Guide for Senior & Master Chief (NAVEDTRA 10049)

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  • 1. NAVEDTRA 10049Naval Education and July 1990 TrainingManualTraining Command 0502-LP-2 12-8600 (TRAMAN)Management Fundamentals:A Guide for Senior andMaster Chief Petty OfficersDISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.Nonfederal government personnel wanting a copy of this documentmust use the purchasing instructions on the inside cover.
  • 2. The terms training manual (TRAMAN) and nonresident training course (NRTC) are now the terms used to describe Navy nonresident training program materials. Specifically, a TRAMAN in- cludes a rate training manual (RTM), officer text (OT), single subject training manual (SSTM), or modular single or multiple subject training manual (MODULE); and an NRTC includes nonresident career course(NRCC), officer correspondence course (OCC), enlisted correspondence course (ECC), or combination thereof. Although the words "he," "him," and "his" are used sparingly in this manual to enhance communication, they are not intended to be gender driven nor to affront or discriminate against anyone reading this text.DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.Nonfederal government personnel wanting a copy of this document must write to Superintendent of Documents,Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402 OR Commanding Officer, Naval Publications and Forms Center,5801 Tabor Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19120-5099, Attention: Cash Sales, for price and availability.
  • 4. PREFACE Management Fundamentals: A Guide for Senior and Master Chief Petty NAVEDTRA 10049, and the nonresident training course (NRTC),Officers,NAVEDTRA 80049, form a self-study training package covering the basicsof current management theory. Designed for individual study rather thanformal classroom instruction, the training manual (TRAM AN) providesinformation on management history, theory, and practice. An NRTC has been designed for use with this TRAMAN. This courseconsists of individual assignments. It must be ordered separately from theTRAMAN. Ordering information is available in the List of Training Manualsand Nonresident Training Courses, NAVEDTRA 12061. Each assignment isa series of questions based on the textbook. You should study the textbookpages given at the beginning of each assignment before trying to answer thequestions in your NRTC. This TRAMAN and its associated NRTC were prepared by the NavalEducation and Training Program Management Support Activity, Pensacola,Florida, for the Chief of Naval Education and Training. Technical reviewwas provided by the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Washington,D.C. Your suggestions and comments concerning this TRAMAN and its NRTCare invited. Comment sheets have been included with both the TRAMAN andNRTC. 1990 Edition Stock Ordering No. 0502-LP-2 12-8600 Published by NAVAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM MANAGEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITY UNITED STATES
  • 5. THE UNITED STATES NAVY GUARDIAN OF OUR COUNTRYThe United States Navy is responsible for maintaining control of thesea and a ready force on watch at home and overseas, capable of isstrong action to preserve the peace or of instant offensive action towin in war.It is upon the maintenance of this control that our countrys gloriousfuture depends; the United States Navy exists to make it so. WE SERVE WITH HONORTradition, valor, and victory are the Navys heritage from the past. Tothese may be added dedication, discipline, and vigilance as thewatchwords of the present and the future.At home or on distant stations we serve with pride, confident in therespect of our country, our shipmates, and our families.Our responsibilities sober us; our adversities strengthen us.Service to God and Country is our special privilege. We serve withhonor. THE FUTURE OF THE NAVYThe Navy will always employ new weapons, new techniques, andgreaterpower to protect and defend the United States on the sea,under the sea, and in the air.Now and in the future, control of the sea gives the United States hergreatest advantage for the maintenance of peace and for victory inwar.Mobility, surprise, dispersal, and offensive power are the keynotes ofthe new Navy. The roots of the Navy lie in a strong belief in thefuture, in continued dedication to our tasks, and in reflection on ourheritage from the past.Never have our opportunities and our responsibilities been greater.
  • 6. CONTENTSCHAPTER Page 1. Introduction to Management Planning, Organizing, and Decision Making 1-1 2. Controlling 2-1 3. Personnel Management 3-1 4. Administration 4-1 5. Leadership and Motivation 5-1 6. Communication 6-1 7. Programs and Policies 7-1APPENDIX I. Mission Organizational Plan AI-1 II. Where To Find It AIMINDEX INDEX-1
  • 7. CREDITS The articles and quotes listed below are included in this edition ofManagement Fundamentals: A Guide for Senior and Master Chief PettyOfficers through the courtesy of the designated sources. Permission to usethese articles and quotes is gratefully acknowledged. Permission to use thesematerials must be obtained frolm the source. SOURCE PAGES U.S. Naval Institute 5-7 through 5-10 G.P. Putnams Sons 3-9, 5-1, 5-6
  • 8. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT- PLANNING, ORGANIZING, AND DECISION MAKING LEARNING OBJECTIVES Learning objectives are stated at the beginning of each chapter. These learning objectives serve as a preview of the information you are expected to learn in the chapter. By successfully completing the nonresident training course (NRTC), you indicate that you have met the objectives and have learned the information. The learning objectives for chapter 1 are listed below. Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 1 . State the role of the senior chief. 10. State the need for careful timing of plans. 2. State the role of the master chief. 11. List the criteria for evaluating plans. 3. Identify the definition of management. 12. State the need for goals and objec- 4. List the functions of management. tives. 5. State the basic tenet of the acceptance theory. 13. Identify the definition of management by objectives (MBO). 6. Identify the characteristics of bureau- cracy. 14. List the steps to solving a problem. 7. Identify the principle characteristics of the 15. List the primary phases of a conference. behavioral theory. 16. Identify the characteristics of decision 8. State the importance of personal situations. planning. 9. List the types of plans. 17. List the styles of decision making. PLANNING AND ORGANIZING for this profession. These managers must use sound management practices to accomplish the The basic principles of management have Navys mission.steadily evolved into a profession indispensable Management practice is a many-facetedto the function of modern organizations, whether discipline encompassing everything from assigningcommercial, nonprofit, or military. The Navy working parties to maintaining multimillion-dollardepends on its "middle managers" to fill the need weapons systems. You as managers are responsible
  • 9. command, the defense department,to the chain ot LJand the taxpayer to avoid needless wasteand inefficiency in the conduct of our mis- Management is defined as the art ofsion. integrating human, economic, and technical resources to attain a goal. No matter what you You as and master chief petty senior attempt to accomplish, a sound knowledge ofofficers are thebackbone of Navy management. management principles will certainly increase yourThe Navy expects you to practice sound chances of meeting your of Navy personnel and materialassets to accomplish our mission. You must wring Management is exercised in many ways. Aevery possible ounce of performance out of the housekeeper who decides what must be done andbudget dollar to survive and prosper in an plans the shopping and housework accordinglyincreasingly budget-conscious world. As senior uses management skills. Organizing a workingenlisted managers you are responsible for your party or coordinating a major assault both requireorganizations effective, efficient operation. management expertise.Effectiveness gets things done correctly andin the proper order. Efficiency achieves ob- Sound professional management results injectives with the greatest possible output from improved performance, more clearly definedminimum input. In other words, efficiency goals, higher success rates, and reduced waste. Itachieves maximum use of physical and human can make the difference between a successfulresources. deployment and disaster. The roles and functions of the senior chief andmaster chief are deliberately stated by the Chief WHAT IS MANAGEMENT?of Naval Operations in general terms. You aregeneric! Whether you are a division chief, division Management is the business of developing andofficer, or command master chief, your mastery coordinating resources, both material and human,of management skills will determine the success and directing their use effectively and efficientlyor failure of your mission. to achieve a goal, objective, or mission. Although management is often described as both an art and The of a senior chief petty officer role a science, the formal study of management as aisthat of the senior technical supervisor with science is new. The science of relativelyprimary responsibilities for supervising and management may be learned in a classroom, buttraining enlisted personnel oriented to system and the art of applying this science in dealing withsubsystem maintenance, repair, and operation. human beings must be learned through observa-Based upon wide-ranging experience and special- tionand experience. Much of the theory of humanized training, the SCPO provides the command behavior can be learned, but a practical base ofwith ahigher level of technical and personal experience is still a must. Science maymanagerial expertise than is expected at the succeed without art; but in the case ofE-7 level. management, great results may only be achieved by skillfully blending the two. As the senior enlisted petty officer in theUnited States Navy, the master chief pettyofficer is vested with special command trust Levels and Types of Managementand confidence extending to administrationand managerial functions involving enlisted The typical organization functions at fivepersonnel. Based upon experience, proven general levels: executive management, topperformance, and technical knowledge necessary management, middle management, first-linefor advancement to the grade of MCPO, management, and nonmanagerial. Consider theindividuals of that rank within a command hold chain of command on board a naval stationthe senior enlisted positions and contribute to (fig. 1-1). The commanding officer and the executiveforming as well as implementing policy within officer are the executive level oftheir occupational field or across the full management. Navy Department heads are the top management level.rating spectrum. Middle management is practiced at the division
  • 10. level. Work center or shop supervisors are front- and objectives will broaden in scope as your managers. Workers make up theline or first-level viewpoint of the organizations mission changes.nonmanagerial level of the organization. What Does a Manager Do? The types of management are generally With few exceptions management tasks andgrouped as either operational or administrative. functions are generic. You as managers performAt lower levels of management, you will be chiefly the same basic functions no matter whatconcerned with operational management. This organization you belong to. What are theseinvolves motivating and directing front-line functions? They are planning, organizing,managers and workers to achieve operational staffing, leading, and controlling. The basicgoals. As you progress upward in the organi- functions of management are interrelated.zation, your concerns will shift toward Remove one of them and the whole processadministrative management activities. Your goals becomes ineffective. EXECUTIVE LEVEL MANAGEMENT TOP LEVEL MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT HEADS DIVISION OFFICERS MIDDLE MANAGEMENT DIVISION CHIEF PETTY OFFICERS WORK CENTER FRONT LINE MANAGEMENT SUPERVISORS NON-MANAGERIAL
  • 11. In addition, military managers must spend ishard to remember your original mission whenconsiderable time balancing the needs and you are up to your hips in alligators. Hopefully,requirements of many different groups (fig. 1-2). this book will help you control the reptileYou are first of all responsible to your chain of population.command for attaining mission goals andobjectives. You must also be aware of and FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENTconcerned for the needs of your troops. Theirhealth and welfare, advancement needs, career The functions of management are allplanning, and personal needs must be considered. individually important. Keep in mind, however,Collateral duties, human relations programs, and that they are also interdependent; that is, theyequal opportunity requirements must be weighed. depend upon each other for success. This sectionYou also have your own needs to worry about. briefly explains the functions of planning,Personal career planning, retirement planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling.and family needs must be coordinated witheverything else. PLANNING. Planning starts with setting a Striking a balance between conflicting needs goal. done, the hard work starts. You Once this iswhile keeping mission objectives on line can make must make decisions concerning the programs,you feel like the man sent to drain a swamp. It tasks, procedures, strategies, and standards PROGRAMS & POLICIES FAMILY SERVICES ETC
  • 12. budgetary and time constraints and consider and political developments of the last 200 years.available resources. The principles of management we know today Planning is the cornerstone of management. have evolved from "classical" theories, throughAll other functions hinge upon careful planning. behavioral theories, to the more recentWithout it, you are wasting your time and your development of contingency managementcommands resources. theories. ORGANIZING. Organizing is the businessof arranging available resources into a coherent Classical Theorystructure. This means getting the needed materialsto achieve your goal, setting up committees or Classical theories date from the late 1800s towork groups, and assigning authority and the 1930s. These theories were more concernedresponsibility for various tasks. with efficient usage of physical resources and technology than human resources. The worker STAFFING. Staffing describes the process was seldom considered as more than a tool, whileof selecting, training, and placing your personnel the manager was regarded less as a leader thanwhere they will be most effective. Take care to as a ruler.consider the capabilities and temperament of your During this period major contributions weretroops when carrying out this function. made to management knowledge in the fields of organizational theory, scientific management, and LEADING. Field Marshall Bernard management functions. Such notables as ChesterMontgomery described leadership as "the capacity Barnard, Max Weber, Frederick Taylor, Frankand will to rally men and women to a common and Lillian Gilbreth, Henry Gantt, and Henripurpose, and the character which will inspire Fayol contributed to this knowledge.confidence." Leadership involves motivating,disciplining, and directing your troops. Although ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY. Organi-your style as a leader may become less personal zational theorists such as Chester Barnard andasyou rise in an organization, your example will Max Weber studied the nature, structure, andbecome more visible. Without strong, effective purpose of formal organizations. Among otherleadership the best of plans will stand little chance accomplishments, Mr. Barnard (who was pres-of success. ident ofNew Jersey Bell Telephone Company) developed the acceptance theory of authority. CONTROLLING. Controlling is the Max Weber, an early sociologist, was one of thefunction that ties the others together. By all founders of the bureaucratic organizationalcontrolling, you develop the methods needed to theory.monitor and guide performance. Without control,production efforts tend to become disjointed and Acceptance Theory. Chester Barnardshaphazard. acceptance theory of authority proposes that When controlling efforts go astray, develop subordinates will completely accept orders onlya plan to get things back on track. Organize the when they understand the orders and are willingmeans to carry out the plan. Assign responsibility and able to comply with them.for getting production back on track (staffing).Provide leadership to get things moving again.Use control methods to ensure that production To what extent have you seen this proven?runs smoothly. Through such actions, you We expect obedience, but results areconstantly repeat and reenforce the cycle of generally better when our workers knowmanagement functions. the what and why of a situation.EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENTTHOUGHT Bureaucracy. Max Webers research showed that a bureaucracy was the most efficient Management in some form has been in method of making the transition from small-scaleexistence since man congregated in family first business to management of large-scale organiza-groups or tribes. Modern organizational behavior tions.
  • 13. Did your blood pressure rise at the mention 5. Incentive pay should be introduced toof BUREAUCRACY? Lets take a look at what increase motivation.this much-maligned word really means. Under abureaucracy, organizational structure is defined Gilbreth. Frank Gilbreth did extensive workby the following six traits: with time and motion studies. His goal was to find the single "best" way to perform a given job. His 1. Tasks are broken into highly specialized methods produced results that were unequalled jobs. at the time. His wife, Lillian Gilbreth, studied 2. A set of rules are rigidly followed to mini- mize uncertainty and increase the ability to ways to improve the training, selection, and placement of personnel. In addition, in 1914 she predict job performance. published the first book on management psychol- 3. Authority-responsibility relationships are ogy: The Psychology of Management. rigidly maintained. 4. Superior-subordinate relationships tend to be impersonal. 5. Promotion and hiring criteria are merit- You may be familiar with the book based. Cheaper By the Dozen. Written by two of the Gilbreths twelve children, it deals 6. Lifetime employment is an accepted norm. humorously with the regimentation The bigger or older an organization becomes, practiced in their home.the more bureaucratic it tends to become.Although many are critical of them, "bureaucraticstructures" can be very effective in many Gantt. Henry Gantt refined methods ofsituations. The armed forces are necessarily highly using graphics to plan, track, and improvebureaucratic. Keep in mind however that rules can performance. The Gantt Chart is used extensivelybe too restrictive, and specialized jobs can become in management planning.boring (leading to errors). Also remember thatyou cant always be impersonal, and truly superiorworkers can be difficult to recognize in a Fayol. Henri Fayols research combined thebureaucratic environment. efforts of several management theorists of his day. He classified the functions of management as SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT. Other clas- planning, organizing, coordinating, commanding, and controlling. These functions have evolved tosicists developed the art of managing production the present with only minor modifications.efficiency. Frederick Taylor, Frank and LillianGilbreth, and Henry Gantt, to name a few, made Todays manager must be proficient in plann- ing, organizing, staffing, leading, and con-major contributions in this field. trolling. Taylor. Frederick Taylors scientificapproach evolved from experiments conducted inthe management of his machine shop. He believed Behavioral Theorymanagers must undergo a "mental revolution."He also believed managers wishing to improve Although by the mid 1920s many businesses had adopted these management practices to goodproductivity should be prepared to share theincreased gains with their workers by improving effect, critics maintained that the human elementmaterial conditions and making the work easier. had been largely ignored. Hugo Munsterberg hadTo advocated the study of human behavior as early accomplish these goals, he proposed five steps: as 1913. The combination of his studies, Max 1 . Workers should be carefully selected and Webers work-leadership theory, and the theory trained. of bureaucracy led to further developments in the 2. Preventive maintenance procedures should field of human relations. The study of human
  • 14. FOLLETT. Mary Parker Follett was a out! They felt special. All of the young ladies hadpsychologist who conducted research in the area volunteered to participate in the experiment andof management and labor relations. She wrote and had committed themselves to cooperating. Theirlectured widely on the subjects of conflict morale improved and production rates followed.resolution, coordination, and cooperation These results are underscored by the fact that atbetween workers and managers. the beginning of the experiments, many laborers commonly referred to the Hawthorne plant as SHELDON. Oliver Sheldon contributed to "the prison."management theory on his advocating that You have probably observed this phenomenonindustry has an obligation to benefit the in military life as well. When the troops feel youcommunity. He maintained that industry had a are concerned for their welfare and will "go tosocial obligation to the community and to its bat for them," they will frequently produce resultsworkers. His ideas were in the forefront of the far beyond your expectations. We reap tremen-human-relations movement that has continued to dous dividends from small amounts of time andthis day. attention when we recognize good performance or assist a sailor with a problem. THE HAWTHORNE EFFECT. No studyof management would be complete without adiscussion of the Hawthorne studies. Between Contingency Approach1924 and 1932, when the Great Depressionintervened, Western Electric Companys In the last 20 years, practicing managers andHawthorne plant was the site of a series of studies theoristshave gradually synthesized a new man-in human behavior. These experiments provided agement approach from the mechanistic and be-a great deal of information relating to motivation, havioral theories of previous decades. Thisorganizational relations, and counselling. method isreferred to as the contingency approach. One of the most interesting findings became The basic tenet of contingency managementknown as the Hawthorne effect. This was the (not to be confused with crisis management) isdiscovery that improved working conditions had that management techniques must be modifiedless effect on productivity than improved morale. according to the current situation. This appliesWhen workers felt their contributions were particularly to military management. Duringimportant and their efforts were appreciated, their peacetime training missions we try to help ourproduction increased, even when working people understand the logic behind orders andconditions were made worse. procedures. During combat or emergencies, In one phase of the experiment, a number of however, we expect immediate, unquestioningyoung women were divided into two groups. One responses. We then become almost totallyacted as a test group and one as a control group. mechanistic in our management approach.The working hours and working conditions of the Contingency management also applies to yourtest group were periodically altered while those dealings with personnel. Some people can take aof the control group remained the same. Such hint or even anticipate your requirements. Othersfactors as lighting, lunch times, and breaks were respond only to blunt, straightforward direction.altered or eliminated for weeks or months at a Most people fall somewhere between these twotime. When working conditions were improved extremes. You will spend a large part of your time,through increased lighting, productivity in the test effort,and skill directing and taking care of thegroup improved. This was expected; but to the needs of your personnel. The ability to choose theresearchers surprise, productivity within the right approach at the right time can make yourcontrol group also improved. Lighting was then job considerably easier.reduced for the test group, but production ratescontinued to improve! The control groupsproduction continued to rise as well. Similar I have six honest serving men, they taughtchanges to breaks, working hours, and lunch me all I knew. Their names are What, andperiods evoked the same response. Over a period When, and Where, and How, and Why,of 2 years, production in both groups soared and Who.steadily to new heights. The workers in these groups were exhibiting Rudyard Kiplingnormal human behavior. They had been singled
  • 15. PLANNING it.In this way, you form specific tasks. By grouping these tasks, you determine the specific As Mr. Kipling pointed out when asked to jobs to be assigned.explain his journalistic success, effective plansrevolve around the answers to six basic questions: When eating an elephant, take one bite at 1 . What must be done? a time. 2. When must itbe done? 3. Where will be done? it General C.W. Abrams 4. How will it be done? 5. Why must it be done? 6. Who will do it? Evaluate the Situation Until these questions are answered, you will When you evaluate the situation, try tobe unable to choose an effective course of action. determine what you need to reach your goal. Use your knowledge and experience to examinePLANNING STEPS available resources, policies, and procedures. Do you have enough manpower, supplies and equip- In planning, you think ahead to select the best ment, space, and time to get the job done? Howcourse of action to reach an objective. Your plan about your standard operating procedures (SOPs)forms the basis for future management actions. and policies? You may need to coordinate withDevelop all the steps required to conduct a smooth other managers and/or staff personnel to get whatoperation, and watch it move toward the you need. If some are unable to help you, this willobjective. Every plan, whether simple or complex, have an impact on your plans. To evaluate, in thiswritten or mental, contains certain essential case, means you must look at the situationelements: an objective, resources, procedures, and carefully before you begin operations.controls. Planning becomes easier if you followa logical sequence in your thinking: Consider AH Possible Alternatives Analyze the objective. Now that you know what has to be done and what is available to do it with, you are ready to Evaluate the situation. consider how to do it. The objective, available resources, and situation all tend to limit your Consider all possible alternatives. alternatives. One very effective technique for generating alternatives is "brainstorming." Select the best course of action. Gather a group of people (your workers, peers, and other concerned managers are excellent Develop an alternate plan. resources), explain the objective, what resources are available, and any existing limitations. Then Test plans for completeness. ask for ideas. You must resist the temptation to arbitrarily prejudge or discard possible courses of Following this sequence wont always assure action. Often a half-baked scheme will trigger aa good plan, but it will eliminate many problems better idea from another source.and pitfalls you would normally encounter inplanning. Selecting the Best Course of ActionAnalyze the Objective After you have met with your people, choose the best course of action to carry out the mission. First, you must break the objective into In making this decision, consider the methods andcomponents and establish relationships among techniques required by each possible course.them. You must answer the question: What Determine which methods are most appropriatespecific operations must I achieve to accomplish and which should be avoided. If you choose athe objective, and how are those operations widely different course of action from that
  • 16. your action will meet all required deadlines. Also, PERSONAL PLANNINGbe certain that your plan fits the assignedobjective, is feasible under present circumstances, While you are doing all this planning, dontand will dovetail with the command mission and overlook the most important plan of all:established policies. You may develop a beautiful Planning your time!plan; but if the manpower requirements for it are Planning your time effectively can benefit yourout of line with available resources, you will be efforts as much as having an assistant. Your job an uphill battle.fighting is to manage. The things you must do to manage Once you have decided on a viable plan, you your unit may seem endless. You must schedulemust design controls for the process. Good work, develop plans, supervise training programs,controls will allow you to keep in touch with the attend endless meetings, improve the programseffectiveness and efficiency of your plan. They under your control, and continually supervise.will let you identify and correct problems before To accomplish this with any degree of effective-they reach epic proportions. A good plan must ness, you should know what you are going to dobe flexible enough to respond to required from day to day. This means planning youradjustments dictated by the control process. work. Experience has shown that the managers efforts fall into four basic work areas: regular, The best laid schemes o mice and men routine, special, and creative. Gang aft a-gley. 1. Regular work is your primary responsi- Robert Burns bility. This includes planning, controlling, organizing, coordinating, directing, training, and If it can possibly go wrong, it will! supervising. 2. Routine work includes tasks such as Murphys Law answering the telephone, preparing routine reports, keeping production records, logging work Always expect the worst, then anything less orders, and keeping muster records. You should will be a pleasant surprise. spend very little time performing these duties. Assign these tasks to subordinates (we will discuss Joel Garner delegation later). 3. Special work includes service on com- mittees, staff studies, investigations, special reports, and collateral duties. Planning for theseDevelop an Alternate Plan duties can be difficult, since they dont always occur at regular intervals; but you must allot time Once you have developed a gem of a plan, for them.expect to fail! An alternate plan can save the it 4. Creative work is what you accomplish inday if the worst should happen. If conditions improving working conditions, developing bettershould change or resources should suddenly procedures, and improving techniques. This is onebecome unavailable, your original plan could well of your basic (and most rewarding)become unworkable. So develop a full-blown responsibilities. If you dont find the time for it,alternate plan at the beginning; you may not have then your planning leaves something to be desired.enough time later. No hard and fast rule exists as to how muchTest Both Plans for Completeness time you should devote to each of the work areas. A general guideline would probably be regular After you have selected the best course of work, 65 percent; routine work, 15 percent;action and an alternate plan, check them both for special work, 10 percent; and creative work, 10completeness. Do they answer the six questions percent. The actual breakdown will depend on youwhat, when, where, how, why, and who? Are they and your work situation.both adequate? Do they comply with current Planning never really ends. You must adjust
  • 17. Planning and plans are typed or classified by Examples of policy are equal opportunitytheir characteristics and purpose. The following programs, promotion policies, fraternization,is the general criteria for classifying plans: single parenting, and zero tolerance. @ Functional area The general field to which PROCEDURES. Procedures establish the the plan applies, such as personnel, sequence and accuracy required for you to administration, operations, and safety accomplish specific actions. You, as managers, establish procedures to accomplish many routine 9 Time factor Long, medium, or short- jobs such as check-in/out, maintenance actions, range preventive maintenance, inspections, and pre- deployment preparations. Characteristics Cost, detail, and com- plexity WARNING Level affected Force, command, depart- ment, division, or shop When a procedure has become obsolete or requires modification, change or cancel it! @ Action required Most often performed Considerable time and effort is wasted actions, such as research and development, every day through compliance with staffing, and mission operations outdated procedures. These criteria are used to classify plans into "But Chief, weve ALWAYS done it thisthree general groups. These are strategic, way." Grrrrr.standing, and one-time or single-use plans.Strategic Plans When procedures cross departmental lines, you must ensure they are coordinated with the Strategic plans are concerned with overall other departments to avoid confusion and ruffledmission. They define unit objectives and goals. feathers. Well thought-out procedures, however,Strategic plans give you "The Big Picture." will make your life easier. They put routine These plans are designed to provide long-range matters on automatic pilot and allow you toguidance. They provide a base line for other plans. concentrate on managing the exception ratherOnce mission and objectives have been defined, than the rule. Good procedures will do thestrategies can be developed to meet them. Strategic following:planning must remain flexible enough to accom-modate shifts in policy or action by our own Free managers time from routine mattersgovernment and other nations. They must includealternate or contingency plans in anticipation of Ease coordinationforeseeable changes. Save man-hoursStanding Plans Increase efficiency and effectiveness Standing plans consist of policies, procedures,and regulations. They exist to provide guidanceto you in the absence of higher authority. They Increase your controlenable you to make rational, informed, consistentdecisions and plans without constantly consulting Simplify delegation of authorityhigher levels of command. Standing plans existuntil they are cancelled or modified by higher Clarify responsibilityauthority. REGULATIONS. Regulations are often POLICIES. Policies are an expression of top used to effect policies and plans. They pro-managements attitudes toward specific actions vide specific direction concerning required or
  • 18. prohibited actions in given circumstances. BUDGETS. A budget is simply a financisRegulations frequently carry a penalty for forecast. It lays out expected monetary needs fononcompliance. You are already familiar with a specific plan or operation. A budget must semany regulations: realistic financial goals to be of any use as control device for project or program manage Hair length and style restrictions ment. You will find budgetary planning one o the most critical planning challenges you will fac Hearing protection requirements as a manager. A carefully thought-out budget however, will provide a measure of efficiency an< @ Smoking restrictions effectiveness as an operation progresses. It wi] also give you a considerable degree of control ove Safety requirements the progress of your project. Uniform requirements THE TIME ELEMENT IN PLANNINGSingle-Use Plans Comprehensive planning can be time-consum Single-use plans are essentially one-time use ing.As a result, you will frequently need to g<plans having a specific goal or objective. They ahead with the several planning steps withoumay run for a few days or last several years. having all the facts. Flexibility is the key t<Projects, programs, and budgets are commonly planning under these circumstances. You musthought of as single-use plans. allow for changes as new information or alterna tives are presented.Give due consideration to th PROGRAMS. Programs set objectives and range or life span of a plan as well. Plans comspecify the main steps or actions you must in three basic sizes with respect to range:take to obtain them. A comprehensive programwill provide information concerning the follow- 1. Long-range plansing: 2. Intermediate-range plans Step-by-step goals 3. Short-range plans O Policies Long-Range Plans 6 Rules Long-range plans run for 2 or more years an sometimes as much as 30 years. Five-year plan Required physical and human resources for new construction, manpower, and weapon procurement typically fall into this category Strategies Long-range plans reflect the big picture and ar generally reserved for top-level managers. Thes PROJECTS. An effective way for you to are the plans people are least likely to understamdeal with program management is to break the completely. Long-range plans are also calleiprogram goals into manageable projects. A strategic plans.project should have a clearly defined goal witha definite beginning and end. This approach tomajor or complex objectives will give you greater In over 25 years service, Ive never seen theflexibility inscheduling, planning, and delegation. Real Navy or The Big Picture.It allows you, the manager, to concentrate onmanaging the various aspects of the program Anonymous MCPOwhile dividing the detail work among yoursubordinates. A side benefit of this technique isincreased involvement and program support from Intermediate-Range Plans
  • 19. ui iiucTiiieuiaLe-riiiige pians. iiuerine- win me muic ugiu yuui pi an, me iiiuicdiate-range planning is normally associated with will be the need to change it. This idea is astaff, department, and sometimes division corollary to the jelly-side-down principle.managers.Short-Range Plans The odds of a falling piece of jelly bread landing jelly side down improve in direct Short-range plans are formed at all levels of relation to the cost of the They are, however, normallyassociated with managers at the division, branch, Murphys Lawand shop levels. Implementation of new policies,work assignments, and training syllabi are typicalshort-range plans. These cover a time span from Simplicity1 day to 1 year. Needlessly complicated plans are an admini-TIME SPAN AND PLANNING strative burden to you and the people who must live with them. Some plans must be complicated, The time you spend on planning will depend but you must make every effort to avoidlargelyupon your position in the management unnecessary steps. This is the same logic that dictates breaking large programs and plans downhierarchy (chain of command). Upper-levelmanagers routinely spend over 25 percent of their into more manageable projects. You can helptime planning, while lower-level managers by designing a compartmented plan that will lend itself to the project concept. Such fore-normally invest 10 to 15 percent of their time. All managers plan. The character, range, and thought makes monitoring and controlling muchtime invested in a plan depend on the nature and easier and will save your time and the Navyscomplexity of the plan. They also depend on your money.level of responsibility and authority with regardto that particular plan. Accuracy Does your plan conform to your goal? AreEVALUATING PLANS facts accurate or colored your by personal opinion and desires? You must maintain objectivity in the The criteria most commonly used to evaluate planning process. You must avoid needless rufflesyour plans are based on your consideration of the and flourishes that do not point toward your goal.following elements: Tinsel is pretty but expensive. Flexibility Comprehensive Viewpoint G Simplicity Have you gone through all of the planning steps? Does your plan cover all vital actions Accuracy without going into minute, restrictive detail? You must leave room for subordinates to maneuver. Comprehensive viewpoint Is your plan consistent with command procedures and goals? Your plan should make coordination Cost-effectiveness with other elements of the command easy. Assignment of accountability and Cost-Effectiveness responsibility Cost-effectiveness applies to more than justFlexibility dollars. If your plan provide enough return will to justify the time, energy, and personal The longer the span of time involved in your involvement you (and others) will invest, use it;plan, themore important flexibility becomes. otherwise, cancel it. One of the hardest things forYour design must be flexible enough to a manager to do is scrap a lovely, simple plan.accommodate smooth transition into alternate If you must cancel a plan, do it yourself; this isplans should the need arise. And arise it easier than having it scrapped by someone else.
