even if you can’t find her) Are the bees healthy? Any diseases present? Are there enough stores? Should I harvest? Is there enough space currently in the hive? Will they swarm soon? Are they trying to replace the Queen? (supercedure) How bad are the current varroa levels?Thursday, 28 February 13 7At each inspection, you need to understand the state of the brood comb and any changes or developments from the last visit. You first need to understand what a“normal” comb looks like at through the year so that you can pick up on any differences.
    • Reading Combs - Your key skill! This is the most important skill for any beekeeper Looking at brood comb and the bees on it, tells you exactly what is going on inside the hive Is the queen present?(even if you can’t find her) Are the bees healthy? Any diseases present? Are there enough stores? Should I harvest? Is there enough space currently in the hive? Will they swarm soon? Are they trying to replace the Queen? (supercedure) How bad are the current varroa levels? Any other pests getting inside the hive? (wasps, wax moth etc)Thursday, 28 February 13 7At each inspection, you need to understand the state of the brood comb and any changes or developments from the last visit. You first need to understand what a“normal” comb looks like at through the year so that you can pick up on any differences.
    • Healthy Comb Uniform cells on nice, clean wax Sealed brood, arranged in an oval in centre of comb Also some “C” shaped, pearly white larvae in cells Honey and pollen may be stored around the outside of frameThursday, 28 February 13 8This is good and near perfect clean comb, probably less than a year old. Comb like this is the ideal and gradually darkens as the cells are reused over and over again toraise generations of bees. Brood comb should be regularly changed every 2-3 years to keep the colony healthy and as free from disease as possible.
    • Bee Diseases & Pests Good Disease is caused by pathogens and stress!! Clean bee suits and other clothing Clean gloves Clean hive tools etc between colonies Not so Good! Clean & well ventilated hives Replace brood comb regularlyThursday, 28 February 13 9You as the beekeeper could easily become the vector for any pest or disease moving from one hive to another. You need to be clean and so does your equipment. Youshould clean your hive-tool between hives and certainly between apiaries. You should also either have vinyl/nitrile gloves that you can dispose of after each visit, ormarigold/rubber gloves that can be washed once your work is complete in that apiary. Bare hands should be cleaned used an alcohol hand wash.
    • Main Bee Pathogens Viruses Bacterial diseases Fungal diseases Protozoa Parasitic Mites Pests and Predators Other Colony Abnormalities Whats New - Exotic PestsThursday, 28 February 13 10The diseases and pests are listed in size order from the smallest (the virus) to the largest ( the predators)It is important you remember that to some extent, it’s bees normal behaviour which spreads the disease. They are constantly passing food from mouth to mouth, cleaningout cells (with their mouths), and feeding the young. The adult bees rob other colonies, and drifting workers and drones from other colonies are allowed into the hive. Thisgives many of the diseases and parasites an ideal opportunity to multiply and spread.
    • Viruses Virus infections are difficult to detect and impossible to treat. Often associated with other problems – particularly parasitic mites (Varroa). Chronic bee paralysis virus Acute bee paralysis virus Kashmir bee virus Black queen cell virus Deformed wing virus SacbroodThursday, 28 February 13 11Virus infections are difficult to detect and impossible to treat, but they are of great importance to us all, as they are often associated with other problems – particularly parasitic mites.CBPV. Most commonly associated with Acarine. It does have two forms, so there may in fact be two sorts! The adult bees can be seen trembling, or partial paralysis resulting in crawling andwith limited flight capacity. They may have bloated abdomens or appear dark and shiny with no body hair. They are sometimes seen with dislocated wings (the so called K wing).ABPV. This is more virulent than CBPV and spreads apparently by salivary gland secretions. It is possibly the major cause of colony death for colonies affected by Varroa. Once in the bloodof the bee death occurs with 3 to 5 days.KASHMIR BEE VIRUS. Hopefully we do not have this virus in UK although this may well change with the importation of bees and queens from other countries. It appears to be associated withNosema and EFB.BLACK QUEEN CELL VIRUS. This affects the developing queen pupae in the capped stage. Initially the pupae are pale yellow and have a tough skin, similar to sacbrood. The infected pupaerapidly darken following death and eventually the walls of the queen cell become dark brown to black in colour. This disease seems to be associated with Nosema and also with Varroa.DEFORMED WING VIRUS. This affects pupae in the white eyed stage of development, and the bees hatch with poorly developed or deformed wings. It is common with high levels of varroainfestations.SACBROOD. This is uncommon, but does occur. The larvae are affected, and they have a sack like appearance, often referred to as “Chinese Slipper”. The initial spread of sacbrood within acolony occurs when nurse bees become contaminated while removing larvae killed by the virus from their cells. The virus particles are ingested by the nurse bees and the virus collects inthe hypopharngial glands (the brood food glands) and is then fed to the 1 to 2 day old larvae. There is no chemical cure for a virus, but the prevalence of the disease may be genetic, andgood management can alleviate the problem. Varroa may also be a vector of the virus.