  • 20. Have you provided realistic guidelines,timetables, and performance measures? Does yourplan clearly delineate areas of responsibility? If you dont know where you are going,These facets of good planning can save a then any road will get you there.tremendous amount of time and confusion. Youcan make everyones life easier by spelling out Lewis Carrolwho must do what by when. ORGANIZING GOALS AND OBJECTIVES Objectives provide both direction and Organizing is analyzing the mission, determin- destination to our efforts. Without them, you areing the jobs, setting up the structure, and assigning like SN Skylark who reported to personnel andpersonnel. Since planning and organizing overlap, told the duty yeoman that he had lost his orders.saying precisely when planning stops and organiz- When the personnelman offered to contact hising starts is nearly impossible. The basic procedure of organizing consists of next command, Skylarkreplied, "Thats the real problem; without my orders, I dont know whichconsidering mission and resources, putting them ship I am going to."in order, and carrying out plans. Factors Some sailors take a shotgun approach toconsidered include functions, operations, tasks, studying for advancement. They take corre-material, manpower, money, space, and time.You have four major tasks: set up a structure, spondence courses that interest them without reference to their advancement bibliography.determine procedures, establish requirements, and Without organizing their study efforts, theyallocate resources. greatly reduce their chances of passing a rating. Organizing is based on mission objectives.Different missions require different types of Many managers make the same mistake; they make decisions without identifying the goals firstorganization. The mission, however, does not tell or objectives and planning the best route foryou what specific functions, operations, and taskswill be required. It is simply a short statement of attaining them.the end results expected. It must be reduced tothree areas: What Is an Objective? 1 . Functions General types of work which For our purposes, goals and objectives are must be performed to accomplish the mission essentially the same. An objective is the desired end result of your efforts. It should be consistent 2. Operations Specific jobs which must be with your unit mission. Objectives can be stated done to perform a function in broad terms (overall objectives) or be precise 3. Tasks Individual jobs required to com- (specific objectives). You reach overall objectives plete an operation through setting and attaining sub objectives, The important thing for you to remember is specific strategies, policies, programs, and soto break the mission down into the functions, forth.operations, and tasks needed to accomplish it. To determine objectives, you first must defineThen group them by similarities of required skills your units overall mission. Your units intendedand equipment. The project concept discussed function or purpose is its mission. Without a clearunder planning now comes into play. Once you picture of your mission and objectives, you willhave grouped the various elements of the mission, be like SN Skylark knowing you need to goyou must develop an organizational structure SOMEWHERE, but not knowing where.based on that grouping. This structure will provide Areas that need objectives include, but arethe channel through which orders will travel, and not limited to, work performance, worker at-it will determine the assignment of responsibility titudes, retention, productivity, material, andand authority. The typical organizational chart finances. Appendix I provides an excellentis a graphic representation of a units structure. example of a mission organizational plan andIt shows the lines of authority and responsibility, objectives.
  • 21. uy SOLVING Management by objectives (MBO) is a jointeffort in goal setting by managers and their A major component of planning and organiz-subordinates. One of the major benefits of this ing in any organization is the ability of itsprocess is the resulting dedication to goal managers (thats you) to make decisions. Decisionattainment by your subordinates. People with a making is the deliberate choice of a specific coursepersonal commitment to a goal will naturally work of action to achieve a particular result. The qualityharder than those who have their goals set for of your decisions will directly affect the efficiencythem. and effectiveness (remember those two words?) of your department, division, or work center. It also will determine your creditability with your Did you volunteer for this job? subordinates and seniors. All managers are Yeah. At least thats what the Chief told decision makers! me. CLASSIFYING DECISIONS Conversation overheard between two Airmen during a base beautification Decisions may be classified as programmed or project unprogrammed. Programmed decisions are repetitive in nature and are normally covered by routine procedures or instructions. When to The MBO process consists of six major schedule training, which check-in procedures toparts: use, and when to perform preventive maintenance are examples of programmed decisions. These 1. Discuss your job responsibilities and decisions are considered routine and require little, priorities. if any, conscious thought. The unprogrammed 2. Reach a mutual understanding of your decisions are the ones that cause ulcers and subordinates responsibilities and job prior- premature hairloss. Unprogrammed decisions are ities. made infrequently and generally involve variables 3 . Jointly set specific performance objectives that require a considered response each time the and standards for your subordinates. problem arises. Who to send TAD, which 4. Establish periodic meetings to evaluate assignment to ask for, and how to schedule progress. Christmas leave are examples of unprogrammed 5. Set annual or semiannual meetings to decisions. review your subordinates overall perform- ance. PROBLEM SOLVING 6. Start the cycle over at step 1, adjusting or modifying goals as necessary. How many times during the past months have you found obstacles standing between you and MBO programs are not applicable to all some goal you wanted to reach? Most supervisorssituations. Additionally, MBO can cause increased could quote a fairly large figure if they could makepaperwork and be time-consuming. The benefits an accurate tally of the number of problems theyof a well-run MBO program can, however, be have faced. Whenever difficulties block your pathconsiderable. MBO ensures that subordinates to some goal, you have a problem.understand what expected of them and where is Since you do not lead a charmed existence,your priorities lie. This eliminates much potential you are confronted by problems everyday. As aconfusion, frustration, and wasted motion. The mature person, you probably accept theMBO process forces you and your subordinates inevitability of problems, facing them realisticallyto plan more thoroughly and focuses your energies and seeking workable solutions. But unless youon specific goals. It increases communication have studied the nature of problems and ways tobetween you and your subordinates about tackle them, you may still be resorting to trial-progress and problems and increases your and-error methods. This often results in yoursubordinates commitment to attain those goals. overlooking the best solutions.MBO also sets up definite, measurable standards Problems can be solved to the advantage offor performance evaluation. all concerned. The art of problem solving may
  • 22. seem extremely tedious and demanding at first.However, once you master it you will enjoy the RECOGNIZEbenefits of finding the best solution for the THE PROBLEMproblem at hand. Your duties are demanding. Demands createproblems that you must solve, sometimes byyourself but more often with others who areequally concerned. What better reason could you GATHERhave to master problem solving? You should DATAremember two principles about problem solving: 1 . Any system is better than no system at all. 2. The ultimate goal of any system is the LIST ability to withhold judgment until all POSSIBLE aspects of the problem have been logically SOLUTIONS considered.Individual Problem Solving o TEST/DISCUSS The system we describe here is a way you can SOLUTIONS <remove obstacles and reach the goal in problem CD Osolving. Since the method is closely related to the LUprocess of scientific investigation, it is oftenreferred to as the scientific method of problemsolving. The method is not foolproof, but it will SELECThelp you withhold judgment until you have con- THE BESTsidered all possible facets of the problem and all SOLUTIONpossible solutions. This is a value of any problem-solving system. It enables you to consider possiblesolutions without prejudice or bias. Any syste-matic approach to problem solving will help youto withhold judgment and remain open-minded. The six phases of problem solving (or decisionmaking) follow a logical sequence (fig. 1-3). Inactual practice, you will probably need to adjustthis sequence to fit the moment. Developmentsin one phase may cause you to readjust orreconsider factors in a previous step. Thefollowing are the six steps to problem solv-ing: 1. Recognize the problem. 2. Gather the data. 3. List all possible solutions. Figure 1-3. Decision making. 4. Test possible solutions. 5. Select best possible solution. 6. Implement and follow-up. obstacles such as cost, time, available transportation, and routes to take. The above RECOGNIZE THE PROBLEM .Can you factors contribute to recognizing your problemtake a trip without first deciding what method of through analysis of the elements.transportation to use or without knowing whereyou want to go? Obviously, you must recognize GATHER THE DATA. You now have ayour need to get from one place to another. goal and you have identified the things that standSecondly, you must know your goals or the place between you and success. Next, you must get allvou intend to visit. You must consider the the information you need to solve the problem.
  • 23. You need to know about road conditions as well SELECT THE BEST POTENTIALas bus, train, and airline schedules and fares. SOLUTION. At this point, you can decide onDivide this information into categories: the best solution by eliminating those which do nof meet your criteria. For example, in planning Facts These are known For example, truths. your trip, you may eliminate rail, bus, and airyou can call the highway patrol for road travel because they do not fit your criteria. Youconditions, you can consult schedules for trip may decide that driving your car is the besttimes, and a map will provide distance solution to the problem.information. Of course most problems are not this simple. You will frequently find two or more alternatives Assumptions Some data must be assumed, that meet all your criteria. You must then decidesuch as the accuracy of information concerning which will be the best. This may well be thefares and possible routes. hardest part of decision making, because it causes you to fall into a mission-oriented frame of Criteria A criterion is a standard of judging. reference. Which alternative is best for the overallThis most important in data gathering. It is a is mission? Which will best dovetail with other on-rule by which you measure such things as facts, going projects? Which pays the most dividendsprinciples, opinions, and assumptions. In problem in the long run?solving, you should always have some criteria toconsider. For example, you might consider criteria IMPLEMENT AND FOLLOW UP. Put thesuch as the following: departure must be between solution into effect. No problem is solved until0800 and 1000, arrival must be before 1700, action is all that work making a taken. Afterluggage must include two suitcases and a trunk, your work be wasted. Follow decision, dont letand travel money is limited to $75. The criteria up. Get feedback on the progress of your solution.will help you decide which method of travel to You may need to review and revise your solutionuse. The bus may be too slow. The train may leave as it progresses. Also, failure to follow up showstoo early. Airfare may exceed available funds. a lack of interest. Your subordinates may wonderWhatever criteria you set up will help you decide why they should be interested in the plan.between alternatives. Group Problem Solving LIST ALL POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS.Where do you find possible solutions? You may Complex situations require todays managerget ideas almost immediately. The longer you to make the best possible use of every workersstudy, consider, and think about solutions, the talents. To do this, you must have a means ofmore alternatives you will have. Solving the first getting your people to take an active part intwo steps to problem solving should generate some solving unit problems or deciding unit policy. Theviable alternatives along the way. conference method is valuable for this purpose primarily because it brings about a pooling of TEST POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS. In every knowledge, information,experience, andinstance, you should consider each possible judgment.solution against the established criteria. Evaluate A problem solved by the conference methodyour solution by asking yourself the following must be one that requires collective thought andquestions: action to solve because of its nature, importance, or complexity. Not every problem Is the solution suitable? Will this solution warrants the time-consuming method of calling produce the desired results? Will it do the job? and conducting a conference. The people brought together should have a common interest in the Is the solution feasible? Do the means for problem. They should be qualified to discuss and completing the job by this method exist? Can pass judgment on the problem. The problem the job be accomplished this way? should be one to which the group can be expected to find a practical and acceptable solution. Is the solution acceptable? Is the solution Other important values grow out of using the going to be cost-effective? Will it fit command conference method. Workers who have had an directives? Even if the solution is cheaper, will opportunity to offer their ideas and to take part
  • 24. to accept the decision reached. Also, other serious Submit a proposed agenda, but allow the groupproblem areas may be uncovered during the it and offer modifications. The groups to discussconference. primary objectives are to agree on (1) the exact You need several elements to use the con- nature of the problem, (2) the criteria for testingference method. You must have an exchange of solutions, and (3) what the agenda should be.ideas. For profitable discussion, you must selectpeople who are qualified to discuss the issue and Ensure that points are discussed in the agreedto act upon it. You must control the discussion; upon order. Cover all phases of the problem andtherefore, you must have planned it in advance. call upon every member to contribute to theMost important of all, the conference must have discussion. Bring differences of opinion into thean objective. Add up these elements and you have open and discuss them freely. After the problema workable definition of the conference method. has been thoroughly explored, solicit possibleIt is a planned-for meeting of selected people solutions. List the main points, facts, andwhere an active, controlled exchange of ideas assumptions agreed upon and the possibletakes place for the purpose of solving a problem. solutions. PLANNING THE CONFERENCE. A con- Use questioning and summarizing to clarifyference can be productive, or it can quickly the issues. The question is an invaluable tool.deteriorate into an exercise in fertilizer spreading. Questions can open, advance, expand, or closeThis will produce a maximum of useless talk and a discussion. They can provoke thought and geta minimum of worthwhile results. The usefulness people to join the discussion. Success dependsof the conference rests on the quality of upon asking the right question at the right time.preparation. Therefore, arrange for a suitable Questions may be classified as overhead, direct,conference room and set an acceptable time for reverse, relay, lead-off, or follow-up, dependingthe meeting. Provide tables, chairs, lighting, on their purpose:chalkboard, maps, charts, and other necessaryaids. Inform the conferees of the time and place An overhead question is one you throw out advance as possible. Also provide themas far in to the entire group. The first question willwith a tentative statement of the problem, probably be of this type. When asking anavailable pertinent data, apparent criteria for overhead question, give each person asolutions, and an agenda for the discussion at the chance to express an opinion or presentsame time. This allows them to be fully prepared information. The overhead question mayfor the discussion. be used to close the discussion of a topic: "Does anyone have anything to add before CONDUCTING THE CONFERENCE. we move on to the next point?"The orderly conduct of a conference fits into threeorganizational divisions: introduction, body, and A direct question is one you address toconclusion. individuals. You will find such questions As with the introduction to a speech, getting very helpful in drawing people into thea conference started on the right foot is crucial discussion. Be sure to ask a question theto all that follows. Unless the participants are well person can answer. Use direct questions toknown to each other, ensure the chairman and jolt the inattentive, get the talker toeach member of the conference has a name card. summarize, or get special information Provide guidelines for the conference: (1) from someone. You also may use them tostress the need for active participation; (2) draw someone back into the discussion byencourage freedom of expression; (3) request that asking how his or her comments relate tocontributions be brief and to the point; (4) rule the topic. You may ask the direct questionthat only one person may speak at a time; (5) first, or you may name the person you wishinvite differences of opinion, but rule out personal to target before asking the question. Theabuse; and (6) assure that anything said will be first method keeps the entire group on itsregarded as confidential. toes, and the second solicits individual Having laid the ground rules, introduce the thought and reply.problem, motivate the group to solve it, and leadthe group to a final agreement. Then set up A reverse question is one you revert to thecriteria for the group to test possible solutions. asker. A relay question is one you pass to
  • 25. suineuuc cisc. iuu may use a ic- 11 pu&MUic. ra.iiUsUia.Liy verse question if a conferee asks questions controversial questions may call for one or more you feel you should not answer. Throwing summaries within the discussion of a point. questions back to the group promotes open As a conference leader you must know how discussion and keeps you in the to handle discussion problems. Many trying and background. delicate situations can, and will, arise; and circumstances will vary widely from conference 9 A lead-off question is one you use to start to conference. Be aware of possible problems, be a discussion of a new topic. A lead-off prepared for some common situations, and be question should generate group thinking familiar with possible ways of handling them. The on the topic. Before the conference begins, following suggestions for dealing with disruptive prepare a lead-off question for each characteristics may prove helpful: separate item. Verbose people who take 5 or 10 minutes A follow-up question is one you use to to make a small point must learn to be keep a discussion going. This type of more concise. Ask them to write a brief question serves to govern conference summary on the chalkboard. You will find progress. You must carefully design this is a severe but effective method to curb follow-up questions. Some planning of misuse of time. follow-up questions helps, but the discussion itself will determine the specific Reticent, or silent, persons are likely to be questions. new to the group or unsure of themselves. Ifthey fail to join the talk after becoming Use the following guidelines when asking familiar with the group, bring them intoquestions: the discussion with direct questions you are sure they can answer. 1 . Word all questions clearly so that they maybe easily and quickly understood. They should be Skeptical people are a disturbingneither too hard nor too easy to answer. If a influence most instances because they inquestion is too hard, you will receive little or no make us think who keep us from becom-response; if it is so simple that it requires no ing receptive to illogical proposals. Ifthought, it has no value. skepticism prevents the acceptance of 2. Since the primary objectives are to en- any proposal, however, remind the skepticcourage thinking and promote discussion, avoid that some solution must be found.questions that may be answered yes or no. 3. Generally, questions should be designed to The dogmatic characters will argue a singledraw out the knowledge and experience of the idea illogically until they arrive at the pointgroup. They should be worded so that people feel of no return. To concede in any way wouldfree to express their personal views on the subject. be an admission of stupidity or ignorance.Avoid any wording that insults or antagonizes. To get these people back into the group,Do not let anyone flounder indefinitely; remember point out differences in definitions ornot to use questioning as an end in itself, but to evidence that both they and the rest of theuse it only as a tool. group have used. By doing this, you divorce them from ownership of the Successfully handling a discussion of any proposal.length frequent summarizing. requiresSummarizing helps you to keep the discussion Finally,the radical thinkers, or "oddfocused on the subject, give the group a clear may become a disturbing influence. balls,"picture of the discussion, and avoid needless The greatest mistake you can make inrepetition. It also helps you to reveal areas of dealing with these people is to ridiculeagreement and disagreement. A summary to them into silence. Genius first unfoldeddefine exactly where you are and what you have may appear revolutionary and bizarre.decided before going ahead is a must following Only by listening to and understandingthe discussion of each point. This is the time to revolutionary ideas can we honestly judgeiron out differences of opinion uncovered during them.