    • Bacterial Diseases American Foul Brood European Foul Brood (paenibacilus larvae larvae) (melissococus pluton) Affects sealed brood Affects unsealed brood Sunken, dark, wet looking Yellow or brownish cappings discoloured larvae Perforated cappings Larvae lie in unnatural positions in the cells Roping of cell contents “Melted” appearance Scales White gut may be seen Smell ! Pepperbox brood Smell ! Pepperbox brood Larvae die of toxaemia Larvae die of starvationThursday, 28 February 13 12The main difference between AFB and EFB is that EFB affects the unsealed brood. In EFB the bacterium multiply in the mid gut and the larvae die of starvation prior to the cell being sealed.The bees are easily able to remove the dead larvae and in its early stages the disease remains undetected.EFB USED TO BE TREATED BY THE SBI WITH THE ANTIBIOTIC – TERRAMYCIN. THE PREFERRED TREATMENT IS NOW “SHOOK SWARM”In AFB the bacterium is ingested by the larvae and multiplies in the gut prior to invading the body. The developing pupae then dies from septicaemia (blood poisoning). Death occurs afterthe cell is sealed and the contents rot. It turns a brown colour and eventually deteriorates to a dark brown or black scale. This scale is the remains of the immature bee and contains 5 to 10million spores. The house cleaning bees will attempt to remove the scales and will become infected and pass the disease on to more larvae. Collapsing colonies may be robbed, particularlyat the end of the season, by other colonies, thus spreading the disease.The classic test for AFB is the ROPE TEST.THERE IS NO TREATMENT IN UK FOR AFB EXCEPT DESTRUCTION.
    • Note: Scales on inside of cells American Foul BroodThursday, 28 February 13 13
    • American Foul Brood Note: Sunken or chewed cappingsThursday, 28 February 13 14
    • AFB “Roping” Test American Foul BroodThursday, 28 February 13 15
    • Treatment for AFB THERE IS NO TREATMENT! Brood and frames must be destroyed, typically by burning Sterilise brood box and supers with flame or chemical treatment Must notify local Bee Inspector who will visit to confirm diagnosis and destruction Can then claim on BBKA insuranceThursday, 28 February 13 16
    • Note: Discoloured and “melted” dead larvae. European Foul BroodThursday, 28 February 13 17In EFB the bacterium multiply in the mid gut and the larvae die of starvation prior to the cell being sealed. The bees are easily able to remove the dead larvae and in its early stages thedisease remains undetected.EFB USED TO BE TREATED BY THE SBI WITH THE ANTIBIOTIC – TERRAMYCIN. THE PREFERRED TREATMENT IS NOW “SHOOK SWARM”
    • Treatment for EFB Only treatment is a shook swarm Use new foundation in a clean hive or Nuc Old comb and brood must be destroyed Flame/sterilise old hive Must notify local Bee Inspector who will visit to confirm diagnosis Can claim on BBKA insuranceThursday, 28 February 13 18Again, we have a few test kits within the association that can be used to test for EFB. When in doubt please contact either your mentor or a tutor to check out your bees.You can also contact the Seasonal Bee Inspector directly if you want to. EFB is quite common throughout Southern England and tends to appear when the colony is understress for some other reason.
    • Lets have a break...Thursday, 28 February 13 19
    • Fungal Diseases Chalkbrood –(ascophaera apis) Larvae appear “mummified” Is stress related and is noted when the following conditions occur :- Cool wet weather with poor forage Weak colonies Poor management Control:- re-queen, use varroa floor , conduct a shook swarmThursday, 28 February 13 20Chalkbrood is endemic, and will be seen to a greater or lesser extent in most colonies. It is believed that the infection is from the ingestion of spores. The larvae become mummified withfluffy white or grey colour (the darker colouration, which is sometimes black, is caused by a secondary black spore forming body on the surface of the mummy).Studies would indicate that this is stress related and is particularly noticeable in cool wet weather when there is poor forage conditions. It is more often associated with small colonies(Nucs). It may be alleviated by increased ventilation, as it appears to be dependent on relative humidity and CO2 levels in the hive; so open mesh floors will help!Control. The books say re-queen with a more vigorous strain. It is also suggested that colonies treated with thymol are less susceptible. Treatment with “shook swarm” may also be aneffective treatment.