  • 26. itswordy, domineering, or belligerent members You waste time and effort trying toin line. Since this action carries the weight of plan for every possibility. Stick to thegroup feeling, it is generally more acceptable than situations most likely to occur.if you alone take action. 6. Dont panic when you make a mistake. No one is right every time. Mistakes are CLOSING THE CONFERENCE. The a fact of life. Make the best possibleconclusion of your conference can be compared decision while recognizing that manyin purpose and importance to the conclusion of situations cannot be divided into blacka speech. It must tie the entire project together. and white. When you make a mistake,Since all topics have been fully discussed, restate admit your error, learn from it, and getallthe possible solutions. After considering each on with your business.solution, select the best one. The solution decided 7. Make the decision. Dont waffle overupon must be likely to succeed in solving the a decision. Changing your mind backproblem. You will, of course, have differences of and forth only creates confusion andopinion to iron out in coming to a decision loss of confidence among youracceptable to the group. The final solution may a compromise or a combination of several 8. Put to work. Having made your deci- itpossible solutions. Make a closing summary, sion,implement it. Put your heart intophrasing the agreed-upon solution in a short, clear making your decision work. Limp-statement. When no solution is reached or when wristed implementation may doomdiscussion is to be continued at a later time, briefly your efforts to failure. If you do yoursummarize what has been covered. At the end of best and still fail, refer to rule 6.your summary, explain any further action to betaken. Group members must not leave the meetingwondering what, if anything, has been Group Decision Makingaccomplished. In instances, you will be able to make many decisions based on your experience and knowledge. At times, however, you will need DECISION RULES input from others. You may gather input informally or in a more structured setting. 1. Set priorities for decisions. Is this The need for group involvement may arise at a real problem that requires a decision, any point in the decision process. Opinions are or is it a minor matter that can be sharply divided concerning the effectiveness of resolved at a lower level? groups, such as committees, in decision making. Some managers feel that group decision are more 2. Dont reinvent the wheel. Does a effective because of the broader span of policy or procedure already exist to take knowledge and experience represented. The care of the situation? Wasting time opponents of group decision making argue that making decisions that have already decisions are weakened through attempts to please been made is pointless. too many different people. For better or worse, you will undoubtedly be involved in group 3. Gather other opinions. Do you need decisions at many points in your career. The more information? Check with following list of dos and donts will help you get supervisors, friends, or experts to get the most out of the experience: a good perspective on the problem when necessary. Treat all members of the group fairly. 4. Avoid stress checks. Anticipate Dont feel that each member must get problems as much as possible. This exactly what he or she wants. Make this helps avoid crisis situations. If you must clear from the start. make a pressured decision, take a few minutes out and mentally review the Remember that you are here to gather decision-making steps covered earlier. different perspectives on the problem.
  • 27. 9 Encourage each person to present his or SUMMARY her perception of the problem and its Planning is central to all other management solution. functions. one of the most important and It is difficult tasks you face as a manager. You must Dont try to sell the senior members carefully and methodically develop plans. Because ideas. of the difficulty of long-range forecasting, you must maintain flexibility to keep a plan viable. Maintain a disciplined meeting. You begin good planning with the identification of goals and objectives. Next you carefully evaluate circumstances and available Try to solve problems cooperatively. alternatives. Once this accomplished, you decide is Dont solicit advice with no intention of upon a course of action and develop alternate plans. Finally, you test your plans against the paying attention to it. various criteria for effectiveness and feasibility. Plans are loosely classified by their purpose, WHEN TO MAKE A GROUP DECI- time span, and managerial level. The range ofSION. How involved should your subordi- planning tends to increase in direct proportion tonates be in the decision process? Will an the managerial level. Remember to evaluate yourindependent decision on your part directly plans ruthlessly before putting them to work.or indirectly affect the morale or job per- Restarting the planning process or scrapping anformance of your worker? You should con- idea altogether is better than finding you have whethersider serveral factors in determining wasted time, money, and manpower on a bad share a with your subordinates decision Organizing and planning go hand-in-hand;or make it independently. The following good planning includes the ability to organize andare some of the questions you should ask set objectives. Without effective organization, youyourself: cannot hope to get a plan off the ground. Take the time to plan and organize your efforts. Poor Do I have enough information to make the planning and bad organization waste time, effort, decision on my own, or do I need input and money. They also breed frustration and a from my subordinates? profound distrust of managers. You are the manager whose creditability is at stake. The principle factor in successful organization Will my subordinates acceptance of the de- and planning is your ability to make decisions. cision affect their performance in carrying You must develop the ability to make decisions. it out? Learn when to use groups or conferences to make decisions and when to make the decision yourself. o Do my workers understand the unit goals Some decisions must be made by a committee, and involved in this decision? Will involvement some can only be made by you. in the decision strengthen their support of these goals? REFERENCES Is the best decision likely to cause Megginson, Leon C., Donald C. Mosley, and conflict among the members of my Paul H, Pietri, Jr., Management: Concepts unit? and Applications, 2d ed., Harper and Row, New York, 1986. THE BOTTOM LINE. Whatever yourpersonal decisions concerning group decision USAF Managers Course, Vol. 3, Leadership andmaking, remember that, ultimately, the Management, Course 12, 00012-03-8112,responsibility for your decisions is yours alone. USAF Extension Course Institute, Gunter AirYou can use the group process to educate your Force Station, Montgomery, Ala., n.d.subordinates in decision making. You can gainadditional information and insight into problems Washbush, John B., and Barbara J. Sherlock, Tofrom your group members; but when you make Get the Job Done, 2d ed., Naval Institute kn i/rni QTO a11 a 1 /tit A ar/"lie 1QQ1
  • 28. CHAPTER 2 CONTROLLING LEARNING OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 1. Recognize the steps to effective control. 5. Identify the purpose of management in- formation systems. 2. State the criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of controls. 6. Recognize the difference between quanti- tative and nonquantitative controls. 3. Define the major types of control. 7. State the uses of Gantt and PERT charts. 4. List the steps in the process of management 8. State the basic concept of Total Quality by exception. Management. What are controls? Controls are everywhere.The governor on an engine, a fire alarm, a circuitbreaker, and extra military instruction (EMI) are SET STANDARDSall examples of controls. You exercise controlwhen you, the manager, take steps to ensuremanagerial goals are reached. To achieve control,you must monitor work progress and correctdeviations from established standards. I Controls can be total or partial. A smoke DEFINE PERFORMANCEdetector is a familiar partial control system. It MON TORI NG Iannounces the presence of smoke or combustion PROCEDURESof products but does nothing to correct theproblem. A high-pressure safety valve on a boileris a total control system. It detects excessivepressure in the boiler and corrects the problem Iby releasing steam until pressure reaches anacceptable level (established standard). EVALUATE PERFORMANCE AGAINST STANDARDS BASICS OF CONTROL Although controlling is concerned with everyfacet of management, planning and control are Iintimately related. Sound planning determines thedirection of an organization. Good plans establish I N I Tl ATI VEappropriate controls to keep the organization on CORRECT! VE ACT! ONtrack.
  • 29. trolling: methods and work force factors (morale, leader- ship, and so forth). Can production efficiency and 1. Set standards effectiveness be improved? Is training up to 2. Define performance monitoring procedures speed? Do leadership and supervisory ability meet 3. Evaluate performance against standards your standards? How about morale and 4. Initiate corrective action environmental conditions. Another possibility is poor planning or organization. You must go toSet Standards work and get things moving in the right direction again. After all, thats what managers do! To establish control over a process, you mustfirst decide what standards you will use for EVALUATING YOUR CONTROLSreference points. Standards define the goals ofyour efforts. They may be expressed as recruiting Most commands have four key areas oftargets, quality control goals, budget goals, or control: financial control, inventory control,flight schedules. These are quantitative standards: quantity control, and quality control. Use the14 recruits a month, zero defects, 10 percent following criteria to evaluate your commandsspending reduction, or all aircraft full mission controls:capable (FMC) for a sortee. Other standardsinvolve qualitative goals: sharp uniforms, fair @ Timeliness Controls must provide timely improved morale. Qualitativeselection boards, or detection and correction of problems tostandards are much more difficult to define and minimize wasted time and resources.control than quantitative standards. Accuracy Accurate monitoring proce-Define Performance-Monitoring dures allow you to pinpoint potentialProcedures problems for correction. The next step in achieving control is deciding Acceptability Controls must behow to measure performance, what information reasonable. Unnecessarily stringentto require, and how to obtain it. Performance controls generate resistance within thedata may be gathered from personal observation, work force. When workers feel they arentwritten and oral reports, inspections, and trusted or fail to understand the need forautomatic data processing (ADP) products. Keep controls, they may circumvent the system.control procedures as simple and cost effective as You are no doubt familiar with the termpossible. Ensure, however, that they are adequate gundecking. You may even know someonefor the task at hand. who has been guilty of gundecking.Evaluate Performance Against Cost-effectiveness Controls consumeStandards money and manhours. Unless a control system will save more than it costs to Compare performance data to established implement, look elsewhere for a solution. The results of this comparison indicatestandards.where you are in relation to your goals. If As you apply these principles of control, youeverything is on track, take a bow. If things are must consider the time frame in which yourbeginning to stray off course or come unraveled, controls operate. Controls operate in three modesdecide whether or not to take corrective action. in relation to time: feedforward, concurrent, and feedback.Make Corrections Feedforward control This control, the Ifperformance standards are not being met, most dynamic of the three, is designed to discoveryou must be prepared to initiate corrective action. problems before they occur. Drawbacks to feed-Examine your monitoring system; is it accurate? forward control are the heavy investment of timeDo performance standards accurately reflect and the detailed management required to makemission requirements? Are your standards too this system work. A maintenance manager whohigh? Too low? If your monitoring methods and adjusts leave and liberty schedules to meet
  • 30. control. of MBE: Concurrent control This type of control Set performance standards. When settingeffects corrections as they are needed. It does not standards, make sure you clearly definepredict them. When the process under control acceptable limits.deviates from acceptable limits, concurrentcontrol steps in and corrects problems as they Monitor performance. Evaluateoccur. When you walk, you constantly monitor performance against established standards.your stride and balance to avoid falling. This isconcurrent control. Determine whether or not performance deviates from standards. Feedback control Feedback control fixesa problem after the fact." For instance, a Determine the lowest level of managementdefense contractor who discovers during final with authority to deal with the problem.testing that a component has a defective design Send it up the chain of command, notmust scrap the production run and fix the down.problem. The contractor may lose money on thatone production run, but that is far better than Ensure that decisions concerning correctivegoing through a congressional investigation for action are made at the lowest managerialsending defective parts to the fleet. level competent to deal with them. There are as many ways of attaining control Following this process solves problems moreas there are managers! Even standard control quickly and allows upper levels of managementmethods are personalized by individual managers more time to devote to problems that cannot beto suit personal inclinations and individual delegated.situations. MISAIDS TO CONTROL Management information systems are nothing Two increasingly common control concepts new. They are systems designed to organize largeare the management information system (MIS) amounts of information into units that are neededand management by exception (MBE). Manage- by managers. Further, an MIS ensures thatment by exception operates on the assumption individual managers receive enough data to makethat lower-level managers (front-line supervisors, a decision without being buried by needless facts.etc.) address minor deviations in a process, while This may seem contradictory at first glance, butsenior managers get involved with the more critical think about it. A commanding officer (CO) doesproblems. Management information systems not need a detailed inventory of the supplygather and correlate information for use by warehouse. All the CO needs is the supplymanagers. officers report concerning mission capability and particular problem areas.MBE We are most familiar with computerized systems for data handling. You have seen supply Any process will have some deviations from system readouts, Manpower Authorizationstandards. Often these deviations are normal and OPNAV 1000/2, and Enlisted Distribution anddo not require any action. At other times Verification Reports (EDVRs). Maintenanceproduction may deviate far enough from set personnel are also familiar with NALCOMISstandards that corrective action is necessary. A (Naval Aviation Logistics Command Informationmanager who practices MBE will delegate enough System) and SNAP (Shipboard Nontacticalauthority to subordinates that they can make Automated Data Processing System), whichdecisions and resolve routine problems. When provide maintenance management data. Eachproblems arise that are outside this delegated management field has its own peculiar manage-authority, the manager steps in and makes the ment information systems. These variousnecessary decisions. This method leaves the information systems normally supply anmanager free to work on more important aspects assortment of reports tailored to the needs of
  • 31. , U1JLJ.W1J. I. Zero-based budgeting was introduced into the federal government by President Carter in 1977. METHODS OF CONTROL The Secretary of Defense decided that PPBS would be retained to the maximum extent possible in carrying out ZBB implementation. Control techniques or methods are generallydescribed as either quantitative or nonquanti- Zero-based budgeting requires programtative. managers to examine programs at various funding levels and then rank the programs in order of importance. This requires managers to explicitlyQUANTITATIVE METHODS identify priorities, set objectives, and develop alternative methods for carrying out agency Quantitative methods use data and various missions. This system promotes a more effectivequantitative tools to monitor and control use of resources. It forces decision makers toproduction output. Two common quantitativetools are budgets and audits. By far the most review programs comprehensively each year instead of making small, incremental changeswidely recognized quantitative tool is the chart. from year to year. It also forces managementCharts used as control tools normally contrast involvement in the decision-making process.time and performance. The visual impact of achart often provides the quickest method ofrelating data. A difference in numbers is much PPBSmore noticeable displayed graphically. Most whencharts are versions of either the Gantt chart or Since the early 1960s, the Department of thethe Program Evaluation and Review Technique Navy has used the PPBS to formulate the(PERT). departments annual budget request. The essential elements of PPBS are as follows:NONQUANTITATIVE METHODS 1. To and objec- evaluate the specific goals Nonquantitative methods refer to total or tives of each programoverall control of performance rather than specific 2. To evaluate the yield of the programsprocesses. These methods use tools such as against their objectivesinspections, supervision, and reports, direct 3. To determine the most effective options forperformance evaluation/counselling to accom- accomplishing the objectives at the lowestplish goals. possible cost 4. To execute the PPBS in an ordered,BUDGETS AND AUDITS methodical manner and ensure future decisions follow the same process By far the best known control device is thebudget. Budgets and control are, in fact,synonymous. An organizations budget is an AUDITSexpression in financial terms of a plan for meetingthe organizations goals for a specific period. A Internal auditing provides an independentbudget is an instrument of planning, management, review and appraisal of accounting, financial, andand control. We use budgets in two ways. First, other nontactical operations. As a managementwe use them as established facts that must be tool, the audit measures and evaluates thefactored into our operational planning. Second, effectiveness of management controls. The Navalwe use them to prepare narrative descriptions and Audit Service provides an independent audit offinancial information that our chain of command programs, activities, systems, and procedures. Ituses in its annual request for funds and in the also provides an independent audit of othermanagement of its funds. At present, the operations involving the use of funds andDepartment of the Navy (DON) uses two major resources and the accomplishment of managementbudget systems. These are zero-based budgeting goals. Budgets and audits are addressed in detail(ZBB) and the planning, programming, and in NAVEDTRA 10792-E, Financial Managementbudgeting system (PPBS). in the Navy.
  • 32. TIME AND PERFORMANCE CHARTS Ordnance and civilian contractors in conjunc- tion with the Polaris fleet ballistic missile The most versatile and widely used planning/ program. Conservative estimates place timecontrolling devices are the Gantt chart and the saved on the Polaris missile project throughProgram Evaluation and Review Technique use of PERT at nearly 2 years. PERT is based(PERT). on time-critical planning. A Gantt chart re- lates activity progress to a scheduled timeGANTT Chart frame. PERT, on the other hand, provides a Remember Henry L. Gantt from chapter 1? means to schedule activities efficiently withOne of his most lasting contributions to managers respect to the chart that bears his name. Although simple Gantt chart Time and progression are the main ob-in concept, the is the basis for many jective in PERTs flow plans. Flow planscomplex time/performance tracking devices. You consist of events and the activities that con-may already be using a tracking device based onthis concept. The Gantt chart displays time along nect them. An event is a specific land-one side and jobs or projects along the other side. mark in your program or project. EventsBars and open lines show the relationship between designate the start or completion of an ac-desired project start and completion dates and tivity.actual progress. Open lines indicate the desiredschedule. lines or bars indicate the actual on a PERT flow chart depict Circles Heavy events. Time-consuming activities necessarystate of completion. See figure 2-2. to complete events are shown by lines con-PERT Chart necting events. PERT charts and Gantt charts are similar. However, PERT charts The Program Evaluation and Review Tech- show activities in more detail than Ganttnique was developed by the U.S. Navy Bureau of charts in addition to showing how those PRE DEPLOYMENT TRAINING MONTH 01 02 03 04 05 15 1 1 5 1 1 5 1 1 5 DAY 1 SAFETY DAMAGE CNTL WEAPONS PMS OPERATIONS FIREFIGHTING LMET SCHEDULED TIME FRAME PROGRESS TO DATE Figure 2-2. Gantt chart.
  • 33. 2-3. echelons of a need to change a procedure is nearly To develop a PERT chart, take the following impossible. Under TQM, management is responsi-steps: ble for making the job as easy as possible for workers. Supervisors and managers should 1 . Itemize and describe the events required to monitor the work process and be responsive to complete your project. suggestions from the work force concerning 2. Arrange the events in sequence. unworkable procedures. Sailors in particular are 3 . Estimate the time needed to complete each infamous for coming up with nonstandard (but event and, as a result, the project. workable) solutions to problems. In some cases, 4. Determine the longest time from beginning this results in unsafe practices. However, these to end of your project. This path from solutions are often extremely practical. We must starting event to final event is called the develop the ability to ferret out these improve- critical path. ments and incorporate them into standard 5. Modify your plan as needed. Remember, procedures. This serves a dual purpose. First, it you are using PERT to save time. If ensures the recommended improvement is usable monetary savings are your main considera- and meets all applicable standards. Second, the tion, you will want to use another planning improved method is made available to everyone device. involved in that process. This is a practical 6. Having finished laying out your PERT application of "working smarter, not harder." plan, putit to work and CONTROL IT! BENEFITS OF TQM TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT A popular myth among military managers holds that increased quality results in increased A major problem facing the armed services costs and decreased productivity. In reality,today is the lack of more money. Our budgets are improved quality ultimately results in decreasednot going to increase in the foreseeable future. costs and increased productivity. How can this be?Indeed, they will probably continue to shrink. A focus on quality extends the time betweenAlthough our present system of doing business failures on equipment and improves the efficiencyis adequate, it will not allow for many of our operations. It reduces rework requirementsimprovements in productivity. We have done an as well as the need for special waivers ofexcellent job with our present system. To wring standards. It also reduces mistakes and producesany more bang from our buck, however, will monetary savings through more efficient use ofmean a change in the way we do business. scarce resources. Management by objectives is a time-honored Direct benefits of TQM aretenet of management. Our objectives must nowbe changed. Todays managers must set their increased pride of workmanship amongsights on a larger, system-wide objective. This is individual workers,increased productivity through better quality. TheDepartment of the Navy has recently adopted the increased readiness,concept of Total Quality Management (TQM) asthe means of meeting DON needs into the 21st improved sustainability due to extendedcentury. Executive Order 12637, signed April 27, time between equipment failures,1988, establishes the Productivity ImprovementProgram for the federal government. IS TQM greater mission survivability,THE NAVYS ANSWER TO THIS ORDER. better justification for budgets due to moreTQM, WHAT IS IT? efficient operations, The focus of TQM is the process by which and streamlined maintenance andwork gets done. The person most familiar with production processes. worker responsiblethis process is the individualfor work. Often, a process is either making it The bottom line of TQM is "more bang forunwieldy or just plain unworkable. In a rigid the buck."
  • 34. volves around a change from management by necessary relationship between customer andresults to management by process (quality) supplier. No matter what your job, it probablyimprovement. Managers are tasked with con- involves a customer-supplier relationship. Thetinuously improving each and every process in Intermediate Maintenance Department of atheir organization. This means combining command is a customer of and supplier to thequantitative methods and human resource Supply Department. Aircraft squadrons andmanagement techniques to improve customer- supply departments have the same dual roles. Atsupplier relations and internal processes. This one point, a supply department must establish acultural change in management practices has working arrangement with a squadron that clearlycertain basic elements: defines each departments needs and realistic expectations. A career counselor must ensure Management must clearly state the customers needs are met. On the other hand, organizations mission. This must be stated customers must have a realistic understanding of clearly and made available to all em- the service the career counselor can render. This and customers. ployees, suppliers, clear, A mutual understanding of needs and capabilities public-mission statement prevents indivi- is needed to achieve customer satisfaction. duals from generating their own definitions of work priorities. LEADERSHIP AND TQM Managers and supervisors must ensure The essential ingredient of TQM success is their actions clearly support the leadership involvement. Management controls the organizations mission. This support process that accomplishes the mission. Quality, includes setting priorities and assigning however, is in the hands of the workers who do tasks. the job. Management, therefore, has the responsi- bility to drive out the natural fear of change and Management must focus its efforts toward a common goal. This focus is an important innovation that is part of most peoples basic part of team building. psychology. TQM must be supported from the top down. This doesnt mean the department head Management must make a long-term level. TQM must start with SECNAV/CNO-level commitment to quality improvement. support and be supported and implemented all the Individual managers must set an example way to the bottom of the chain of command. by providing consistent, focused leader- From admiral to deck seaman, TQM requires a ship. total effort.TQM FOCUS ON PROCESS SUMMARY Quality management achieves results byfocusing on the procedures and processes that get Controls are like the rudder of a ship. Theythe work done. Under TQM, management must keep our plans on course. Good controls arestrive continuously to improve the work process. established during the planning phase of a job.The primary emphasis of this effort is the They can be total or partial. Total controlsprevention of defects through quality improve- recognize and correct a problem. Partial controlsment rather than quality inspections. Quality only point out the problem. Effective control iscannot be inspected in, it must be managed in accomplished in four steps: setting standards,from the beginning. Conforming to established defining monitoring procedures, evaluatingspecifications is only part of quality improvement. performance against standards, and initiatingManagement must not be satisfied with minimum required corrections.standards. As standards are met, we, as managers, Controls are evaluated on their timeliness,must look for new ways to improve our product. accuracy, acceptability, and cost-effectiveness.Find the means to further tighten standards and Another consideration in setting up controls is theimprove quality. Thats your job. time frame you want them to operate in. Controls 9 Q Z-o
  • 35. operate in three modes in relation to time. The latest development in managementFeedforward control anticipates and prevents is Total Quality Management (TQM). The con-problems. Concurrent control detects and corrects cept of TQM itself is not new. What is newproblems as they happen. Feedback control finds is the way in which the Navy is implementinga problem after the fact and attempts to prevent it. TQM focuses on improving productivityits recurrence. through managing quality into products and Styles of management control have changed services. Improved understanding betweenover the years. An increasingly popular manage- producers and customers is also a major partment style is management by exception (MBE). of TQM. This concept will succeed, but notItinvolves delegating routine decision making to without the support of the entire chain ofsubordinates so that managers are free to command.concentrate on the major problems. Under MBE,only exceptional problems are passed to uppermanagement. REFERENCES Management information systems (MISs)collect and correlate data. They get specific Megginson, Leon C., Donald C. Mosley, andinformation to the appropriate managers to aid Paul H. Pietri, Jr., Management Concepts andthem in decision making and planning. Applications, 2d ed., Harper & Row, New Control methods may be quantitative or York, 1986.nonquantitative. Nonquantitative controls lead tooverall control of performance. Quantitativecontrols involve control of actual work processes. Total Quality Management (TQM) Awareness Seminar Booz, Allen and Hamilton, Inc.,Common quantitative controls are budgets, y Arlington, Virginia, n.d., prepared for theaudits, and charts. At present, the Department Office of Personnel Management underof the Navy uses two major budget systems. These Contract Number are planning, programming, andbudgeting (PPBS) and zero-based budgeting(ZBB). Most charts are versions of either the Washbush, John B., and Barbara J. Sherlock, ToGantt chart or the Program Evaluation and Get The Job Done, 2d ed., Naval InstituteReview Technique (PERT). Press, Annapolis, Maryland, 1986.
  • 36. CHAPTER 3 PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 1 . State the primary manpower management 5. State the requirement for career develop- tools. ment among subordinates. 2. Recognize the need for senior petty officer 6. Identify the uses of the disciplinary tools involvement in both enlisted and junior available to senior petty officers. officer training. 3. the uses of the enlisted per- 7. State the results of good discipline in an Identify formance evaluation. organization. 4. Recognize the importance of performance 8. Identify the role of punishment in counseling. maintaining discipline. How many times have you heard (or said), from? What can you do to get more people?"People are our greatest resource"; "A weapon Do you have the right mix of skills and paygradesis good as the man who fires it"; ". only as . . for your mission? Your primary tools forwooden ships and iron men." All of these dealing with manning are the Manpower Authori-statements are true. The problem many of us face zation (OPNAV 1000/2), Enlisted Manpoweris that we lose sight of or only pay lip service to Change Request (OPNAV 1000/4), Enlisted The latter is by far the worst problemthese ideals. Distribution Verification Report (EDVR)because it means you really dont care. (OPNAV 1084/14), and the Unplanned Loss People really are the key. Oh sure, you need Report (UPLR). The military requirementsmaterial resources; but a dedicated, committed manuals for PO1 and CPO discuss thesecrew can stretch meager resources to amazing documents at length.lengths. On the other hand, an unmotivated,fractious group may well fail with unlimitedresources. The remaining chapters deal withpeople. Wait, dont panic! This is not a rehash TRAININGof Mazlow and Johari. These chapters deal withmanagement of your people, communicating up Your most important job as a manager isand down the chain of command, and leading training. As a senior or master chief petty officer,from the front. In this chapter we will deal with you must train your subordinates to theirthe practical aspects of personnel management. maximum potential. Technical, professional, and leadership training are all part and parcel of your job. However, your subordinates arent MANNING nnlv r<=nnlf vnn must train- inninr nffir-prs
  • 37. The chiefs community often overlooks juniorofficer (JO) training. Ensigns, lieutenants juniorgrade (JG), and sometimes even lieutenants need #1 The Chief is always right.your help and leadership. Sometimes JOs dontwant help or refuse to believe they can learn #2 In case the Chief is wrong, refer to ruleanything from "enlisted" personnel, but these #1.individuals are fairly rare. On the whole, a juniorofficer has the technical knowledge to perform Anonymousthe job but often needs a strong leadershipexample to follow. Even with a good classroomeducation in managing people, you will find that These rules may seem funny when younothing beats experience. You are the one with read them, but they contain more truth than firstthis experience. Dont set an example that says most of us like to admit. Many young sailorsto the JO, You are in charge; your success or believe these rules. The example you set becomesfailure is none of my business. Does this sound their conception of the right way to preaching to the choir? Think of some of the Technical training is a sore point in manypoor examples you have seen. The following commands. Most havent enough time or moneysuggestions should help you train your junior to send all their personnel to the schools they need.officers: For better or worse, the task of providing adequate training comes back around to you, the Set the example; that is what chiefs do manager. Ensure training is helping your mission best. and your troops. Sit in on training lectures. Are they really filling a need or just filling a muster $ When your seniors or subordinates need sheet for the training jackets? information, make sure they have it. Dont On-the-job training (OJT) and cross training let people get blindsided. This is a two-way are excellent means of upgrading your divisions street. capability. Some tasks require particular schooling; but for every job in this category, Demonstrate the importance of taking care dozens of others can be learned on the job. Cross of the troops. An officer must understand training makes your people more valuable to the the importance of the people as well as the Navy and increases their chances of promotion. priorities of the mission. Show that getting Save those training dollars for the "must have" the most out of people requires first taking schooling. Personnel can earn many Navy enlisted care of their welfare. classification codes (NECs) through OJT. The Navy Enlisted Classification Manual, NAVPERS Insist on the use of the chain of command. 18068E, provides guidelines for OJT credit. Remember, praise in public and criticize in private. You will appreciate this TRAINING YOUR REPLACEMENT common courtesy when it is returned. Without question, the most interesting training If you a bad example, dont be set in which you will be involved is that of your surprised if those up as well as down the replacement. This should begin the first day of chain of command follow your example. your new job.Who is going to fill your shoes if you are away on TAD, take leave, or become sick? What if you die on the way to workTRAINING SUBORDINATES tomorrow? What if you get a chance at a "choice" program? Prepare for the smooth The seamen and petty officers working for you performance of your division in case of yourtoday be in charge some day. They will be will absence.the officers and chiefs charged with mission Maybe you have worked for people who ranaccomplishment and personnel training. These their division or work from a wheel book centersailors are watching their supervisors and the in their hip pocket. Do you remember the chaos
  • 38. when you filled a gapped billet? What kind of logic in reaching a different decision. This will notshape was the unit in? If it was running smoothly, only educate your subordinate, but also keep yourchances are your predecessor trained the senior teaching and managerial skills sharp. Teach yourpetty officers well. assistant the basic management principles, and Think back to the basic principles of planning. then let him or her practice them under yourForm a contingency plan in the event of your supervision. Use your trainee as a sounding boardabsence. Your first task will be to identify possible for ideas you may have. Teach the trainee to playcandidates for your replacement. Then you must devils advocate by trying to find holes in yoursort through, consider, and narrow your choices logic and arguing both sides of plans andlogically until you arrive at a decision. What are decisions. You will soon be able to delegate somesome of the criteria you might apply? of your routine business to this individual to pass along the feel of your job. Remember the 9 Ensure your candidate has a reasonable guidelines to delegation: amount of time left on board. 1. Retain the responsibility. 9 Leadership ability should be readily 2. Delegate the necessary authority along with apparent. The respect of both peers and the job. subordinates is extremely important. After 3. Back your assistants decisions. all, you are considering putting this person in charge. 4. Praise in public. 5. Correct (chew out, counsel, etc.) in private. Consider professional knowledge and personal responsibility. 6. Learn to supervise without micromanaging. Consider past performance in posi- This last item may well be the hardest for you tions of increased responsibility. Review to accomplish, but it is also one of a managers service jackets and evaluations. Consult most important skills. Few people stifle initiative other chiefs in your outfit; their opinions and innovation (not to mention morale) faster may help. than a micromanager; more on this beast later. Consider seniority. At times, however, the most senior person will not be the best choice. Use common sense and be pre- EVALUATING pared to back your decisions. The performance evaluation, for better or Last but not interview each least, worse, has a greater impact on enlisted personnel candidate. How do you think these than any other single factor in their naval service. individuals will cope with pressure and Does this seem like a strong statement? Think stress? about it. This document is the most significant personnel management tool in the enlisted record. These are only suggestions. You will need to Its primary use is by the Commander, Navaltailor the list to suit the circumstances. After you Military Personnel Command (COMNAVMIL-have worked with your crew for a while, you will PERSCOM), in making advancement and assign-get a better feeling for everyones capabilities. ment decisions. It is also used in determiningDont be afraid to change your mind or spread eligibility for the Good Conduct Medal, reenlist-the training around. This is, after all, your call. ment, and character of service at time of Once you have made your choice, start discharge. Various selection boards usetraining. Bring your "assistant manager" into performance evaluation reports to select membersyour confidence and demonstrate your approach for advancement, continuation on active duty,to problems and decision making. When a retention, appointment to commissioned status,decision must be made, discuss any background assignment to special duties, and specialinformation and get your "assistants" thoughts educational programs. The enlisted evaluationon the matter. You are not bound by your report has a direct bearing on morale andassistants opinion, but you may benefit from the discipline and, consequently, future performance.
  • 39. As senior and master chief petty officers, you Check block 41 (Recommended) if the indivi-have doubtless been involved in the evaluation dual is fully capable of satisfactorily performingprocess for some time. But when did you last the duties and responsibilities of the next higheractually read NAVMILPERSCOMINST 1616.1A paygrade. You may check this block regardless(The Navy Enlisted Performance Evaluation of the individuals qualification or eligibility forSystem}! Many changes have been made to this advancement. Checking this block is an officialinstruction; as of this writing the latest change was recommendation for advancement, requiringin August 1989. appropriate service record entries. (See Manual You know by now how to write an evaluation, of Advancement, BUPERSINST 1430. 16C.) Usebut some problem areas cause people to get of this block is not authorized if the individualconfused. When is block 38 (Management) used? is medically diagnosed obese, measures overfatWhat is the purpose of block 39 (Overall for three consecutive physical readiness test (PRY)Evaluation)? What does a check in block 41, 42, cycles, fails, or fails to participate in the PRT foror 43 (Recommended, Progress Toward, or Not three consecutive test cycles. (See Health andRecommended) really mean? What is required Physical Readiness Program, OPNAVINSTand what is not allowed in an evaluation rebuttal? 6110.1C.)Where do you find "the rest of the story" onevaluations involving reduction in rate, the Boardof Corrections, indebtedness, and other special Block 42considerations? Check block 42 (Progressing Toward) if theBlock 38 individual is making progress toward being recommended for advancement but is not yet fully Lets start with the blocks mentioned earlier. capable of satisfactorily performing the duties andBlock 38 is for use on evaluations of E-7s, E-8s, of the next higher paygrade. USE responsibilitiesand E-9s ONLY. This trait evaluates a chief petty OF THIS BLOCK IS NOT AUTHORIZED IFofficers ability to successfully manage personnel, THE INDIVIDUAL HAS BEEN PREVIOUSLYmaterial, and and time resources. It financial RECOMMENDED FOR ADVANCEMENT. (Seemeasures the members ability to plan and block 43 below.)organize and to use subordinates effectively.Although you may wish to impress a selectionboard by describing in this block one of your all- Block 43star POls accomplishments, you are not allowedto do so. This block must be marked NOT Check block 43 (Not Recommended) if theOBSERVED for E-6 and below. individual is not capable of satisfactorily performing the duties and responsibilities of theBlock 39 next higher paygrade and is not progressing toward that end. If the individual was previously Block 39 is another area that generates much recommended for advancement and is not nowunwarranted confusion. Although the mark capable of performing satisfactorily at the nextentered in block 39 should be consistent with the higher paygrade, use of this block is mandatory.marks assigned in blocks 27 through 38, block 39 In this case, use of this block constitutes anis a judgment call by the reporting senior. It need official withdrawal of the advancementnot match the column that has received the recommendation; appropriate service recordmajority of the marks assigned, nor should it be entries must be made as required in the Manualdetermined through numerical averaging. This of Advancement, BUPERSINST 1430. 16C.block provides the reporting senior the Checking this block is an adverse action and mustopportunity to express an assessment of the be supported in Block 56 (Evaluation Comments)members overall value to the Navy. and referred to the member. Use of this block is The advancement recommendation (blocks 41, mandatory if the individual is medically diagnosed42, and 43) is widely misunderstood although obese, measures overfat for three consecutiveNAVMILPERSCOMINST 1616.1A specifically PRT cycles, fails, or fails to participate in the PRTdefines each of these blocks. for three consecutive test cycles.
  • 40. mcmucis may suomu a siaiemeiu iur your renei, especially n, as so oiienconcerning any matter of official record. The happens, your billet is gapped.statement must be temperate in tone and confinedto pertinent facts; it may not express opinions or DEVELOPING EVALUATORSimpugn the motives of other persons. Article 1110of Navy Regulations provides that matters of an Developing the management skills of youradverse nature will not be placed in records of subordinates is another of your responsibilities.persons in the naval service without their This is especially true in the realm of performanceknowledge. Members must sign the statement of evaluations. How many times have you receivedunderstanding concerning their right to a a first class petty officers rough evaluation of astatement on the evaluation form. However, subordinate only to discover it is more like a briefreports of an adverse nature must be referred to outline. To save time, did you correct it, fill inmembers for a statement before inclusion in their the narrative portions, and send it on? We haverecord. A performance mark of 2.8 or lower or all been guilty of this at one time or another; butuse of block 43 (Not Recommended for Advance- what did that PO1 learn about evaluations? Notment) is an example of a report of an adverse as much as would have been learned if you hadnature. Members must respond by either sub- made the PO1 do the job right in the first place.mitting a statement or communicating, in writing, After a few evolutions like this, a patterna desire not to make a statement. Individuals are develops; this improper pattern evolves into theallowed up to 15 days to respond to adverse assumption that "its always been that way."reports referred to them for statement or Although it takes time, you should counsel yourcomment. Commanding officers may grant an supervisory personnel on preparing evaluations,extension of an additional 15 days upon the point out their errors, and send the roughs backmembers request. In all cases the report should to them for correction. The result is a betterbe forwarded to COMNAVMILPERSCOM evaluation, a more knowledgeable supervisor,(NMPC-322) within 30 days. Section 1 of and, ultimately, less work for you.NAVMILPERSCOMINST 1616.1 Aprovides Insist on correct punctuation and spelling frommore detail on this procedure. your supervisors. Let them know your evaluation of them in the area of written communication willPerformance Counseling be influenced by the evaluations they send to you. One day they will be chief petty officers too. You must provide counseling throughout the Teach them to communicate now. Yielding to theevaluation period. Dont wait until you have slam- temptation to do it all yourself because you knowdunked subordinates to inform them of inappro- how only results in poorly trained subordinatespriate actions or tasks they are doing incorrectly. and more work for you.You should have a documented counseling session Another aspect of training is the debrief.(preferably several) addressing performance When you debrief your troops on their evalua-weaknesses. Remember to have positive counsel- tions, have their supervisor present to answer theiring for your good performers. A pat on the back questions. After all, the supervisor is the one whois great for morale. A written counseling note in actually observed their performance in most cases.a persons folder will help your memory when This increases a supervisors sense of responsibilityevaluation time rolls around. The same holds true for subordinates and reenforces the supervisorsfor your slightly tarnished stars. Let them know authority in the eyes of subordinates.when they have failed to fulfill your expectations. Ensure that subordinates understand theCounsel individuals as soon after an event evaluation process. A training session for your(positive or negative) as possible. Document the supervisors before each evaluation period will helpcounseling whenever possible. The longer the time clear the air of any misconceptions. Let themspan between the event and counseling, the more know just what you expect of them and what theyroom for misunderstanding and repeated error. should expect of you. Brief them on adverseReporting seniors are allowed to maintain notes marks and the members right to respond.on subordinates for evaluation and similar Emphasize the differences between documentedpurposes as long as the notes are for their personal facts, informed opinions, and personalityuse only. Formal counseling documentation is not conflicts. Blocks 27 through 38 deal with fact.
  • 41. Block 39 is an opinion. Personal likes and dislikes Nondirective Counselingdo not enter the process. Nondirective counseling occurs when you allow your subordinates to determine the direction of sessions. Your primary task will be to listen COUNSELING to what they are saying. Show that you are actively listeningby reacting to what is said. Occasionally Counseling is another important duty. Prop- restate what has been said. Try to develop aerly done, counseling will reduce personnel nonevaluative style of listening and responding."downtime" and improve morale. Counseling, This will encourage individuals to open up andwhether positive or negative, demonstrates to your work out frustrations, fears, and worries withoutpeople that you care. Another benefit of fear of embarrassment. In many cases simplycounseling is preventive in nature; when people letting people talk out problems can help themare not doing good work, periodic counseling can find a solution. Use occasional, general questionscorrect a deficiency before it becomes critical. to guide the conversation. Avoid questions that can be answered "yes" or "no."PROBLEM SOLVING Directive Counseling Sailors are capable of developing an almostinfinite variety of problems, which may or may Often your counseling efforts will consist ofnot be job-related. Since these problems ultimately littlemore than providing information, pointingaffect the job performance of your subordinates, out infractions, or failing to use common sense.they should be of concern to you. In some cases How you do this will depend entirely upon yourmembers may come to you with their problems. personality and the personality of the individualIn others you will have to recognize the existence being counselled. Use common sense in develop-of a problem and discover its nature on your own. ing your approach. At other times you will haveYou should be able to recognize changes in to work a little harder to get to the root of abehavior that often signal problems. Some problem and find a solution. When an individualindicators of an individuals need for help may approaches you with a request for specificbe declining job performance, changes in attitude, information or your opinion, this "directive"or withdrawal from friends and associates. approach is easy to use. You should exercise work on time, constant caution when expressing opinions, however, asDifficulty getting todemands on a supervisors time, and rebellion they can become loaded guns if not carefullyagainst authority or the system in general often thought out and expressly worded.indicate personal problems. Do you remember the Your front-line supervisors are the first link in spotting problems. They are in daily contactold saying about 20 percent of the people causing80 percent of the problems? You can expect to with the workers in your unit or division. Ensure that they know how to spot problems and counselspend 80 percent to 90 percent of your "personneladmin" time on this same 20 a problem, they their workers. If they cant solve percent. But thats should pass it up the chain of command to you.why you get the big bucks. Dont be afraid to seek help if you are faced with an unfamiliar situation. The chaplainsSet the Stage and your personnel office can office, legal officer, often help solve problems or offer advice. Be When counseling is necessary, no matter what aware of the resources available to you. Thethe reason, you should first try to "set the stage." morale and job performance of your peopleWhat does this mean? If possible, wait until after depend on your ability to manage humannormal work hours or at least until a lull occurs resources. Unless you make a conscious effort toin the tempo of operations to talk with the develop this ability, your leadership will neverindividual. Try to find a quiet place where you reach its full potential.will not be interrupted. This may be extremelydifficult in many operating environments, but do CAREER DEVELOPMENTthe best you can. Your quiet place may be anoffice or a vacant corner of the hangar deck, but Todav. more than ever before, comoetition for
  • 42. UGVCIUJJ acctiCCl UCvCUJpluciiL irom-imc supervisors un a.u aimutuprogram within your unit/division. Include the basis. This is particularly helpful amongfollowing in this program: senior first class petty officers, although it may be impossible in many specialized Ensure your petty officers are aware of jobs. their career path. Become knowledgeable in the various DISCIPLINE special programsavailable to your workers. Maintain current information In every group you will find a few people within your unit/division. whose sole interest in life is to complete their time and leave the Navy. Most of them are merely Train personnel in all aspects of the next disinterested, but from their ranks many higher pay grade. troublemakers arise. Any single division may have only one or two of them; as a whole, however, Make available the Bibliography for they present a problem. Properly motivated and Advancement Study for each rate/rating instilled with a little moral responsibility, they can under your control. become a great asset. All are important; therefore, we must not lose their services through failure to Emphasize study of the Bibliography, job- redirect their interests and energies. related references, and a thorough working You must make the rebellious ones understand knowledge of each persons rate, not just they must not only abide by rules in the Navy, the training manual. Rating examination but everywhere they go. Point out that rules serve questions may also be taken from any job- as a guide by which we live and, if followed, make related reference or experience as well as life easier and more pleasant for all of us. Teach those sources listed in the Bibliography for them that the more they discipline themselves, the Advancement Study. less they will be disciplined by others. Explain their importance to the team and their shipmates Base your training on the advancement dependence on them day by day as well as in knowledge required. battle. Help them realize that increasing their knowledge, achieving promotion, and assuming Make your training useful and meaningful more responsibilities are, in many respects, no to your people. Do they have the necessary longer matters of personal preference but duties. background for the training lesson? Are Discipline and leadership are essential to a you providing the same training to your military organization. The word discipline comes POls that your E-3s and PO3s are from a Latin word meaning "to teach." It refers, receiving? however, to a certain type of teaching. Discipline is not peculiar to military organizations. Discipline Specialize your training sessions by rate. is the training that develops self-control, Senior petty officers may need training in character, and efficiency or is the result of such the same subjects, but their training should training. Discipline, rightly viewed, is a character be more in-depth. builder rather than a destroyer of individuality. Navy discipline consists of training men and Ensure each person has a current Advance- women to behave in certain ways under certain ment Handbook for his or her rating. circumstances. It enables them to work as a unit with maximum efficiency. To encourage them Base your training program on the toward this end, the Navy uses a system of requirements of the Advancement Hand- motivation and correction through reward and book. punishment. Studious Navy men and women, when recommended by their commanding % When you assign collateral duties, keep in rewarded by timely promotions; lazy officers, are mind that a well-rounded individual has or careless individuals suffer a self-inflicted a better chance for advancement. Rotate punishment by missing out on these promotions. the collateral duties periodically. Those who get into trouble because they are
  • 43. wholethe compliance with rules or policies gency and is not subject to panic.intended for the orderly coordination of effort. Punishment is not personal or vindictive, norIn a study on this subject, Admiral Arleigh Burke, is it inflicted as revenge. You must realize thatUSN (Ret,), stated "a well-disciplined that punishment cannot right a wrong. The value oforganization is one whose members work with punishment lies in the object lesson it furnishesenthusiasm, willingness, and zest as individuals the wrongdoer, and others, that the offense mustand as a group, to fulfill the mission of the not be repeated. This concept is referred to as theorganization with expectation of success." The deterrent theory of punishment.signs of discipline are manifested in smart salutes, To accomplish its purpose, punishment mustproper wearing of the uniform, prompt and be consistent and just and must be recognized ascorrect action in an emergency, and in battle such by the recipients and their shipmates.efficiency that brings victory in wars. Discipline, Punishment should neither be of such a natureobviously, is indispensable to a military that it lowers the recipients self-esteem nor be soorganization. Without it a units efforts will be severe that it is out of proportion to the offense.defeated by lack of organization. Discipline Recipients of punishment should keep twodemands habitual but reasoned obedience to facts in mind: first, personnel are punished onlycommand an obedience that preserves initiative as a result of their misbehavior; second, they willand functions unfalteringly even in the absence not be punished again if they learn to conformof the commander. to Navy standards of conduct. Discipline leads to an efficient military The administration of punishment is notorganization, a body of human beings trained and personal; therefore, those who administer itcontrolled for concerted action for the attainment should be shown no malice. They are carrying outof a common goal. Individuals understand how their duties as required by Navy regulations.they fit into the organization as a whole. Themembers understand one another through the EXTRA MILITARY INSTRUCTIONsharing of common knowledge. They are bound (EMI)together by a unity of will and interest that isexpressed by their willingness to follow and obey EMI, while not punitive in nature, is one oftheir leader. A group so organized is effective not the most flexible and useful tools at your disposal.only for the specific purpose intended, but also In most commands EMI authority is delegated toin the face of an emergency. division chiefs and sometimes to CPOs, and on The rewards of good discipline are found in rare occasions it may be delegated to qualifiedvarious ways in the naval organizational structure. petty officers. Although this authority must bePositive results are evident as sailors advance in used wisely, it is certainly no substitute forrate, as a division receives a passing grade on an leadership. Rather, it is a tool for good leaders.inspection, or as a ship successfully completes a Properly applied, EMI can be used to correctdeployment. unacceptable behavior before it reaches the point One reward of good discipline for enlisted where drastic measures are needed.personnel may be in the form of a Good Conduct In applying EMI, you must be careful to beMedal. If individuals are disciplined, they will evenhanded. Remember that EMI is not so muchlearn their rate and be rewarded with promotions. a punishment as it is training to correct a noted These same individuals, when placed in a deficiency. It is not extra duty, which is workdivision, will help establish discipline there. The assigned outside normal duties. Since extra dutyresponsibility for divisional discipline falls on the ispunitive in nature, it can only be awardedpetty officers, chiefs, and the division officer. The through nonjudicial punishment (NJP) or by areward of a well-disciplined division is high morale court martial.and smooth, efficient operations. Discipline has to be present to make any WITHHOLDING PRIVILEGESorganization work, but this is especially true inthe military. It is what brings individuals together Although the authority for this measure restsas a military team. Thus, a gun crew may be with the person who extends the privileges (usually 3-8
  • 44. thecommanding officer), you can and should "railroaded," bitter feelings will result. This inrecommend this measure when appropriate. This turn results in diminished respect for the chainauthority is sometimes delegated to lower echelons of command and the organization.but only rarely to enlisted ranks. Middle-grade petty officers normally take several years to develop the leadership traitsNONJUDICIAL PUNISHMENT (NJP) required of a good disciplinarian. Many are too close to their subordinates to be truly effective and Use nonjudicial punishment (NJP) or captains some tend toward "authoritarian overkill," whichmast as a last resort in matters of discipline. also reduces effectiveness.Although many leaders regard NJP as the result Since ensigns or lieutenants (JG) may be closeof failure on their part, this "just isnt so." Some to their subordinates age or even younger, theyindividuals simply will not respond to leadership, frequently experience similar difficulty withextra duty, or EMI; they are destined to personally disciplining subordinates. You as aexperience captains mast. This is not your senior or master chief can give valuable assistancepersonal failure. In cases such as this, dont by advising and teaching these young officershesitate to use report chits. In most cases your about administering discipline. Actively practicecommanding officer will seek your feelings in evenhanded discipline. Set the timely, consistent,advance concerning fitting punishments. Give example.your commanding officer your best evaluation ofthe most appropriate corrective measures. NJP JAGMAN INVESTIGATIONSoften has constructive results. Althoughpunishment at captains mast (NJP) is recordedin a members service jacket, it does not carry the What are the facts? Again and again andfar-reaching consequences of a conviction by again what are the facts? Shun wishfulcourt martial. Never threaten to place someone thinking, ignore divine revelation, forgeton report but fail to follow through. This lessens what "the stars foretell," avoid opinion,your authority and invariably leads to lack of care not what the neighbors think, neverrespect for your position. mind the unguessable "verdict of his- tory" what are the facts, and to howCOURT MARTIAL many decimal places? You pilot always into an unknown future; facts are your A court martial conviction in the case of a single clue. Get the facts!felony offense is a federal conviction. This is thesame as a conviction in federal court and has the Reprinted by permission of thesame effect on a members life. For this reason, Putnam Publishing Group fromelection of court martial instead of nonjudicial The Notebooks of Lazarus Longpunishment is not a decision to be made on the by Robert A. Heinlein. Textspur of the moment. copyright (C) 1973 by Robert In legal matters, steer your subordinates to the A. services officer for advice. Counsel them toavoid sea lawyers and to obtain legal opinionsfrom legal officers. As senior and master chief petty officers, you will occasionally be involved in JAGMANFAIR AND EQUAL TREATMENT investigations. When tasked with an investigation, a good starting place is your legal services officer. In conclusion, discipline must be administered The legal officer will have the appropriate formsfairly. It must be timely to have full impact. and references you will need. If you are unfamiliarService members subjected to disciplinary with this type of investigation, dont hesitate tomeasures must have a clear understanding of the ask for advice.offense and the steps they must take to correct Your primary task as an investigator is thethe deficiency. Properly administered discipline gathering of information. You must carefullycan be a constructive experience. Take pains to separate truth from fiction and opinion. Havingget the accuseds side of the story. Make sure arranged all available factual information in somethat person receives good advice. If the service sort of order, try to draw logical conclusionsmemhpr rrrnips awav feelinc- that he nr she was about the matter under investigation. While
  • 45. serving in this capacity, be fair and unbiased; the REFERENCESobject of an investigation is truth. Any hint offavoritism, bias, or preconception on your part Chruden, Herbert J. and Arthur W. Sherman,will cast doubt on your conclusions. Jr., Managing HumanResources, 7th ed., Southwestern Publishing Co., Dallas, Texas, 1984. SUMMARY Format and Procedures for Validation of Enlisted Managing your people is perhaps your single Distribution and Verification Report (EDVR),most important job as a senior or master chief NAVMILPERSCOMINST 1080. ID, Navalpetty officer. Awareness of manning priorities and Military Personnel Command, Washington,the means of achieving them are of paramount D.C., January 27, 1989.importance. You cannot lead personnel you donot have. Manual for Courts Martial, United States, Seniors and juniors alike observe your Executive Order 12473, Washington D.C.:example as a chief. You must set the proper U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984.example for your troops; but rest assured, manyjunior officers will form lasting opinions about Manual of Navy Enlisted Manpower andthe way the Navy ought to be run from observing Personnel Classifications and Occupationalyour actions. Standards, NAVPERS 18068E, Department Training your relief is but one of the many of the Navy, Washington, D.C., Januarytraining responsibilities you must shoulder. Pass 1990.along your hard-won knowledge to subordinates;you will be building the leaders of tomorrow. In Manual of Navy Total Force Manpower,todays Navy, training is becoming more and OPNAVINST 1000. 16F, Chief of Navalmore important while the training dollar is steadily Operations, Washington, D.C., August 12,shrinking. You have the responsibility to see that is adequate to meet or exceed missionrequirements. The Navy Enlisted Performance Evaluation You are probably the most visible example of System, NAVMILPERSCOMINST 1616.1 A,discipline in the Navy. If you arent, you should Naval Military Personnel Command,be. Discipline is the grease that keeps the wheels Washington, D.C., May 10, 1983.turning. A well-disciplined unit can perform nearmiracles. Train your subordinates in leadership USAF Managers Course, Vol. 3, Leadership andand discipline principles. Teach them to use Management, Course 12, 00012-03-8112,evaluations, counselling, and personal example to USAF Institute, Gunter Air Extension Coursemaintain discipline and lead their troops. Force Station, Montgomery, Ala., n.d.