    • Nosema Nosema Apis & Nosema Cerana Invades gut of adult bee Creates dysentery Large amount of bee “poo” appears on frames and on outside of hive Tends to happen in spring Diagnosis - 30 bees crushed - examine under x400 microscope Treatment: Shook swarm or comb changeThursday, 28 February 13 21Nosema is an infestation of the protozoa nosema apis.The protozoa is ingested by the adult bee where the spore germinate in the ventriculus (mid gut). They form long tube or polar filaments which penetrate the gut lining (or epithium) andsubsequently grow and multiply. The organism completing its growth releases spores which are subsequently void with the faeces. The bee normally defecates outside the hive, and thusthe disease does not take over the colony. Often affected colonies will recover during summer. Should the infection occur with Dysentery during the winter, then infected faeces will be leftinside the hive and the bees will re-infect whilst trying to clean the hive.The bees that have nosema are unable to properly digest their food and thus have shortened life spans. Also due to their under nourishment they are unable to produce brood food. Aninfected colony will show slow build up in the Spring (or possibly suffer population decrease).Firm diagnosis is by microscopic examination using a 400 times magnification, we have these type of microscopes available within the association and occasionally run coursesAmoeba is caused by Malpighamoeba Mellifera.Its life cycle is not dissimilar to the Nosema, except that it affects the malphigian tubuals (the bees equivalent to our kidneys). There are no clear symptoms and no treatment.Diagnosis is as for Nosema.
    • Acarine Mite - Acarapis woodii Infests 1st thoracic trachea and breeds there blocks with debris Mites move to young bees Associated with viruses Diagnosis - Take single bees, remove head and examine thorax under x40 microscope Clear Trachea Infected Trachea Look for darkened trachea Possible treatment with thymol AortaThursday, 28 February 13 22Acarine is quite uncommon and seems to be kept in check by the greater use of Thymol and other Varroa treatments that seem to also inhibit the Acarine mite. It can only be diagnosedwith a suitable microscope using one bee at a time and is therefore difficult to identify in a particular colony.
    • Enemy No 1! Varroa (Varroa Destructor) Signs:- Mites visible on bees, larvae and floor debris Deformed bees (particularly deformed wings) May be largely responsible for Colony Collapse Disorder in USA Treatment: Apiguard etc in Autumn, and Oxalic Acid in winter Also open-mesh floors and drone brood cullingThursday, 28 February 13 23
    • Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Varroa can’t be eliminated OMF Drone Dust Api Oxalic Krame so IPM controls numbers guar acid plate Feb Open mesh floors March April Queen trapping May June Drone brood July removal Aug Sept Icing sugar Oct Nov ApiGuard etc Dec Jan Oxalic AcidThursday, 28 February 13 24
    • Thursday, 28 February 13 25
    • Monitor Mite Levels Need to try to keep mite pop <1000 Use hive tray to measure daily mite drop Critical daily mite drop Number of mites in Month (N) colony Winter / Spring ~ 0.5 N x 400 May / June / July ~ 10 N x 50 August / September ~ 25 N x 40 A bad infestation needs treatment ASAPThursday, 28 February 13 26Place the tray under the hive (most hive floors have special slots for the purpose) and cover in a thin coat of vaseline so that any dropped mites stick where they fall.
    • Treatment December / January Treat bees with oxalic acid and feed candy August / September Treat with two doses of Apiguard etcThursday, 28 February 13 27
    • Prevention is Better... You never see photos of disease on clean comb... Replace it every 3 years Mark frames with date Don’t move comb between hives Use disposable gloves Initially place vinyl/latex over leather gloves. Use nitrile or double latex gloves later Sterilise your hive tools with blow torch between hives Dispose of hive detritus away from the apiaryThursday, 28 February 13 28
    • Statutory Requirements AFB and EFB are notifiable diseases. You MUST inform the local Bee Inspector Bee Inspectors have the right to enter property and inspect bees The Regional Bee Inspector is; Nigel Semmence: 01264 338694 email: nigel.semmence@fera.gsi.gov.uk He is supported by a team of local Seasonal Inspectors Register your hives on BeeBase https://secure.fera.defra.gov.uk/beebase/ index.cfmThursday, 28 February 13 29
    • Links for more information http://www.mbbka.org.uk/Varroa- Control.html http://www.bbka.org.uk/learn/ general_information/pests__diseases https://secure.fera.defra.gov.uk/beebase/ index.cfmThursday, 28 February 13 30
    • Summary Reading comb will quickly tell you the state of your colonies Good hygiene can prevent almost all diseases Replace comb after 2-3 years Clean tools and replace gloves as you move from hive to hive Keep your hives and the apiary area clean and tidy If in doubt of AFB or EFB, call your mentor or the local Bee InspectorThursday, 28 February 13 31