  • 46. CHAPTER 4 ADMINISTRATION LEARNING OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 1 . Recognize the difference between line and 9. List common types of inspections. staff responsibility. 10. Identify the need for an increased 2. State the definition of functional authority. awareness of civilian labor roles among senior and master chief petty officers. 3. Identify the role of staff organizations. 1 1 . Identify the first federal agency to employ union workers. 4. Identify the role of a specialized staff. 12. State the effect of the Civil Service 5. Identify the purpose of a personal staff. Reform Act. 6. State the difference between line and staff and donts of labor-manage- 13. List the dos authority. ment relations. 7. Recognize the need for coordination 14. State the three primary classes of produc- between line and staff units. tivity software. 8. Identify the reason for inspections. 15. Identify the uses of productivity software. This chapter briefly explores the relationship LINE RESPONSIBILITYbetween line and staff responsibilities in an Line organizations are the operationalorganization. Other topics include inspections, the departments within an organization. Operations,growing role of civilian labor in todays military, weapons, and aircraft maintenance departmentsand the increasing role of computers in the are all line units. Their responsibility is the actualworkplace. accomplishment of the commands mission. If a particular departments task is meeting the commands mission requirement, it is a line LINE AND STAFF department. The roles, responsibilities, and authority of STAFF RESPONSIBILITYline and staff are frequently confusing to man-agers up and down the chain of command. The Staff organizations exist to provide supportbasic concept of line and staff is simple. The line services to the line.The following are examplesorganization is responsible for production (manu- of staff personnel and activities:
  • 47. Legal Services lineand staff. Its tasking is relatively narrow in scope and includes the personnel specialist, safety Disbursing expert, and others like them. Command master chief Personal Staff Command career counselor A personal staff exists to help an individual manager. Command level examples of personal staff are the executive officer, public affairs Safety officer, and supply officer. At the department level, staff consists of data analysts, Yeomen, and Family Services administrative assistants. Although staff positions seldom contribute Morale, Welfare, and Recreation (MWR) directly to the commands mission, their support is vital to continued readiness. Staff employees fall into two generalcategories: specialized staff and personal staff. AUTHORITYSpecialized Staff The authority exercised by line and staff units normally relates to the unit function (i.e., line or A specialized staff provides advice and staff). Individual department heads retain lineassistance to all elements of an organization, both authority over their subordinates. Figure 4-1 COMMANDING OFFICER MAS (STAFF) (STAFF) 1 1 1 n ACCOUNTANTS/ SK/AK/YN INSPECTORS AUDITORS (LI NE )
  • 48. illustrates this concept. In some cases staff units to line activities or individuals. Staff units,may have the authority to control line activities however, may not direct or command line actionsdirectly. For example: a safety inspector orders through the exercise of this authority. Staffa shop to cease work because an unsafe condition authority is commonly directed toward the higherexists. Figure 4-2 illustrates this overlapping, or levels of the chain of command. Command masterfunctional, authority. chiefs exercise staff authority when they make recommendations to their commanding officer.Line Authority Functional Authority Line authority is exercised through the chainof command. Each level of management exercises Functional authority grants staff units theline authority over its immediate subordinates. right to direct or command a line units activitiesLine authority extends down through the various in certain circumstances. Normally, this power islevels of an organization. Whether an organi- limited to activities within the staff units area ofzations function is line or staff in nature, its expertise. The following are examples of func-managers exercise line authority over their tional authority exercised by a staff:immediate subordinates.Staff Authority @ A quality assurance representative directs a work center to do further repair on Staff authority allows staff units to make equipment that does not meet specifi-recommendations, offer advice, and give counsel cations. AIRCRAFT INTERMEDIATE MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT HEAD QUALITY PRODUCTION ASSURANCE CONTROL DIVISION (LINE) (STAFF) I I GROUND POWER AVIONICS SURVIVAL SUPPORT AIRFRAMES PLANTS DIVISION EQUIPMENT DIVISION EQUIPMENT DIVISION DIVISION (500) (600) (800) (400) (900) STAFF AUTHORITY LINE AUTHORITY 17J * t C4 aiithnritv rtvpr line units.
  • 49. A safety representative closes down an and the steps necessary to correct them. Common unsafe operation. inspections include the following: The Supply Department requires certain Personnel inspections fulfill the reports and forms from line units. requirements of Navy Uniform Regulations. They provide a valuable interface between commanding Comptrollers demand certain reports and officers and their commands. Personnel budgetary information from line inspections also provide an indication of morale; departments to aid them in providing a sharp-looking outfit feels good about itself and support. will perform well.Line and Staff Coordination Quality inspections normally exist in production-oriented units. They ensure reliability and improve readiness among fleet activities. Line and staff units must carefully coordinatetheir interactions to avoid conflict and confusion. Administrative inspections ensureLine personnel often resent perceived interferencefrom staff personnel. This occurs when a staff compliance with diverse requirements, ranging from training to historical files. They includeunit exceeds its authority and attempts to directline activities without functional authority. inspection for compliance in human relations, career, and other similar programs.Resentment frequently crops up as a result of therelative youth of many staff personnel. The factthat staff personnel are generally better educated e Operational readiness inspections identify needed improvements before, during, and afterthan line personnel also contributes to these deployments. They enable fleet units to correctfeelings. deficiencies during peacetime rather than to In the military, another reason for resentment discover them in the relative lack of seniority among many staffpersonnel. A commander in charge of a large Safety inspections may be recurring ormaintenance department may resent advice froman ensign on the commanding officers staff. A special in nature. They ensure the safety of ourdivision chief may feel the same way about a operational environment.Quality Assurance Division petty officer whofinds fault with division maintenance practices. Inspections are a major source of conflict between line and staff personnel. Since staff units Good coordination between staff and lineunits goes a long way toward reducing these normally carry out inspections, line personnel often feel persecuted. "They dont understandproblems. It also helps reduce time wasted on that we have work to do. When are we supposedworry about who gets the credit, or takes the to get ready for all these inspections?" This is ablame, for the results of projects. Coordination familiar refrain. We are all guilty of these feelingsbegins at the command level. Commandingofficers must occasionally. The trick is to stop and think before clearly delineate the authority you agree with your troops on this. Inspectiongranted to their staff personnel. Failure of teams should be, made up of highly are, or at leastcommand in this area inevitably leads toconfusion and hard feelings down the line. qualified, knowledgeable individuals. Their purpose is not to disrupt your mission but to make sure the mission is accomplished by the book.INSPECTIONS Inspections exist for several reasons. The most CIVILIAN LABOR RELATIONScompelling reason we inspect people, programs,or products is to ensure operational readiness. Why should you be concerned with laborAnother common reason we inspect is to ensure unions and union relations with the federalcompliance with command directives. These government? The trend toward contract main-include programs such as equal opportunity, tenance and support in shore stations is accelerat-career information, and safety requirements. ing rapidly. Senior and master chief petty officersHealth and welfare needs generate inspection are being used with increasing frequency in
  • 50. you should understand union history and be able FA 1 CU discovered to its sorrow that the federalto work cooperatively with union members. Your government, in the person of President Ronaldsuccess as a supervisor or co-worker of civilian Reagan, was willing to enforce the regulationemployees may depend on your understanding prohibiting federal employee unions fromunion policies and labor relations. striking. The rapid growth of federal employee unionsUNION HISTORY since 1962 is the result of intensive union organizing efforts. Their activities will no doubt The Navy Department, the first federal agency increase. Recognizing this fact, management mustinvolved in union activities, had handcraft unions equip itself to deal effectively with union effortsin the early 1800s. Carpenters, mechanics, and to organize and increase membership. An under-blacksmiths the so-called blue-collar workers standing of the rights of two parties managerwere the primary organizers of these unions. In and employee is of vital importance in labormany ways, however, the postal union was the Lacking such an understanding, man- relations.forerunner of present-day labor union organiza- agement can easily commit violations of employeetion in the federal government. The last major and union rights without realizing it. Often, suchtype of union to enter the federal scene was the management violations deter efficient operationgeneral union. President John F. Kennedy offi- of the government and prevent harmoniouscially recognized unions in Executive Order (EO) relations with employee unions.10988, issued in 1962. This EO provides for the First-level supervisors are key persons in theestablishment of bargaining units within govern- labor relations program. They deal with the unionment agencies. It also permits labor organizations steward at the lowest level of contact betweento bargain collectively with the government to labor and management the level at which laborreach labor agreements for their members. In disputes should be settled whenever possible.addition, EO 10988 states that federal employees Properly trained supervisors run their shopshave the right "freely and without fear of reprisal efficiently to preserve managements form, join, or assist any labor organization or Supervisors and managers must limit employeeto refrain from such activity." EO 11491, issued and union activity to what is allowed by executiveby President Nixon in 1971, further defines, order and Navy regulations. Supervisors mustclarifies, and provides safeguards for federal know the labor and management policies of theemployees bargaining rights. EO 11491 and EO labor contract currently in effect in their units.11616, issued later, also clarify methods of Unions goals have remained essentially thehandling complaints about unfair labor practices. same as always: higher wages; a shorter workday; The Civil Service Reform Act was passed in safety; improved working conditions; training;1978. This act made regulation of federal labor transfer; demotion, promotion, and arbitrationrelations very similar in fact and structure to the rights. As labor organizer Samuel Gompers said,Taft-Hartley Act regulations governing private "We want more, now!" Unions cannot, however,sector labor-management relations. As a result, negotiate on the units mission, budget, organ-the Federal Labor Relations Board (FLRB) was ization, work project, tour of duty, technologyestablished to decide cases involving unfair of performing work, and internal securitypractices and representation and to enforce the practices. They also cannot negotiate on theprovisions of the act. Also created in response to number, type, and grades of positions orthis act was the Office of General Counsel. It employees assigned the unit.functions as an investigative body to decide whichcomplaints and cases of unfair labor practices LABOR-MANAGEMENT POLICYshould be prosecuted. The Civil Service ReformAct dramatically increased the rights of federal The Department of Defense and Departmentlabor union members. However, their rights are of the Navy policies and regulations, and certainstill not as extensive as those enjoyed by their other higher authorities (such as Congress),private sector counterparts. One major difference govern Navy labor-management relations. Thebetween federal and private sector labor unions administration of any collective bargainingis the legal right to strike. Federal labor unions agreement falls on the shoulders of not have this right.A graphic illustration of Successful administration of an agreement results
  • 51. from the relationship you develop between your LABOR-MANAGEMENT DOSmanagement team and employees. Events that AND DONTSoccur during the term of an agreement have adirect effect on future negotiations and As a representative of management, you areagreements. subject to certain laws, rules, and regulations in Supervisors and contract administrators dealing with union representatives. manager is A also responsible for ensuring that managementsshould establish positive relations with employeesand union stewards. They should also promote rights are not violated. When acting in this capacity, keep certain dos and donts in bilateralgood, solid labor-management relations. Yourattitudes toward the agreement, the union, and relationships in mind. Failure to deal con-the union steward and your behavior in contract structively with unions at all levels of supervisionadministration will greatly influence the quality and management in the Navy is one of the chief causes of problems in this area. The following listof your administration. is a brief summary of these constraints and Always show a cooperative attitude and be responsibilities. It is by no means complete. It will,consistently fair in dealing with employees and all however, get you on the right path.labor union representatives. In addition, alwaystry to resolve problems and complaints at thelowest possible level. The principles of equal Dos for Supervisorsopportunity, fraternization, and freedom fromsexual harassment must be rigidly observed. Do 1. Be familiar with the union contract atthese ideas sound familiar? They add up to one your base and know what it means.basic idea: you must exercise good managementtechniques at all times. 2. Know the union steward in your unit. Learn his or her duties, responsibilities, and authority, as outlined in ExecutiveFOREIGN NATIONALS THE Order 11491.STATUS OF FORCESAGREEMENT (SOFA) 3. Be strictly neutral in dealing with employees who join unions and carry on The Navys labor relations directives apply union activities.only to U.S. citizens. Title VII of the Civil ServiceReform Act does not apply to foreign nationals 4. When in doubt about the proper pro-who work for the U.S. government. In regions cedure to follow, go to the labor-where the Navy employs foreign nationals at bases management specialists in civilian per-and installations, local laws apply, which creates sonnel for help.special problems for management. For example,trade unions in Europe are influential in European 5. Be familiar with the Executive orders andindustry. Supervisors at overseas locations mustbe especially aware of local conditions and seek Navy regulations applicable to your situation.advice through their judge advocates when theneed arises. 6. Realize that unions are here to stay. Most overseas naval stations employ locallabor. The Status of Forces Agreement between 7. Maintain open communication with unionthe United States and the host country governs representatives. Be willing to discuss issuesyour relationships with these employees. Often, and problems ingood faith.foreign national employees rights far outstripthose enjoyed by federal employees. Be familiar 8. Know employee grievance procedures.with the agreement in force at your station. Youmay be called upon to administer a contract that 9. Understand the general responsibilities ofis already in force or to take part in contract each level of management in yournegotiations for new construction and services. organization.You must have a working knowledge of laborunion agreements anrl recnilntinns tn If) Tf cm a** + /a**AO
  • 52. it on me proper lorms. Do not refer to 2. Review employee and union rights with the union activity on an appraisal form. This management team. constitutes interference, restraint, or coer- 3. Review roles and responsibilities of cion and violates Executive Order 1 1491 , different managers. section 19(a)(l). 4. Conduct additional briefing and training as needed. 1 1 . Inform employees of their right to form, join, or assist a labor organization or to Specifically, you, as a military manager, refrain from doing so. should be prepared to respond to union actions and requests in a manner that reflects manage- 12. Refer complex problems to the labor ment interests and conforms to the intent of the relations officer in civilian personnel. applicable Executive orders.Donts for Supervisors COMPUTERS 1 . Dont express opinions that would indicate encouragement or discouragement of labor Computers are showing up at a tremendous union membership. rate in the Navy workplace. This is either gratifying or horrifying depending on your point 2. Dont question employees about their of view. Many people feel threatened by com- union membership, union activities, or puters. The sight of a keyboard beneath an evilly union sentiments. glowing monitor sends them running for cover. What can I say? You must adapt and learn to use 3. Dont allow management officials from computers. You may not have one on your desk outside your unit to question employees today at your present command, but what about concerning personnel policies, practices, or your next duty station? What about after you working conditions without giving the retire? Computers are everywhere in civilian union representative the opportunity to be industry. Even the little auto parts shop on the present. corner uses computers to track inventory and help with payroll. You need to learn what they are all 4. Dont refer to union activities in about, in self-defense if for no other reason. It performance appraisals. is only fair to warn you, however, that you may enjoy the experience once you take the plunge to 5. Dont prohibit employees from selecting learn to use a computer. their own representative in processing an A computer is nothing more than a glorified equal employment opportunity (EEO) electronic calculator with a few extra bells and complaint or grievance. whistles. Computers store information, sort facts, and You can use it to type a calculate finances. 6. Dont make the subject matter of griev- letter and with ease or even keep up with edit it ances public. The privacy act applies here. the statistics on your baseball team. To operate a computer, you do not need toTHE UNION ORGANIZING know algebra, calculus, or programming. If youCAMPAIGN can read, you can learn to use a computer. The odds are good that a program exists to do Federal managers are denied the free speech whatever tricks you require of this electronicrights of private sector managers in mounting servant. A program is simply a set of instructionsantiunion campaigns. However, several options to the computer. Written in one of severalare available during the organizing campaign. computer languages, the program lets you use theOnce aware of union organizing attempts, you computer for a particular purpose. The mostshould be able to do the following: common management programs fall into three categories: 1 . Quickly determine whether or not a con- certed organizing drive has begun. Make Word processing These programs allow certain the entire management team is you to use a computer like a typewriter. aware of that fact. But what a typewriter! If you make a
  • 53. mistake in the middle of a letter or think may be installed within the computer or, of a better way to say something, you in some cases, may be a separate unit. dont need to retype the whole letter. You can make corrections, additions, or dele- Keyboard Your means of controlling the tions on the screen of your computer computer. looks like a typewriter with It before printing. a few extra keys. Data base A data base program lets you Disk drive The unit that reads store facts (data). After storing, you may information from a floppy disk to the manipulate the data any way you wish. For computer. When you wish to store infor- instance, a data base containing the vital mation, the disk drive takes it from the and specific training on all your statistics computer and places it on the floppy disk. workers could produce a listing by age or tell you in seconds who is qualified for a 9 Printer A device that does exactly what specific job. You can use this data base to you would expect prints information keep track of rotation dates, evaluation onto paper. The quality of the print is due dates, and a host of other personnel referred to as draft, near letter quality actions. (NLQ), or letter quality (LQ). Spreadsheet This is primarily an Monitor The display screen. It is much accounting tool. It is useful for any task like a small television set with only two that involves several repetitive calculations. channels. It eliminates the tedious recalculation of financial worksheets for minor changes. Network Two or more computers connected together to allow intercommuni- Some of the terms associated with computers cation and/or sharing of a hard disk orsound imposing: disk drive, floppy disk, printer.keyboard, hard disk, network, monitor, and NLQprinter to name a few. Dont let these terms scare As you become familiar with computers andyou. Do you remember how confused you were their uses, you may wish to learn more aboutthe first time an old salt ran off a string of writing programs or using some of the more exoticacronyms and naval terms? It probably sounded accessories available. You do not need to get that "a lot more confusing than computer eze." The involved to use a computer, however. Mostfollowing definitions may help lift the fog a bit: commands now have an office or at least a person designated to train Navy and DOD civilian Hardware The machinery that makes up personnel in computer usage. a computer system: the disk drive, monitor, printer, keyboard, and so on. Software The computers marching SUMMARY orders; that is, the magnetically encoded information you use to program the Line and staff departments and their personnel computer. are essential to an organization the size of the U.S. Navy. Line and staff units must coordinate and Floppy disk A disk of magnetic material cooperate with each other to ensure a smoothly that stores information. Data (infor- functioning organization. Although staff and line mation) is stored on the disk in much the units have different functions and chains of same way that music is recorded on a tape. command, their authority derives ultimately from The actual process is a bit more com- the same source. Line and staff units require the plicated, but you dont need to understand most coordination in the areas in which their it to use a computer. authority overlaps. Inspections are an excellent example of line Hard disk Similar to a floppy disk but and staff interaction. They are often performed capable of storing more data. This item is by staff personnel on line units. Inspections make
  • 54. production efforts and point out what we should REFERENCESdo to correct our errors. Civilian labor is appearing in ever-expanding USAF Managers Course, 00012-03-8112, Courseroles to stretch limited manpower resources. To 12, Vol 3, USAF Extension Course Institute,maintain an effective organization, you must learn Air Training Command, Maxwell AFB, Ala.,to work with, supervise, and work for these (n.d.).civilians. Hand-in-hand with civilian labor arelabor unions. Become familiar with the limitationsand rules that affect management-labor rela- Megginson, Leon C., Donald C. Mosley, and Paul H. Pietri, Jr., Management: Conceptstionships. Cooperation between Department of and Applications, 2d ed., Harper and Row,Defense civilian labor and military personnel is New York, 1986.vital to the Navys mission. Computers are used in virtually every facet ofmanagement today. To grow and improve in your The Federal Service Labor-Management Relationscapacity as a military manager, you need to Statute, Chapter 71 of Title 5 of the U.S.become computer literate. You dont need a Code, and Related Amendments to 5 USCdoctorate in engineering to operate a computer, 5596(b) the Back Pay Act, Federal Laborjust alittle common sense and the ability to read Relations Authority, Washington, D.C.,and comprehend basic manuals. FLRA Document 1071A, September 1985.
  • 55. CHAPTER 5 LEADERSHIP AND MOTIVATION LEARNING OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 1. Define Leadership. 8. Recognize the best way to increase power. 2. Define the core values of the United States 9. State two ways power may be lost. Navy. 10. Recognize the extent to which authority, accountability, and responsibility may be 3. State the major types of authority. delegated. 4. State the source of legal authority. 1 1 . State the need for maintaining the proper chain of command. 5. State the definition of earned authority. 12. State the definition of motivation. 6. State the definition of moral authority. 13. Identify the importance of motivating 7. List the six sources of power. subordinates. Wars may be fought with weapons, but The two highest achievements of the won by men. It is the spirit of the they are human mind are the twin concepts of men who follow and of the man who leads "loyalty" and "duty." Whenever these that gains the victory. twin concepts fall into disrepute get out of there fast! You may possibly save General George S. Patton yourself, but it is too late to save that society. It is doomed. Leadership is one of the most overworked Reprinted, by permission ofwords in the Navys vocabulary. We use this term, G.P. Putnams Sons, fromalong with others such as tradition, profes- The Notebooks of Lazarussionalism, and integrity, to describe our goals and Long by Robert Heinleinexpectations to our people. We attempt to teachit in our Navy schools and, hopefully, try to instillit in ourselves and our subordinates. But howmany of us have sat down and really tried to LEADERSHIPunderstand the nature of leadership? Themechanics and terminology of leadership can be The following is the Navys definition oftaught in a classroom, but what makes a real leadership: the art of influencing people toleader? In this chapter, we will try to shed some progress towards the accomplishment of a specificlight on this elusive subject. goal. Leadership, then, is the art of accomplishing 5-1
  • 56. such qualities as intellect, understanding, andmoral character. These qualities allow a leader to Competenceinspire and motivate a group of people to do thevery best they can. To be truly effective, a good Teamworkleader must set a personal example anddemonstrate moral responsibility. Leadership is Loyaltyan integral part of good management. These are the values that are traditionally heldCORE VALUES and demonstrated by the chiefs community. You are the source from which our sailors must learn The Chief of Naval Operations implemented these values.core values to promote personal excellence in the In 1986 Admiral James B. Watkins, Chief ofNavy. He accomplished this by developing a Naval Operations, sent a delegation to the Navalcommitment to a core set of Navy traditions and War College to develop a "Code of Ethics" asvalues, which are in consonance with our national part of his effort to promote personal excellencevalues. To determine just what these values should in the Navy. The was "The result of this projectbe, the Navy conducted an extensive review in Navy Uniform" (fig. 5-1), which was later1987. More than 100 sailors representing all simplified to "The Sailors Creed" (fig. 5-2).communities, fleets, and many positions within Together they provide an excellent guide to thethe chain of command were individually requirements of a superior Navy leader.interviewed. In these interviews sailors were askedto do the following: EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP Describe "tough situations" that posed The special authority and responsibility values conflicts or ethics dilemmas granted to you an example of position power. is The mere fact that you are a manager, however, Characterize those persons they admired does not make you an effective leader. Some most and least in the Navy managers are highly effective leaders; others are rather ineffective. We emphasize this point Discuss in very real terms the values that the because one popular idea seems to be that position Navy represents power is closely related to effective leadership. These interviews produced many enlightening This may or may not be true. In todays complexaccounts and personal insights, most of which and technical military service, the traditional form of "heroic" personal leadership is changing to arevolve around a set of command themes. Thosevalues most often portrayed in everyday decision manager form. The wide range of skills we need to accomplish our goals requires us to take anmaking and felt to be most important to the Navy active part in the team effort of decision making.are as follows: In most cases, the "ours not to wonder why, ours TRADITION but to do or die" approach is outmoded. Todays approach puts greater emphasis on human Concern for people relationsand group motivation as a means of achieving effective performance. Patriotism LEADERSHIP VARIABLES Courage Leadership is a function of three broad Spiritual heritage variables: (1) the characteristics of the leader, (2) the characteristics of the followers, and (3) the INTEGRITY which the leader characteristics of the situation in and followers are involved. Numerous studies Honesty show that a leaders effectiveness depends on that Honor persons ability to relate to these variables in choosing the appropriate style of leadership. Responsibility When leading sailors who are highly dependent
  • 57. The Navy UniformYou wear the Navy uniform.That means a lot to your country, your service, yourself.It means KNOWING THE JOB. Professional competence comes first. Without skilled men and women, the Navy cannot carryout its mission. That mission is to defend the nation at the risk of death.It means COMMITMENT TO DUTY. To serve for pay is good. To serve for travel, education, and training is better. To serve for love of country and comrades is best.It means COMMITMENT TO LEADERSHIP. Leadership consists of those qualities of skill and character that command respect and causeothers to follow loyally and willingly. It, in turn, requires fairness, a reluctance to ask more thanyou yourself would give, a sense of justice.It means HONESTY. If you wear the Navy uniform, you dont lie; you dont cheat; you dont steal. If you leadothers, those in charge are watching you and noting your example. The way you act, officer orenlisted, means "Im saying that everybody should do this. Pm not making an exception of myself."It means COURAGE. You mustalso have courage, both moral and physical, for it is the virtue on which the exerciseof other virtues depends. You must have the courage to fight. You must have the strength of allcharacter to say "no" to what is wrong, to persevere in what is right no matter how difficult thetask becomes, and, even to face pain and death in defense of the things you value and love, shouldhonor and duty demand. Yours is not an easy commitment, but a worthy and noble one.It means LOYALTY. let those over you know that they have your support. To show those in your charge you Towillgo to bat for them, never asking them to do something you would not do yourself. Sometimes loyalties conflict. You must choose. Never mistake loyalty for doing wrong to helpsomeone out, even if he is your superior.It means OBEDIENCE. Obedience requires that you carry out the lawful orders of your superiors,as we all pledged to do, with pride and determination.It means COMMITMENT TO THE BEST. For the Navy, for comrades, for self. We give whatwe have. We do what we can. We commit the highest in us to the service. For the Navy, only the best is enough. Always to excel. Always to be the best.
  • 58. The Sailors Creed I have chosen to serve in the United States Navy. America depends on my performance for her survival, and I accept the challenge to set my standards high, placing my countrys well-being above self-interest. I will be loyal to my country, its Constitution and laws, and to my shipmates. I will be honest in my personal and professional life and encourage my shipmates to do the same. I will, to the best of my ability, do the right thing for its own sake, and I am prepared to face pain or death in defense of my country. m I willbe a professional, wearing my uniform with pride and accepting responsibility for my actions. I will set excellence as my standard and always strive for ways to make me a better sailor and my crew a better crew. Figure 5-2. The Sailors Creed.and insecure, you no doubt use a somewhat AUTHORITYautocratic style. Your style is firm, with clear As a manager you have many responsibilities.procedures and firm directions. In this situationyou must be psychologically strong. When your To accomplish your mission, you must oftensubordinates are emotionally mature and perform delegate specific tasks to subordinates. In addition to delegating the task, you must also delegate thein a creative, self-motivated manner, these tacticsare destined for failure. authority necessary to carry it out. Always Of course, you are unlikely to have workers remember that, although you may delegate a task to a subordinate,you retain responsibility for itswho all fall into one category. Also, situationstend to change from minute to minute. Therefore, accomplishment. Managers have several types ofyou must focus on all three variables all the time. authority.Two of the qualities a leader needs to deal within this constantly shifting relationship of leader, Legal Authorityfollower, and situation are flexibility and social The Code of Uniform Military Justicesensitivity. Social sensitivity refers to your ability (UCMJ) your legal authority. Your sets forthto think and feel what the other person is thinking orders are backed up by the punitive articles thatand feeling. Flexibility is your ability to behave provide punishment for a subordinates insub-appropriately in dealing with others. ordinate conduct or failure to obey a lawful order. Leaders often overlook the first variable. You Some UCMJ articles provide you with the powermust be constantly aware of your own reactions to "quell all quarrels, frays, and disorders"and feelings. Leaders with high sensitivity and among persons subject to the Uniform Code.flexibility are usually emotionally mature. The Others give you the power to apprehend anyonemore " leaders have worked through" their own (subject to certain prescribed conditions) sus-biases, prejudices, fears, and anxieties, the more pected of having committed an offense against it.personally aware they are. These personal hang-ups often prevent leaders from being as effective Earned Authorityas possible. Personal awareness of how these
  • 59. commands. Itstems from leadership qualities that have considerable access to power. As a technicalmake others obey even if no law requires them expert in your field, you possess both expertto do so. Since America was founded on the power and control-of-information power. Theprinciples of individual freedom and individuality, billets you fill carry legitimate power, rewardits leaders must be able to inspire cooperation as power, and coercive power. If you have workedwell as to enforce obedience. to become a superior leader, you will also have referent power.Moral Authority Many managers mistakenly hoard their power in a vain effort to avoid losing it. The best way to expand your power, however, is to share it. This is the authority that makes a person step How do you share power? Power is shared everyin and take over when an emergency arises and time you use it to promote the common good. Useaction is required. Good leaders will take action the knowledge you have worked to gain to traineven though the emergency is not technically their others. Show that young sailor the best way toresponsibility. Moral authority is a matter of get a job done. Use your influence to improve theindividual conscience that cannot be written into quality of life for your troops. Giving rewards islaw. The assumption of this authority leads some preferable to punishment. Coercion is a poorto perform actions "above and beyond the call motivator. It works for a while but, in the longof duty." It leads others to do their everyday jobs run, destroys morale. Delegation is anotherbetter than they really have to. Authority, then, excellent way to share your power.lies in the law, in the respect of your workers, andin your own ability to lead. Losing PowerPOWER Playing influence games may jeopardize your mission or the welfare of your troops and is an Power and authority go hand in hand. excellent way to lose your power. Misuse or abuseEffective leaders normally have a high need for of power to gain exceptional privileges willpower since authority alone is not enough to ultimately result in the loss of referent power.ensure obedience from subordinates. Power refers Subordinates will not respect a leader who takesto a leaders ability to influence others. Many the afternoon to play golf while his or her troops are working. Unfortunately they may still emulatepeople have negative feelings about power because the leaders behavior. You give away power everythey feel that it corrupts. This simply isnt so.Power may be abused; but, properly directed, it time you play favorites. You also give it awayis a positive management tool. Power may be when you ignore certain rules because you are toogained, lost, and invested much like money in a busy or dont agree with them.stock market. The shrewd leader will study the When did you last comment to someone about the unkempt appearance of a sailors uniform ormanagement of personal power as carefully as anyother investment. the sailors need for a haircut? Did you tell that sailor to square away the uniform or to get a haircut? If you didnt, you gave up a little power.Gaining Power The fact that the person isnt "one of yours" doesnt relieve you of the responsibility for You have several sources of power. It may correcting a military deficiency. Failure to rendercome from your ability or authority to reward a proper salute (or to return one), wearing an(reward power) or punish (coercive power). It may improper uniform, and disrespectful conduct arestem from the authority attached to your position all acts that many chiefs overlook in the course(legitimate power), such as division chief or of a normal day. Every time you do this, youcommand master chief. It may be awarded to you reenforce the idea that this type of conduct isby others because of your personal charisma or okay. Why? Because "Senior Chief Jones didntcourage (referent power). You may gain power say anything about it when we met this morning."because you have knowledge that may be shared Every time you fail to exercise your authorityor withheld (control-of-information power). You or power, you lose a little of it. Overlook anmay also gain power as a result of personal infraction and you lose a little more. Hoard yourexpertise in a technical area (expert power). power and, like an unused muscle, it shrinks.
  • 60. There is a right way and a wrong way to use Responsibility and Accountabilitypower. Use it correctly and your power willincrease. Misuse or abuse your power and it will Standard Organization and Regulations of thediminish. U.S. Navy (SORN), OPNAVINST 3120.32B, states the following: "Authority should beDELEGATION delegated to the lowest level of competence commensurate with the subordinates assigned Many managers have great difficulty delegat- responsibility and capabilities. The principles ofing authority (power). Delegation is not giving delegation also recognize, however, that officersaway power. Power-motivated managers make at all levels must be accountable ultimately fortheir subordinates feel stronger through sharing the performance of their organizational segmentstheir power. You retain responsibility when you even they have charged subordinates with ifdelegate power; indeed, you cannot give away or immediate authority for managing certaindelegate responsibility. functions." When delegating a task, also delegate theauthority (power) necessary to carry out a task. MicromanagingFailure to do this negates the purpose ofdelegation. Withholding power results in less Micromanaging is when you tell your workersconfident subordinates who are afraid to attempt how to do a job and then supervise every stepprojects for fear of failure. rather than allowing their assigned supervisors to In todays Navy personnel cuts and reductions run things. Once you have delegated a task, letin force among officer ranks is commonplace. your subordinate do the job. Be available to giveMany senior and master chiefs now fill billets that advice and instruction if needed; but unless yourwere formerly occupied by officers. You may not assistance is required, stay out of the way. Generalbe commissioned, but the responsibility goes with George S. Patton once said "Never tell peoplethe position. You cannot "do it all" and still hope how to do things. Tell them what to do and theyto do a good job. Delegation is an essential part will surprise you with their ingenuity."of management. Learn to use it and reap the Micromanaging lessens a subordinates self-benefits. Your subordinates will learn to act with confidence. It also sends amessage to others thatconfidence and a sense of responsibility that can you do not trust the person to do the job properly.only be learned through experience. Your own job If you really feel this way, dont delegate the task.will be much easier, with more time for trainingfuture managers. Chain of Command Managers are often guilty of delegatingburdensome tasks that should remain at their Certainly the chain of command is one of thelevel. A manager must know when to delegate and most important elements of any organization. Itwhen to do a task personally. Avoid overtasking ensures that orders are passed properly and thatyour subordinates. If a particular job needs your accountability and responsibility are clearlypersonal attention, it is not a candidate for understood. In addition to delegation, chapter 1delegation. Delegation is a tool you should use of the SORN discusses the principles of unity ofto manage your time so that you will be able to command and span of control. Unity ofperform these tasks. command ensures that a member reports directly to and receives orders from only one individual. One person must have control over one segment of the organization, and that individual is When the need arises and it does you responsible for issuing all orders and receiving all must be able to shoot your own dog. Dont reports from that segment. To ensure all personnel farm it out that doesnt make it nicer, it know whom they direct and to whom they report, makes it worse. you must establish clear lines of authority. Span of control refers to the ideal number of people Reprinted, by permission of who can be supervised effectively by one person. G.P. Putnams Sons, from However, it also recognizes the scope of the The Notebooks of Lazarus assigned functional responsibilities and the time
  • 61. not less than three nor more than seven You are simply passing the orders along. Howindividuals. often do you use the following manner to give your workers such orders: "LT Jones says weGiving Orders have to have personnel inspection every morning." This method of giving orders is You have no doubt heard the term follower- common When YOU but wrong. give an order,ship. Leadership and followership are two sides state it as YOUR order. What do mean by this? Iof the same coin. Virtually everyone from the Here is an example: "Beginning tomorrow, weCommander in Chief to a working party super- will hold personnel inspection every morning."visor gives and receives orders. A leader must set In this manner you build your own authority with.theexample when following orders as well as when subordinates (see "Gaining and Losing Power").giving them. Giving orders effectively is an art But why does it matter? One day the need mayform. You must first ensure the order is necessary. arise for you to take charge in an emergency orInappropriate or unnecessary orders produce during a superiors absence. Passing orders in theconflict, confusion, and ill will. proper manner preconditions your workers to As a midlevel manager, the majority of orders respond to your commands. The following storyyou give originate at a higher level of command. should clarify this point. DAMN EXEC by Lieutenant Commander Stuart D. Landersman, U.S. Navy former Executive Officer, USS STICKELL (DD-* Reprinted from Proceedings with permission; Copyright (c) (1965) U.S. Naval Institute. The Norfolk wind was streaking the water of Hampton Roads as Commander Martin K. Speaks, U.S. Navy, Commanding Officer of the USS BOWENS (DD-891), stepped from his car, slammed the door, and straightened his cap. As he approached the pier head a sentry stepped from the sentry hut and saluted. "Good morning, Captain." "Good morning, Kowalski," answered Commander Speaks. He took pleasure in the fact that he knew the sailors name. Kowalski was a good sailor. He had served his entire first cruise in the BOWENS and did his work well. The Captain noticed that over his blues Kowalski wore a deck force foul weather jacket, faded, frayed, dirty, and spotted with red lead. "Little chilly this morning," said the Captain as he walked by. "Yes sir, sure is," replied the sailor with his usual grin. As the Captain approached his quarterdeck there was the usual scurrying of people and four gongs sounded. "BOWENS arriving," spoke the loudspeaker system, and Lieutenant (j.g.) Henry Graven, U.S. Naval Reserve, gunnery officer and the days command duty officer, came running to the quarterdeck. Salutes and cheerful "good mornings" were exchanged, and the Captain continued to his cabin. Lieutenant Graven looked over the quarterdeck and frowned. "Lets get this brightwork polished chief." "Its already been done once this morning, sir," replied the OOD. "Well, better do it again. The Exec will have a fit if he sees it this way," said Graven,
  • 62. again on the quarterdeck." Later that morning Captain Speaks was going over some charts with theships Executive Officer, Lieutenant Commander Steven A. Lassiter, U.S.Navy. The Captain had just finished his coffee and lighted a cigarette. "Steve,I noticed our pier sentry in an odd outfit this morning. He had a foul weatherjacket on over his blues; it looked pretty bad." "Yes sir. Well, it gets cold out there, and these deck force boys have mightybad looking jackets," the Exec said. The Captain the Exec had missed his point and said, "Oh, I realize feltthey have to wear a jacket, but for a military watch like that, Id like to seethem wear pea coats when its cold." Lieutenant Graven was talking with a third class boatswains mate on thefantail when the quarterdeck messenger found him. When toldthat the Executive Officer wanted to see him, Graven ended his discussionwith, "There, hear that? He probably wants to see me about that brightwork.I dont care how many men it takes to do it, the Exec told me to be sure toget that brightwork polished every morning." The Executive Officer indicated a chair to Graven and they both lightedup cigarettes. "Hows it going these days?" asked the Exec. Lassiter had always liked Graven, but in the past few months, since hehad taken over as senior watch officer, Graven seemed to have more problemsthan usual. "Okay, I guess," Graven replied with a forced grin. He knew things werenot as they used to be. It seemed strange, too, because everyone on the shiphad been so glad to be rid of the previous senior watch officer, that "damn"Lieutenant Dumphy. The junior officers even had a special little beer bustat the club to celebrate Dumphys leaving and Cravens "fleeting up" to seniorwatch officer. Now the Exec was always after him. The junior officers didnthelp much either, always complaining about the Exec. Maybe the Exec wastaking over as "the heel" now that Dumphy was gone. "Thats good," said the Exec, "heres a little thing that you might lookinto. These men that stand pier watches have to wear a jacket, but the foulweather jacket doesnt look good for a military watch. Id like to see themwear their pea coats when its cold." Graven had expected something likethis, more of the Execs picking on him. He responded properly, got up, andleft. Graven told his First Lieutenant: "The Exec says the pier head sentriescant wear foul weather jackets anymore. If its cold they can wear pea coats,"he added. "But the pea coats will get dirty and then what about personnelinspections?" asked the First Lieutenant. "I dont know," Graven shook his head, "but if the Exec wants pea coats,we give him pea coats!" "Pea coats!" said the chief boatswains mate, "Who says so?" "Thats what the Exec wants," said the First Lieutenant, "so lets givehim pea coats." "The Exec says pea coats for the pier sentries when its cold," announcedthe Chief to his boatswains mates. A third class boatswains mate walked away from the group with a buddy,turned and said, "That Damn Exec, first I got to have all my men polishbrightwork on the quarterdeck, now they got to wear pea coats on sentry dutystead of foul weather jackets!" 5-8
  • 63. Seaman Kowalskis relief showed up at the sentry booth at 1150. "Roastbeef today," constituted the relieving ceremony. "Good, I like roast beef," was the reply. "Hey, how come the pea coat?" "Damn Execs idea," said the relief. "We cant wear foul weather gearno more out here, only pea coats." "Damn Exec," agreed Kowalski, "Captain didnt say nothin when hecame by." "The Captains okay, its just that Damn Exec. Hes the guy who foulsup everything," complained the new sentry. Seaman Kowalski had just gone aboard the ship when Captain Speaksstepped out on the deck to look over his ship. The quarterdeck awning shieldedthe Captain from the view of those on the quarterdeck, but he could clearlyhear the conversation. "Roast beef today, Ski." "Yeah,I know, and we wear pea coats from now on." "Whaddaya mean, pea coats?" "Yeah, pea coats on the pier, Damn Exec says no more foul weatherjackets." "Well that aint all, we got to polish this here brightwork til it shinesevery morning before quarters, Damn Exec says that too." "Damn Exec." Captain Speaks was shocked. "Why "Damn Exec" from these seamen?"he thought. It was easy to trace what had happened to the order the Captaingave the Executive Officer that morning. It was easy to see that the ExecutiveOfficer had passed it along in proper military manner. It was easy to see thatthe junior officers, leading petty officers, and lower petty officers were passingit along saying "The Exec wants ..." Thats the way orders are passed along.Why? Because "it is easy." "All ships officers assemble in the wardroom," the boatswains mateannounced on the loud speaker system. Lieutenant Commander Lassiterescorted in the Captain. The junior officers took their seats when the Captainwas seated. The Executive Officer remained standing. "Gentlemen, the Captainhas a few words to say to us today." The Captain rose and looked around slowly. "Gentlemen, we arecontinually exposed to words like administration, leadership, management,capabilities, organization, responsibilities, authority, discipline, andcooperation. You use these words every day. You give lectures to your menand use them, but if I were to ask you for a definition of any of these wordsI would get such a wide variety of answers that an expert couldnt tell whatword we were defining. Some we probably couldnt define at all. We stilluse them, and will continue to use them as they are used in the con-tinually mounting number of articles, instructions, and books wemust read. "If I were to ask any of you how we can improve leadership I would getanswers filled with these words undefined and meaningless. "If we listed all of the nicely worded theories of leadership, studied them,memorized them, and took a test in them, we wouldnt improve our abilityas leaders one bit. I can tell a story, containing none of these meaninglesswords that will improve your leadership. "In 1943, 1 was secondary battery officer in a cruiser in the South Pacific.In my second battle, gun control was hit and I lost communications witheveryone except my 5-inch mounts. I could see that the after main batteryturret was badly damaged and two enemy destroyers were closing us from At thp time mv ^-inrh mounts were shootine at airnlanes. I ordered
  • 64. to thetwo destroyers closing from astern. But Mr. Speaks, were supposedto handle the air targets; who said to shift targets? my mount captainasked. "There was noise and smoke and explosions that day, but the explosionthat I heard was not from a shell, but from those words of the mount captain. "Those attacking destroyers got a few shots in at us before we beat themoff.Maybe those shots found a target and some of my shipmates died. I neverfound out. There was too much other damage. "I thought over the battle afterward and realized that this entire situationwas my fault, not my mount captains. I may have been responsible for thedeath of some of my shipmates because up to that day I always gave ordersto my subordinates by attaching the originators name to it. "What does that mean? It means that it was the easy thing to do, to say,the gunnery officer wants us to shift targets. "In this peacetime world you may say that we no longer have this struggleon a life or death basis. Quick response does not mean life or death rightnow, but it might tomorrow, or sometime after weve all been transferredelsewhere and this ship is being fought by people we dont know. "Whether youre cleaning boilers, standing bridge watch or administeringyour training program, its easy to say the exec wants or Mr. Jones says.Its the EASY, LAZY way; not the RIGHT way. You can sometimes discussor even argue with an order, but when you give it to a subordinate, makehim think it is coming from you. "Giving orders the lazy wayis like a drug. Once you start saying the opsofficer wants you will find yourself doing it more and more until you cantget a thing done any other way. Your men will pass along orders that way,too, and it will become a part of your organization right down to the lowestlevel. When some problem arises and you want action, youll get who wantsthis or why should we. "Each of you ask yourself if you have given an order today or yesterdayin the lazy think almost all of us have. Now ask yourself if that manner. Iorder really originated with the person who gave it to you, or did they receiveit from a higher level? We never really know, do we, but why should we evencare? "In almost every unit the lazy ordering starts on a particular level. Frompersonal experience I can tell you that this can be an exact measure of theunit effectiveness. If it starts at the department head level or higher its arelatively bad outfit, and if it starts at the chiefs level its a relatively goodoutfit. You can find the level below which it starts by hearing a new titlepreceding a primary billet. Damn Exec means that the executive officer isthe lowest level giving orders properly. Damn division officer means thatthe division officers are taking the responsibility for the order. "Here I am using some of those words, responsibility and authority, thoseundefined terms we want to avoid, but perhaps we have helped define them. "To be more specific, every officer does some lazy ordering, but we needto do it less and less. We must try to push the damn title down as far asit will go.
  • 65. MOTIVATION Although medals may not be appropriate in every instance, some form of recognition is better than none at all. Dont hesitate to praise good work. The unfailing formula for production of A pat on the back or letter of appreciation costs morale is patriotism, self-respect, nothing but can reap huge benefits in morale. discipline, and self-confidence within a High morale and productivity go hand in hand. military unit, joined with fair treatment A worker who feels appreciated will be more likely and merited appreciation from without. It to continue to perform at a high level than one cannot be produced by pampering or whose efforts are ignored. coddling an army, and is not necessarily destroyed by hardship, danger, or even THE WILL TO WORK calamity. Though it can survive and develop in adversity that comes as an Skill and ability are of little use if your workers inescapable incident of service, it will are not motivated to work. You as a manager are quickly wither and die if soldiers come to responsible for your people to motivating believe themselves the victims of perform. The best way you can do this is by indifference or injustice on the part of their making sure that they get off on the right foot. government, or of ignorance, personal Motivation should start as soon as they report ambition, or ineptitude on the part of their aboard. military leaders. Start Right General Douglas MacArthur, Annual Report of the Chief of Your efforts to motivate workers should start Staff, United States Army, for on day one. When workers check in, show an the fiscal year ending 30 June interest in them. This means you must do much 1933 more than assigning a sponsor. You must take an active part in making each person feel like part of the organization. Sure, you have more than Motivation is the primary job of leaders. enough to do already, but the time spent ensuringMotivation means leaders must develop the art that new personnel get a good start will save youof getting individuals or groups to work together a lot of time later correcting achieve a goal. At the same time, the leaders Spend a little thought on such things asmust also work to achieve their own goals. Good sponsor assignments. The person most easilyleaders are aware of the personal goals of their spared from the work force is probably the worstcrew and use this knowledge to motivate them possible choice for sponsor duty. Assign yourtoward mission accomplishment. better personnel as sponsors. Make sponsorship a team effort to reduce individual time away fromMOTIVATIONAL OBJECTIVES work. This also lets new arrivals know that more than one person is interested in their welfare. Aside from mission accomplishment (or The same plan applies to training. Giveproductivity), motivation has several other training responsibility to your best personnel. Theobjectives. Other motivational concerns of a long-range dividends are well worth the trouble.leader are retention and advancement. Solid Provide the best example possible to newleadership produces an atmosphere of team effort. personnel.The camaraderie experienced by members of asuccessful team contributes to a feeling of job Provide for Personal Needssatisfaction. Although other inducements maycause sailors to reenlist, job satisfaction is a major Show concern for your workers personalincentive. welfare. Encourage them to make use of recrea- Pay increases come only through the medium tional, spiritual, educational, and welfare facilitiesof advancement. However, recognition and available to them. Each worker needs to feelprestige are important motivators that can be valued both as a person and as a member of the at rf cnnprvicinn nr frrr*s drmfirmatinn of this
  • 66. ii giuup pai Liciptiuuii is icasiuie, gcu Workers are far more effective when morale their inputs when making changes that will affectis high. Morale an indicator of the state of is them.motivation felt by your personnel. One of thefactors in high morale is a sense of mission Full Employment on Essential Tasksknowing where they, as individuals, fit into theoverall effort, and feeling good about it. This Full employment means an absence of idle time. Dont work them to death, but keep yourfeeling enhances their willingness to cooperate and people busy. Essential tasks are those that"go the extra mile." contribute to your mission. Each worker should Whenever possible, keep your people in- be used fully on tasks that are essential to the unit.formed on mission goals and progress. Many So how do you make people feel that they areworkers are far removed from the results of their employed on essential tasks? Give each workerlabor. Arrange for the Intermediate Maintenance a full days work. Barring a problem in attitudeDepartment workers to see how the equipment or emotions, most workers want to be busy andthey maintain is used. The same holds true for "grow" with the job. You should provide bothgalley workers, engine room personnel, and opportunities. A full days work, however, shouldvirtually every other rating on board. Make sure also be a safe work load. Tasking people beyondthey understand that their job is important and their physical or mental limitations only leads tocontributes measurably to aircraft launches, stress and frustration.missile shoots, or whatever your current mission Schedule efficiently. This has many implica-is. Motivation comes from as tions. If your subordinates must wait for you to many different "get around" to them, your scheduling issources as there are individuals. You must take inadequate. Maintain a realistic span of controlyour workers personal desires and ambitions into and use good delegation techniques to keep workconsideration. To do this, you must know yourworkers. The more imagination you bring to the moving.task of motivating your people, the better your Question the need for every task. You willchances of success will be. probably find some jobs are not essential. Other jobs contribute to the mission of the unit, but are not justified in time and effort. Some jobs crowdAvoid Negative Motivation out more important tasks. An example is the You may, supervisor who from subordi- requests reports at times, resort to fear tomotivate nates, only to throw them away. Likewise someyour workers. Fear may be activated by such supervisors are "chart keepers" who requirenegative incentives as threat of punishment orrestriction of personal needs. Negative graphs and charts that duplicate each other without justifying the effort. If a task cannot bemotivation, however, often destroys morale; and justified,it should be eliminated.effectiveness will decline as morale declines. Long-term or frequent use of negative motivation, then,is self-defeating. Negative incentives may be usedas a last resort, but you should first study the SUMMARYsituation carefully to try to avoid them. The leadership process, then, is not a simple matter of a supervisors being oriented towardPromote Teamwork people or toward the mission. It is, instead, a combination of critical factors. Superior leaders Team spirit exists in an atmosphere of positive are proficient in their job and committed to themotivation and high morale. You can do three Navys mission as well as to the welfare ofthings to help promote team spirit. First, try to subordinates. Troops will look to these leaders asidentify with your workers. Know and understand an example of honesty, courage, and loyalty.their problems, and try to relate them to your own These leaders people have a clear understandingpersonal experiences Second, keep communica- . of their place in the overall mission of theirtion lines open. Insist on use of the chain of command and the Navy. Top leaders understandcommand wherever appropriate; involve their the sources and uses of authority and power. Theyindividual supervisors in their problems, but make delegate tasks appropriately and avoidsure they understand that you are available. Third, micromanaging their subordinates.
  • 67. Leaders must insist on observance of the chain make an error, show them the same considerationof command. Failure to follow this most basic rule you would like to receive. Public embarrassmentcauses confusion, hard feelings, and low morale. may well cause them to quit trying to excel forIn support of their chain of command, leaders fear of another failure.must give orders in a clear, definite manner. Theyshould pass along an order as though it wereoriginal, not attach the name of the superior whoactually originated the order. REFERENCES Aleaders primary responsibility is themotivation of subordinates. Motivation means Megginson, Leon C., Donald C. Mosley, andinstilling the will to work. This starts the moment Paul H. Pietri, Jr., Management: Conceptsworkers report aboard and continues until they and Applications; 2d ed., Harper and Row,transfer. Each individual is motivated by specific New York, 1986.factors. These factors fall into general categoriessuch as personal needs, job satisfaction, and a USAF Managers Course, Vol. 3, Leadership andsense of belonging. One of the best motivators Management, Course 12, 00012-03-8112,is job satisfaction. Keeping people employed on USAF Extension Course Institute, Gunter Airessential jobs and generating a sense of teamwork Force Station, Montgomery, Ala., promote this feeling. Agood leader will not hesitate to correct Washbush, John B., and Barbara J. Sherlock, Todeficiencies, but will observe the adage "praise Get the Job Done, 2d ed., Naval Institutein public, correct in private." When your workers Press, Annapolis, Md., 1981.
  • 68. CHAPTER 6 COMMUNICATION LEARNING OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 1 . Identify sources of information concerning 5. List the rules for effective writing. communication skills. 6. State the source that establishes the rules 2. List effective listening techniques. and guidelines for preparation of directives. 3. Identify techniques for improving oral communication. 7. Identify several uses of point papers. 4. Identify barriers to effective communi- cation. Communication is the key to success for a EFFECTIVE LISTENING Are you a good communicator? Wouldleader! Good listening is a matter of desire andyou believe the average American spends concentration. In a broad sense, listening meansapproximately 70 percent of his or her time and remembering. Its hearing, comprehending,communicating in some form or another; that is, your attention on the other actively focusing alllistening, speaking, reading, or writing, generallyin that order of importance? You, on the other person and whats being said. Improving your listening skills can help you in gatheringhand, will probably spend nearly 90 percent of information, counseling others, problem solving,your time communicating. and saving time and energy. To assist you in improving your communica- Leaders real leaders know how to com-tion skills, this chapter discusses effective municate. Effective communication is a two-waylistening, effective speaking, and effective writing.You can find additional information on communi- street. Aleaders willingness to listen is probably the single most important determinant of thecation skills in the following publications: morale of a ship, squadron, or unit. Active listening isnt as easy as it might sound. Human Behavior, NAVEDTRA 10058-C1 We set up barriers that inhibit our understanding Military Requirements for Senior and Master of whats being said. For example, we often think Chief Petty Officer, NAVEDTRA 10048- A about the speaker instead of whats being said. Also we sometimes think ahead of the speaker Career Information Program Management, instead of thinking with him or her. NAVEDTRA 10238-A You can become a better listener by practicing the following techniques: Department of the Navy Correspondence Manual, SECNAVINST 5216.5C Have the right attitude. Want to listen.
  • 69. v .rxi/1 iiivv a guuu. iiaitiici . iviaivt t_yc LJV11UV1 Check your body language. Everything you say is affected by filters. These Take responsibility for comprehending. filtersare the way you interpret and express Try to understand whats being said. information. They are based on your own per- sonal experience and lifestyle. They are caused by Listen to understand rather than to refute. your attitude, age, knowledge of the subject, Try to understand first and evaluate social and cultural background, personality, and second. education. Control your emotions. Dont permit Receivers Filters emotional blocks to get in the way of understanding whats being said. Attitude, age, knowledge of subject matter, social and cultural background, personality, and Stop talking. If you interrupt less, you will education all affect the receivers filters, just as hear more. But do make comments, ask they do yours. Keep in mind your filters and the questions, and give encouragement when receivers filters are not the same. itsappropriate. ELEMENTS OF TRANSMITTING Listen analytically. Listen to whats being INFORMATION said and how its being said. Get the speakers point of view. Understanding the elements affecting the transmitting of information will help you develop Good listening takes discipline and effort on and improve your speaking skills. Practicing theseyour part. a skill requiring both motivation Its skills will reduce the amount of distorted andand practice but the end result is worth the misunderstood information. Your attitude, theeffort. Part of caring for and taking care of your topic interest, and your presentation are keypeople is really listening to them. factors affecting the transmission of infor- mation. EFFECTIVE SPEAKING Attitude Effective oral communication is vitally Your crew will probably take the same attitudeimportant in your everyday activities. You might you have toward a subject. You must showbe required to fill in for the division officer one enthusiasm and interest even when the subject isminute and brief a new command member the dull. This takes work. If the members of yournext. One of your most important tasks is to audience get the impression that you are not reallycommunicate Navy and command policies to your interested, then you can bet theyre not going tosubordinates. Just stating policies is not enough; be interested must ensure the crew understands thesepolicies. Topic InterestLOST/DISTORTED INFORMATION This an area where you must really work. is Understand, the crew may not realize the Information is often lost or distorted between information is of interest or importance. You needthe top and the bottom of the chain of command. to sell them on its importance. Here again, yourSome elements affecting the loss or distortion of attitude plays a big part.information are the message being sent, thesenders filters, and the receivers filters. PresentationMessage Being Sent No matter how important the information is, if the presentation is uninteresting, unprofes- The more complex or lengthy the message is, sional, confusing, or boring, the crews attentionthe greater the chance of loss or distortion. Keep will wander. When this happens, you can be surethe message as brief and clear as possible. that some information will be lost. Here are a few
  • 70. helpful hints that will make public speaking a little You will often be called upon to initiateeasier and more effective: written communication. Almost daily you will become involved in writing memorandums, point Voice Level Adapt your voice level to the papers, messages, instructions, and other forms surrounding area. Keep your voice level of written communication. You must be able to high enough so that those farthest away write clearly and use good grammar. One of the from you can hear. most valuable publications to use in drafting Enunciation Be aware of how you all types of official correspondence is the pronounce your words, how rapidly you Navy Correspondence Manual, SECNAVINST speak, and how quietly you speak. Practic- 5216. 5C. Better Naval Writing, OPNAV ing with a tape recorder will help improve 09B-P1-84, is a workbook for chapter 1 of the your delivery. Navy Correspondence Manual. The following Rate of Speech You should vary your rules should help you develop a more "natural" style and improve your writing skills: rate of speech depending upon the type of information you are talking about. Speak on paper. Make your writing as Delivery of technical information requires formal or informal as the situation a slower rate of speech than delivery of requires, but do so with language you other types of information. might use in speaking. Because readers Inflection No one gets much from hear writing, the most readable writing someone who speaks in a monotone. If sounds like people talking to people. Begin you vary your pitch, your speech will be by imagining your reader is sitting across easier to listen to and will hold your from your desk. Then write with personal audiences attention. Use your whole body pronouns, everyday words, and short when speaking. Your eyes, your facial sentences the best of speaking. expressions,and your body movements all contribute to your effectiveness as a Use personal pronouns. Though you speaker. Body language is as important in need not go out of your way to use public speaking as it is in person-to-person personal pronouns, you should not go out communication. The eyes tell a lot; they of your way to avoid them. Avoiding are the principal receivers of nonverbal natural references to people is false communication. They give meaning to modesty. Speak of your activity, com- everything you say. Eye contact is very mand, or office as we, us, or our. important when talking and listening to These words are no more exact or inexact someone. If you use too little eye contact, than the vague it. Use you, stated or you convey a lack of interest. If you use implied, to refer to the reader. Use I, me, too mucheye contact, the listener may feel and my less often, especially in corre- threatened. People often hide their feelings spondence signed by the commanding by avoiding eye contact during conversa- officer,and then only to show special tion. Use of proper eye contact, facial concern or warmth. expressions, and body language will im- prove both your interpersonal communica- Rely on everyday words. The complexity tion and public speaking effectiveness. of our work and the need for precision occasionally requires big words. But dont use big words when little ones will do. WRITTEN COMMUNICATION For example, deflate utilize to use, commence to start, and promul- gate to issue. Prefer short, spoken Writing is easy! You just sit down with pen transitions over long, bookish ones. Use and paper, open up a vein, and begin. but more than however and still more Well, its not that difficult, but effective than nevertheless. Write to express, not writing does take practice. to impress. -AVCM H.T. "Red" Brumbley Use some contractions. Contractions link
  • 71. cant, wont). They are appropriate in less misused word can make an enemy. Toformal writing situations. Day-to-day avoid tactlessness, use positive language.naval writing should be informal enoughfor contractions to fit naturally. If you are WRITING DIRECTIVES ANDcomfortable with contractions, your writ- INSTRUCTIONSing is likely to read easily, for you will bespeaking on paper. If contractions seem The Department of the Navy Directivesout of place, you may need to deflate the Issuance System, SECNAVINST 5215. 1C,rest of what you say. establishes the rules and guidelines to use when you prepare a directive. Your duties may require you to write or revise instructions and notices.Keep sentences short. For variety mix long This manual will provide you with all thesentences and short ones, but average 20 necessary information to perform these importantwords or less. Though short sentences tasks. The establishment of these guidelineswont guarantee clarity, they are usually ensures uniformity of format regardless of theless confusing than long ones. Try the eye type or location of your command.test: average under two typed lines. Or trythe ear test: break up the sentences you WRITING POINT PAPERScant finish in one breath. The point paper is one of the most useful waysAsk questions. A request gains emphasis of communicating our ideas to others. It is usefulwhen it ends with a question mark. Do to bring to the attention of the command andyou hear how "spoken" a question is? superiors the presence of problems, the for-Whether written or spoken, a question mulation of new ideas, and methods of improve-involves the audience. People have a ment. Since an effective point paper covers onlynatural tendency to form an answer to a one item, it must be concise and come to the pointquestion. right away. Usually point papers are used to communicate problems and propose solutions to the chain of command.Be concrete. Without generalizations andabstractions, lots of them, we woulddrown in detail. We sum up vast amounts Chapter 11 of the Military Requirements for Senior and Master Chief Petty Officer,of experience when we speak of dedica- NAVEDTRA 10048-A, provides point paper andtion, programs, hardware, and lines of talking paper formats for presentation in meetingsauthority. But lazy writing overuses such and briefings. The originator of the paper usuallyvague terms. It often weakens them further gives these presentations. The point paper formatby substituting adjectives for examples: in figure 6-1 is designed to be forwarded up theimmense dedication, enhanced programs, chain of command on an "unaccompanied"viable hardware, and responsive lines of basis, so it must stand on its own merits.authority. Dont use a general word if thecontext allows for a specific one; be asdefinite as the situation permits. Work to WRITING MEMOSavoid vague, high-sounding language in During your career, you will write thousandsjob descriptions and personnel evalua- of memos. Remember that the purpose of thesetions. memos is to pass information or instructions to your command members. The important thing toListen to your tone. Tone reflects a writers remember is to keep them short and simple.attitude toward the subject or readers. It Get your point across without confusing thecauses few problems in routine letters. You reader.must pay special attention to tone,however, when the matter The is delicate. PLAN OF THE DAY NOTESmore more sensitive the reader or issue, thecareful you must be to promote good will. The Plan of the Day (POD) is the simplest andTactlessness in writing suggests clumsiness most commonly used method of information
  • 72. SAMPLE POINT PAPER TITLE OR SUBJECT PURPOSE A brief (one- or two-sentence) statement of the concept, idea, or purpose of the paper. If it is in response to a question, quote or paraphrase the question and include the answer. BACKGROUND Brief description of issue, topic, or program and generating factors. Salient factual information. Ensure clear understanding. Avoid lengthy discussion. STATUS or Concise, factual statement of current status. Relation to established DISCUSSION guidelines, goals, steps, predictions; recent or proposed developments, trends, progress, changes, plans, forecasts. State Navy position, if applicable. State anticipated or desired resolution. Indicate Congressional or intraservice interest and interservice liaison, as appropriate. PROBLEMS Specific, concise listing of impact of unresolved problems, critical decision dates, contingent requirements. State Navy position when different. State specific corrective actions in progress or contemplated. OTHER PARAGRAPHS To avoid "clutter," use minimum additional paragraph headings TITLED AS necessary for clarity. Every attempt should be made to include all REQUIRED pertinent information within standard paragraphs above. Basic paper should be limited to one page. Put detailed discussion or rationale in tabs, not in basic paper. FUNDING Include, if pertinent. CONCLUSION/ Conclusion and recommendation must be succinct and specific. RECOMMENDATION Avoid broad, general, nonspecific recommendations or requests for action. Figure 6-1. Sample point paper.dissemination within a command. Use it! Refer function properly. These are upward communica-to chapter 4 of the Career Information Program tion,downward communication, and horizontalManagement, NAVEDTRA 10238-A, for more communication. Clear communication through lis-information on the formatting and writing of Plan tening, speaking, and writing is an invaluable assetof the Day notes. in dealing with both superiors and subordinates. The Plan of the Day notice is, when correctly We have discussed good listening habits, effec-used, one of the best means you have of reaching tive speaking, and effective writing. By practicingthe entire crew; its importance to your information these you will experience an improvement skills,dissemination program cant be overemphasized. in communication throughout your command. SUMMARY REFERENCES imrrrtart Hitn<ncirnc Tnnouo nnrl Duill - dntrtmunirntinp tn
  • 73. Department of the Air Force, Washington, OPNAV Better Naval Writing, 09B-P1-84, Depart- D.C., 1985. merit of the Navy, Washington, D.C., 1984.U.S.Navy Correspondence Manual, SECNAV- Department of the Navy Directives Issuance INST 5216.5C, Department of the Navy, System, SECNAVINST 52 15. 1C, Department Washington, D.C., 1983. of the Navy, Washington, D.C., 1970.
  • 74. CHAPTER 7 PROGRAMS AND POLICIES LEARNING OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 1 . Recognize the basic elements of primary 3. State the definition of sexual harass- Navy programs and policies. ment. 2. State the factors used to determine the 4. Identify the laws governing assignment of existence of fraternization. women in the Navy. As a leader, your two major concerns are the EO principles and policies, sexual harassmentmission and your troops. If you take care of your prevention, and command-specific issues.troops, the mission objectives will be easier toattain. To do this, you must have a good working Command Assessment Team (CAT): Theknowledge of the Navys people programs and CAT responsible for conducting the annual ishelping resources. You wont have time to stay command assessment. This survey focuses on EOcurrent on every detail of every program; but you management practices and can also bring outcan, and should, know what a program does and problems or issues that are not directly related towhere to find more information about it. In this EO, but impact on the quality of life within thesection we will review some of the major "people" command. To aid the command assessment, theprograms and policies. CAT collects data on retention, advancement, and discipline. More data is obtained from interviews, observations, and surveys. EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Action Planning: A plan of actions and The Department of the Navy policy is to milestones (POA&M) is created to implement andprovide equal treatment and equal opportunity track the correction of existing or potentialto all Navy members, without regard to race, problems.color, religion, gender, age, or national origin. Command Managed Equal Opportunity Inspections: Immediate superiors in(CMEO) is a program designed to assist command (ISIC) conduct CMEO inspections ofcommands in supporting the Navys equal subordinate commands.opportunity (EO) policy. It is a managementsystem that is responsive to higher echelons but Another important program used to promotecontrolled primarily at the command level. The EO is the Navy Affirmative Action Programprogram has four basic elements: (NAAP). The NAAP is designed as a continuing program of goals and actions with realistic Command Training Team (CTT): The milestones. Affirmative action is the taking ofCTT is responsible for conducting the Navy positive steps to correct or eliminate discrim-
  • 75. Constant monitoring is necessary to ensure respect differences in rank and grade. It alsocontinuing progress. The NAAP is revised as includes personal relationships between officersneeded after each annual equal opportunity or between enlisted personnel in which a senior-assessment. subordinate supervisory relationship exists. The concept of equal opportunity is an Fraternization is punishable as an offenseessential element of Navy goals, values, principles under the Uniform Code of Military Justice whenof leadership, and responsibility. It must exist at it is prejudicial to good order and discipline orevery level of the chain of command. It improves brings discredit to the naval service. We cannotthe quality of life for all Navy personnel, increases name every act that may be prejudicial to goodcombat readiness, and contributes to mission order and discipline or is service discrediting; theaccomplishment. To be an effective senior petty surrounding circumstances often have more to doofficer, you should set an example of basic with making the act criminal than the act itself.leadership and set an outstanding personal However, dating, cohabitation, or sexual intimacyexample to motivate your subordinates to practice between officer and enlisted members is clearlypride, professionalism, and personal excellence. inappropriate. A private business partnership between officers and enlisted persons is also inappropriate. Likewise, such conduct between FRATERNIZATION officers and between enlisted members in which a senior-subordinate supervisory relationship The Navy has historically relied upon custom exists is equally inappropriate. Conduct thatand tradition to define the bounds of acceptable constitutes fraternization is not excused by apersonal relationships among its members. Proper subsequent marriage between the offendingsocial interaction among officer and enlisted parties.members has always been encouraged, as it The responsibility for preventing inappro-enhances unit morale and esprit de corps. At the priate relationships rests primarily on the senior.same time, unduly familiar personal relationships The senior party is expected to control andbetween officers and enlisted members have preclude the development of inappropriate senior-traditionally been contrary to naval custom. Such subordinate relationships. However, since therelationships undermine the respect for authority Navys fraternization policy applies to boththat is essential to the Navys ability to accomplish members, both are accountable for their ownits military mission. conduct. Over 200 years of seagoing experiencehas demonstrated that seniors must maintainthoroughly professional relationships with juniors SEXUAL HARASSMENTat all times. This custom prevents personnel fromusing a senior grade or position to show (or give Sexual harassment is not an amusing or trivialthe impression of showing) favoritism or pref- issue. Ithas a negative effect on the morale anderential treatment or for personal gain. It also productivity of service members as well as teamhelps prevent officers from becoming involved in building and mission accomplishment. It may alsoother actions that undermine good order, dis- be a violation of a number of articles of thecipline, authority, or unit morale. In a like Uniform Code of Military Justice.manner, custom requires that junior personnel Sexual harassment is defined as (1) influenc-recognize and respect the authority inherent in a ing; offering to influence; or threatening theseniors grade, rank, or position. career, pay, or job of another person in exchange Fraternization is the traditional term used to for sexual favors; or (2) deliberate or repeatedidentify personal relationships that cross the offensive comments, gestures, or physical contactcustomary bounds of acceptable senior-subordi- of a sexual nature in a work or work-relatednate relationships. Although it has most com- environment. Sexual advances, requests for sexualmonly been applied to the officer-enlisted favors, and other verbal or physical conduct ofrelationship, fraternization also includes improper a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment underrelationships between officer members and the following circumstances:between enlisted personnel. By definition, fraternization is any personal 1 . When submission to such conduct is maderelationship between an officer and an enlisted either explicitly or implicitly a term ormember that is unduly familiar and does not condition of a persons job, pay, or career
  • 76. conduct by a person is used as a basis for personnel to support its policy of sexual career or employment decisions affecting harassment prevention. Support not only means this person you should refrain from practicing sexual 3. When such conduct has the purpose or harassment yourself, but that you should stop effect of interfering with a persons such behavior by others and report it promptly. performance or creating an intimidating, hostile, or offensive environment SEXUAL RESPONSIBILITY Personnel, male or female, who use implicitor explicit sexual behavior to control, influence, The Navy does not require its personnel toor affect the career, promotion opportunities, abstain totally from sexual relations. However,duty assignments, or pay of any other Navy it does strive to instruct all Navy members on themember are also engaging in sexual harassment. importance of sexual responsibility and theSexual harassment is, therefore, the embarrass- dangers of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).ment, intimidation, or exploitation of one person Syphilis, gonorrhea, genital herpes, andby another through sex-related comments or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) arebehavior. all sexually transmitted diseases. They are Sexual harassment is a form of sexual normally spread through sexual contact. AIDSdiscrimination. It stems from one persons can also be spread through transfusions ofattempt to exert power over another individuals contaminated blood or shared hypodermicprivate self. However, many people are unaware needles. Sexually transmitted diseases are notof the negative impact of sexual harassment. spread through contact with inanimate objects No one wants his or her desirability, physical such as toilet seats, door knobs, or eating utensils.attributes,or ability to perform sexually to The most serious of these diseases is AIDS.become a topic of public discussion or ridicule. The AIDS virus attacks the bodys immuneIn a work environment, we display our public system. This results in the bodys inability to fightselves: our rank, experience, and technical infection.competence. Our sexuality (private self) is not Military persons must receive live virusmeant for public display or public discussion. vaccines to protect them from certain illnesses andSexual harassment inappropriate behavior. It is from possible exposure to serious infections whenis distracting and offensive because it shifts the deployed outside the U.S. These vaccines may befocus from our public self to our private self. It life-threatening to an infected person whosemakes public those things we would rather keep immune system has been damaged by AIDS.private and personal. This is not an issue of At the present time no cure is known for"consenting adults"; it is an issue of exploitation AIDS. More than 70 percent of all AIDS casesthrough abuse of power. The Navy is concerned prove fatal within 2 years of diagnosis.whenever power conferred through rank, author- As a Navy leader, you should be aware ofity, or position is abused. When behavior affects these sexually transmitted diseases and thethe mission, whether it occurs on or off duty, it methods for reducing the risks of acquiring a Navy issue. That makes it your business. The only way people can be sure not to acquire Even the most professional relationships these diseases is to abstain from all forms of sexualbetween men and women are seldom without contact. To reduce the risks of acquiring sexuallymutual awareness of sexuality. What makes the transmitted diseases, those who are sexually activerelationship professional is a sense of time, place, should take the following precautions:and appropriateness. In a working environment,any focus on sexuality destroys professional 1. Avoid multiple partners, anonymousrelationships. partners, prostitutes, and other persons The Navys long tradition of military with multiple sex partners.professionalism results from its positive, 2. Avoid sexual contact with persons whoaggressive leadership and its history of taking care have a genital discharge, genital warts,of all Navy members. Everyone in the chain of genital herpes lesions, or other suspiciouscommand, from commanding officer to deck genital lesions.seaman, is responsible for providing an 3. Avoid oral or anal sex.environment free from sexual harassment. 4. Avoid genital contact with cold sores.
  • 77. 5. Use condoms and diaphragms in combina- Some people worry that their status as single tion with a spermicide. parents may hurt theirNavy career, but this is 6. Have a periodic examination for sexually simply not true. As long as parents keep an up- transmitted diseases. to-date dependent care certificate in their record, they have no limits on what they can achieve. Single parenting in the Navy isnt easy, but SINGLE PARENTING an understanding of Navy policy can help a single parents career run more smoothly. Single parents The demands of the Navy lifestyle make single should realize the Navy expects them to acceptparenthood rough. But by taking full advantage full responsibility for the care of their childrenof the resources available, single parents can make as well as their job requirements.their and their childrens lives, more lives,rewarding and less stressful. Navy single parents have more help available WOMENS MISSION IN THE NAVYto them than ever before because of FamilyService Center programs and expanding child care Department of the Navy policy dictates that all women members will be assigned to billetsoptions. Family Service Centers provide commensurate with their capabilities to theinformation, referral, educational, and other maximum extent practicable.counseling services designed to assist single parentsand their children. Women may be permanently assigned to duty in hospital ships, oilers, ammunition ships, Child care is always a big concern and refrigerated stores ships, transports, trainingoften a big headache for single parents. The ships, and vessels of similar classification notcapacity of Navy-operated child care facilities is expected to be assigned a combat mission. Innot always sufficient for the number of children addition, they may be assigned to combat-typeeligible to use them. ships or squadrons for up to 180 days provided The Family Home Care (FHC) program the unit is not expected to perform combatallows spouses of Navy members to care for missions for that period.children of Navy personnel in their government The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) and thequarters. FHC serves over 30 commands stateside Commandant of the Marine Corps have theand overseas. Those who wish to open their homes authority to preclude women from assignment tofor day care must complete training that includes a noncombatant unit. They may exert thiscardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction.Child care providers involved in the FHC program authority any time they deem risks of hostile fire or combat are equal to or greater than reasonablymust purchase insurance, which is available anticipated risks for units to which women arethrough NMPC at a nominal fee. A professional normally attached.monitor ensures that the child care offered is of Title 10, U.S. Code, section 6015; SEC-the highest quality by providing training, NAVINST 1300.12A; and MILPERSMAN articlescreening and background checks, and monthly 1820100 contain the laws and instructionsvisits to FHC homes. The Navy requires governing the assignment of women. all single parents to include Dependent Care Plan andin their service record aNavy Dependent Care Certificate, OPNAV HEALTH AND PHYSICAL1740/1, that provides a plan for dependent care READINESSarrangements. The plan must include details suchas who will provide care for the children during People in the Navy and people in the civilianthe parents normal duty hours, temporary community share common problems when itadditional duty (TAD) assignments, and deploy- comes to desk jobs, eating too much, and notments, as well as other pertinent information. The enough exercise. Excessive body fat is a seriousparent must also provide a will with guardianship detriment to health, longevity, stamina, andprovisions and a power of attorney authorizing military appearance. We need to maintain a highmedical care. The Military Personnel Manual state of health and physical readiness. If we do(MILPERSMAN}, article 3810190, outlines the this,combat readiness, personal effectiveness, anddependent care policy and specifies the high morale should follow.information parents must include on the Health and physical readiness have become a of rrvnrvarn tr tVA Mawtr Tni/var-ir XToinr wore/Mi
  • 78. should strive to achieve and maintain a high Pay cash whenever you can.standard of physical readiness. Members who failto achieve high standards hurt their units and the Always demand a statement of fulleffectiveness of the Navy. Physical readiness disclosure before signing for credit or a is a complete conditioning program. Itincludes weight control and nutrition, high bloodpressure identification and control, stress WHAT IF I AM ALREADYmanagement, smoking cessation, and back injury IN FINANCIAL TROUBLE?prevention. Ifyou are already in financial trouble, seek As a leader, you should stress the importance advice from the legal assistance office or aof physical readiness training to your personnel financial counsellor. Either one may help youon a daily basis, not just twice a year. contact your creditors to see if they will allow a longer payback period or a credit extension. FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY WHAT ABOUT BANKRUPTCY? As senior Navy you are expected to leaders, Bankruptcy is not an easy way out ofset the example for your troops. This example indebtedness. The Navy neither encourages norextends into your personal life as well as your discourages the filing of a petition for bankruptcy.professional conduct. Setting the standard in The circumstances prompting bankruptcy pro-matters of personal financial responsibility is ceedings are considered officially by the militaryparticularly important. Your immediate response chain of command when writing performancemay be "My private affairs are none of the Navys evaluations since they may reflect adversely on thebusiness!" However, this is only partially true. military character of the petitioner. Granting ofThe policy of the Department of the Navy is "to a bankruptcy petition does not excuse a personpromote habits of thrift and encourage . . . from prosecution under the UCMJ for offensesconduct of financial affairs in such a manner as of dishonorable failure to pay just debtsto reflect credit upon the naval service." committed before a petition of bankruptcy. Your commanding officer does not have the So remember, get smart financially: pay cash,authority to act as an agent or collector for your get counselling, and avoid excessive debt. If youcreditors. The enforcement of the private get in trouble, get help immediately. Dont waitobligations of the service member is a matter for the only until bankruptcy is way out.the civil authorities. Many commands providefinancial counselors to advise sailors in financialdifficulties. This service is usually provided DRUGS AND ALCOHOLthrough Family Service Centers. Other counsellingis available from your legal assistance officer. The Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention and Thrift is not only a virtue but, for most people, Control Program begins at recruit training anda necessity. The way in which people handle their continues throughout your naval career. Theprivate financial affairs provides a reliable program stresses prevention and control ofindication of their general character and alcohol and drug abuse through educationaltrustworthiness. Section 62 of the Navy Military programs for both enlisted and officer personnel.Personnel Manual offers some good financial The program also provides training for Drug andadvice to all pay grades: Alcohol Program Advisors (DAP As). The Navys urinalysis program provides a method for Before acceptance of any credit plan, detecting a member whohas a substance abuse evaluate your ability to pay for it. Establish problem. Detailed information about the Navys a budget that will let you meet your respon- drug and alcohol program can be found in sibilities, and ask yourself if you can live Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention and Control, with this arrangement. OPNAVINST 5350.4A. Beware of high-pressure sales tactics. Never sign a blank contract. If you have EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS doubts about any part of a contract, ask for advice from a legal assistance officer Educational benefits are available to nearly vrwrvno in tVio Mo/tr in ormo F/"T*m
  • 79. sailor is trying to get a GED or a Ph D, the Navy ADVANCEMENT AND TRAININGoffers a program to suit the situation. Navy PROGRAMSschools, trade schools, and officer accessionprograms such as the Navy Associate Degree The objective of the Navy enlisted advance-Program (SOCNAV) all offer sailors the oppor- ment system is to provide the Navys best qualifiedtunity to better themselves. petty officers to man its ships and stations. The Keeping track of all of the various educational advancement system allows only the best qualifiedprograms a full-time job. Educational services is enlisted personnel to advance to higher levels ofofficers (ESOs) and career counselors are excellent responsibility.resources for information on these programs. The The Navy enlisted advancement system isnew Educational Services Officer training manual governed by the Manual of Advancement,(NAVEDTRA 10460-A) and nonresident training BUPERSINST 1430. 16C. In addition to this basiccourse (NAVEDTRA 80460-A) were released in reference, a NAVOP is issued before each1989. This course provides excellent coverage of advancement This cycle. NAVOP announces thethe Educational Services Office and the programs schedule of the examinations and provides otheravailable to you and your troops. pertinent information. You will be called upon to advise and counsel your troops on advancement. If you arent RETENTION absolutely sure of an answer, LOOK IT UP! Some of the references you should be familiar As a chief petty officer, you must be a positive with are the Manual of Advancement,career motivator. You need to work closely with BUPERSNOTE 1430. 16C; Rating Entry fordivision/department career counselors and General Apprentices (REGA), OPNAVINSTcommand retention team members to ensure your 1430. 5C; and Manual of Navy Enlistedsubordinates receive the information they need to Manpower and Personnel Classifications andmake career decisions. Occupational Standards, NAVPERS 18068E. Dont be afraid to ask for help if you cant find an answer; advancement is just as important to FAMILY SERVICE CENTERS (FSCS) your troops as it is to you. Family Service Centers (FSCs) are another waythe Navy takes care of its own. These centers NAVY LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENTprovide numerous services to aid you and your PROGRAM (NLDP)troops. The following services are commonlyoffered by Family Service Centers: Through research, the Navy has identified various leadership skills to distinguish the family, marriage, personal, and child differences between superior performers and counseling average performers as Navy leaders. These skills, or characteristics, are sometimes referred to as pre/during/post deployment programs competencies. The Navy offers a variety of 1-week NLDP employment assistance for spouses courses designed to train students to apply these specific leadership skills in various job situations. financial counseling The NLDP courses are available to E-5 through 0-6 personnel. All E-6 and E-7 personnel are family education programs required to complete an NLDP course to be eligible for advancement to E-7 and E-8. legal referral relocation assistance SUMMARY health care services These are only some of the programs and policies available to you, the military manager, assistance with ombudsman and sponsor to help you make decisions and provide counseling programs to your subordinates. Familiarize yourself with
  • 80. these programs. If you dont know the answer, Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention and Control,go find it. Dont fall for the temptation of "as OPNAVINST 5350.4A, Chief of NavalI remember it . . . ." Make sure you pass on the Operations, Washington, D.C., 1987.straight scoop to your troops. If you run into asituation concerning one of your workers, at least Navy Policy on Sexual Harassment, OPNAV-know where to get help. The fact that you came INST 5350.5, Chief of Naval Operations,through for one of the troops will pay big Washington, D.C., 1982.dividends in the long run. U.S. Navy Affirmative Action Plan, OPNAVINST 5354.3A, Chief of Naval REFERENCES Operations, Washington, D.C., 1985.Department of the Navy Policy on Sexual Navy Equal Opportunity (EO) Manual, Harassment, SECNAVINST 5300.26, OPNAVINST 5354.1C, Chief of Naval Department of the Navy, Washington, D.C., Operations, Washington, D.C., 1989. 1980. Navy Fraternization Policy, NAVOP 011/89,Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention and Control, OPNAVINST 5370.2,Chief of Naval SECNAVINST 5300.28A, Department of the Operations, Washington, D.C., 1989. Navy, Washington, D.C., 1984. Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) ClinicalFamily Service Center Program, OPNAVINST Management Guidelines, NAVMEDCOM- 1754.1 A, Chief of Naval Operations, INST 6222.1, Bureau of Medicine and Washington, D.C., 1985. Surgery, Washington, D.C., 1987.
  • 81. APPENDIX I MISSION ORGANIZATIONAL PLANAppendix I is included as an example of a mission organizational plan andobjectives. This plan is an excerpt from the Navy Counselors Handbook,NAVEDTRA 10238-A. We provide it ONLY as an example of a missionorganizational plan and objectives and do not guarantee currency or technicalaccuracy of its contents. THE RETENTION TEAM AND CAREER INFORMATION PROGRAM MANAGEMENT (CIPM)A. OBJECTIVES OF THE NAVY RETENTION PROGRAM 1 Obtain personnel stability through the retention of top quality personnel .in proper balance and required numbers. 2. Provide a means that will successfully fulfill the Navys obligation tokeep its personnel and families properly informed. 3. Provide continuing career guidance so that individuals might bestdevelop and use their talents while in the Navy. 4. Provide a means of increasing good will and respect for the Navy byeach member leaving the service, thereby returning an "ambassador" for theNavy to the civilian community. 5.Provide a method by which members being separated will be influencedto actively participate in the Naval Reserve.B. RETENTION TEAM ORGANIZATION 1 . The retention team consists of the following: a. Commanding officer b. Executive officer c. Command career counselor/retention program manager d. Command master chief e. Department heads f. Departmental career counselors g. Division officers h. Divisional career counselors i. Leading chiefs and leading petty officersC. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE RETENTION TEAM 1. COMMANDING OFFICER a. Pursue an effective retention program. b. Actively involve every level of the command. c. Ensure proficiency and motivation of the team. d. Ensure only qualified personnel are recommended for reenlist-ment. e. Ensure appropriate attention is given to ceremonies/specialoccasions. AI-1
  • 82. 2. EXECUTIVE OFFICER a. Monitor the degree of involvement, motivation, and attitude ofretention team members. b. Schedule monthly meetings of the command retention team. c. Ensure proper training of retention team members. d. Provide facilities for retention team members. e. Ensure communication access is available for command careercounselor. f. Coordinate and monitor the efforts of the team. g. Ensure commanding officers policies are maintained, h. Ensure timely flow of administrative items. 3. COMMAND CAREER COUNSELOR/RETENTION PROGRAMMANAGER a. Organize and manage an effective retention program using CIPM. b. Train and support the command retention team. c. Inform commanding officer of retention team activities. d. Inform commanding officer of situations that have an impact(positive or negative) on retention. e. Maintain retention stats. f . Inform retention team members of policy changes that may affectattitudes. Coordinate group interviews. g. Maintain a tickler for counseling interviews, h. i Ensure ail interviews are conducted in a timely fashion, . j Maintain liaison with wives clubs and Ombudsman, . k. Support the recruiting effort through the promotion of Pro-NavyReferral Program and HARP duty. 4. COMMAND MASTER CHIEF a.Require senior petty officers to take an active interest in promotingcareer information awareness. b. Work closely with the command career counselor to support theretention team. c . Be knowledgeable of retention programs and policies and participatein the attainment of retention objectives. d. Keep the command career counselor informed of any matters orpolicies that may affect retention. 5. DEPARTMENT HEAD/DIVISION OFFICERS a. Coordinate the retention program as it pertains to their personnel. b. Be actively involved in retention efforts. c . Ensure all individuals of the dept/div are interviewed and counseled. d. Conduct an advancement training program. effective e. Ensure attendance of dept/div counselors at retention teammeetings/training . 6. DEPARTMENTAL CAREER COUNSELORS a. Advise department head and divisional career counselors ofregulations and policies affecting retention. b. Monitor divisional career counselor activities. c. Ensure required interviews are conducted. d. Advise department head/command career counselor of departmentretention activities. e. Hold department retention team training. f. Assist department head/division officer in screening of divisional
  • 83. 7. DIVISIONAL CAREER COUNSELORS a. Inform the division officer and departmental career counselor ofdivision retention activities. b. Hold pertinent interviews as directed by departmental careercounselor/command career counselor.D. CAREER INFORMATION PROGRAM MANAGEMENT (CIPM) 1.PURPOSE Designed specifically to bring all the commandsresources into operation to support the local retention program while makingfull use of the chain of command. 2. BASIC CONCEPTS a.The command career counselor functions as both a retention programmanager and career counselor. b. 30:1 counseling ratio 1 trained retention team member for every30 personnel. c. 70 "70/30% counseling balance. (1) 70% of all questions could and should be dealt with by a traineddivisional/work center career counselor or supervisor. (2) The remaining 30% would be the more difficult or technicalproblems that require the assistance of the command career counselor. (3) Decentralizing the retention team involves training the teammembers and then passing 70% of the counseling activities to them. d. Results of decentralization. (1) Increased credibility and respect for the entire chain of command. (2) Progressive increase of the counseling abilities of supervisors. (3) Frees the command career counselor for the job of managingthe retention team. (4) A decrease in lost manhours. (5) Personnel at all levels of the command would be better informedabout Navy benefits, programs, and policies. (6) Supervisors would be better informed about the needs and desiresof their personnel. e Proper use of support programs to strengthen the chain-of-command .and promote communication. (1) Internal programs (a) Sponsor Program Command Indoctrination (b) (c) Professional Development Board (2) External programs (a) Personnel Support Detachments (b) Family Service Centers 3. CIPM SUMMARY A successful career information program isdependent upon three major factors: a. Executive management and policy guidance b. Chain of command c. Command support systemsE. CAREER COUNSELING INTERVIEW RECORDS 1 .The command career counselor is responsible for maintaining recordsof all interviews conducted with each enlisted member of the command. TheCareer Counselor Record (NAVPERS 1160/11) can be used to record interviewdata. Regardless of the system used, comments desired in the interview recordshould reflect the subjects discussed and a short resume of the counselingprovided by the career counselor. When a member is transferred to anotherdutv station, this record will be checked for completeness, updated as necessary,
  • 84. 2. Required Interviews a. Reporting Interview (1) Required for all newly reporting personnel. (2) This interview is one of the most important interviews that thecareer counselor will conduct and should be held as soon as possible within30 days after a member reports aboard a new command. It is in the initialcontact with the member that the counselor establishes the careerinformation/retention process. (3) At this time, the counselor should learn the status of a memberscareer counseling exposure and arrange to correct any deficiencies that arefound by offering whatever interviews are deemed appropriate. Explain thecareer information program and present some insights into the retentionprograms and opportunities available to the member. (4) One important point to remember is that much of the informationgiven during this interview will be strange to young service members and thattoo much specific information might confuse them. Be sure they understandthat the members of the command retention team are available to them forfurther explanation and assistance. b. Retention Programs Interview (1) This interview should be scheduled for the time frame of ActiveDuty Service Date (ADSD) plus 18 months. Those who should be interviewedare listed on the monthly Enlisted Distribution and Verification Report(EDVR), Section 11, Notification of ADSD Plus 18 months. (2) This interview is a formal expression of the commands interestin the members progress. A preinterview examination of the members servicerecord will disclose the efforts and progress the individual has made. It is herethat the career counselor might discover the trends, both favorable andunfavorable, that can be corrected or complemented. Preinterview conversationwith the members CPO, LPO, or division officer might bring new insightsinto a prospects full potential. c. Incentive Programs Interview (1) The proper time for conducting this interview is 10 months priorto EAOS/PRD. Those who should be interviewed are designated by themonthly EDVR, Section 1 1 , Notification of PRD or EAOS, 10 months fromcurrent date. (2) This interview is intended for all personnel but should be tailoredto the length of service of the interviewee. (a) This interview is intended to provide the individual withsufficient career incentive program information and facts relating to rightsand benefits. The distinction between reenlistment incentives and career benefitsshould be clearly stated. Benefits are entitlements, usually effected byCongressional action, that accrue to an individual who serves in the militaryand may increase proportionately to length of service, paygrade, etc. Incentivesare inducements that may be effected unilaterally by individual services (withor without Congressional action) to encourage an individual to extend orreenlist. (b) result of this interview is that the member Another expected submitting or updating the Enlisted Duty Preferencewill receive assistance in(DUPREF) Form (NAVPERS 1306/63). d. Seventeen- Year Monitoring Interview (1) At approximately the 17-year point in a members career, acounseling session should be conducted to apprise the individual of the benefitsof remaining on active duty past the initial Fleet Reserve eligibility date. In-
  • 85. e. Preretirement/Separation Interview (1) Preretirement Interview (a) All prospective retirees who are within 45 days of theirscheduled date of retirement (disability or nondis ability) or transfer to theFleet Reserve will be provided adequate counseling regarding theirpreretirement benefits, rights, and privileges, with special emphasis placedon SEP. (2)Separation Interview members being separated from active duty who are within (a) All45 days of their scheduled date of separation will be provided adequatecounseling regarding their reemployment rights, veterans benefits, Majorcare90, and Naval Reserve programs. 3. Additional Interviews a. At various times throughout an individuals naval service, counselingsessions should be held to provide information that may be valuable to themember. Examples are receipt of orders, marriage, births or deaths in thefamily, and advancements.
  • 86. APPENDIX II WHERE TO FIND ITThis is only a partial listing of useful references. You may also find information in rother instructions, notes, and publications. Although this list is current as of publicabe sure you use the latest edition of any reference. NAVPUBINST 5215.1 lists additireferences. SUBJECT REFERENCE"A" SCHOOLS TRANSMAN CHAP 7ABSENTEE BALLOTS MILPERSMAN 6210220ABSENTEES MILPERSMAN 3430100 MILPERSMAN 3430150 MILPERSMAN 3430200ACADEMY APPOINTMENTS MILPERSMAN 1020220ACTIVE-DUTY AGREEMENTS Reservists and Inductees MILPERSMAN 1050200ACTIVE-DUTY BASE DATE MILPERSMAN 3840200 MILPERSMAN 5030460ADMINISTRATION OF RECRE- ATION PROGRAMS AFLOT NMPCINST 1710.3ADVANCE PAY MILPERSMAN 2650100ADVANCEMENT IN RATE BUPERSINST 1430. 16C Acceleration BUPERSINST 1430.16C MILPERSMAN 2230150 Active BUPERSINST 1430.16C Advancement Handbook for Apprenticeships NAVEDTRA 71700 Advancement Handbook for Petty Officers NAVEDTRA 71000 Series After Reduction in Rate MILPERSMAN 2230200 BUPERSINST 1430. 16C By Selection Boards BUPERSINST 1430.16C BUPERSNOTE 1418 Command Advancement Program (CAP) BUPERSINST 1430. 17C BUPERSINST 1430.16C MILPERSMAN 3410150
  • 101. SUBJECT REFERENCEEPARATION OF ENLISTED PERSONNEL CONTINUED Convenience of the Government on the Basis of Dependency or Hardship MILPERSMAN 3620210 Convenience of the Government on the Basis of Designation as a Surviving Family Member, Inductees Only MILPERSMAN 3620240 Convenience of the Government on the Basis of Pregnancy/Childbirth MILPERSMAN 3620220 Convenience of the Government on the Basis of Being a Sole Surviving Son or Daughter MILPERSMAN 3620245 Convenience of the Government on the Basis of Obesity MILPERSMAN 3620250 Definitions and Policy MILPERSMAN 3610320 Definitions of Terms Concerning MILPERSMAN 3610200 Expiration of Enlistment or Tour of Active Service MILPERSMAN 3620150 Inactive Duty by Reason of Physical Disability MILPERSMAN 3620275 Preseparation Interview NAVPERS 15878G Preseparation Processing TRANSMAN Addendum 1 Reason of Alcohol Abuse Rehabilitation Failure MILPERSMAN 3630550 Reason of Defective Enlistments and Inductions, Defective Enlistments MILPERSMAN 3620283 Reason of Defective Enlistments and Inductions, Minority MILPERSMAN 3620285 Reason of Defective Enlistments and Inductions, Erroneous Enlistments MILPERSMAN 3620280 Reason of Defective Enlistments and Inductions Due to Fraudulent Entry Into Naval Service MILPERSMAN 3630100 Reason of Drug Abuse Rehabilitation Failure MILPERSMAN 3630500 Reason of Expiration of Enlistment, Fulfillment of Service Obligation, or Expiration of Tour of Active Service MILPERSMAN 3620150 Reason of Homosexuality MILPERSMAN 3630400 Reason of Misconduct MILPERSMAN 3630600 Reason of Misconduct Due to Drug Abuse MILPERSMAN 3630620 Reason of Security MILPERSMAN 3630700 Reason of Selected Changes in Service Obligation MILPERSMAN 3620100 Reason of Unsatisfactory Participation in the Ready Reserve MILPERSMAN 3630800
  • 105. INDEX Communication, 6-1 to 6-6 effective listening, 6-1 to 6-2 Administration, 4-1 to 4-9 effective speaking, 6-2 to 6-3 civilian labor relations, 4-4 to 4-7 elements of transmitting information foreign nationals the Status of 6-2 to 6-3 Forces Agreement (SOFA), 4-6 attitude, 6-2 presentation, 6-2 to 6-3 labor-management dos and donts, 4-6 to 4-7 topic interest, 6-2 lost/distorted information, 6-2 labor-management policy, 4-5 to 4-6 message being sent, 6-2 receivers filters, 6-2 the union organizing campaign, 4-7 senders filters, 6-2 union history, 4-5 written communication, 6-3 to 6-5 computers, 4-7 to 4-8 Plan of the Day notes, 6-4 to 6-5 line and staff, 4-1 to 4-4 writing directives and instructions, 6-^ authority, 4-2 to 4-4 writing memos, 6-4 functional authority, 4-3 to 4-4 writing point papers, 6-4 line andstaff coordination, 4-4 Computers, 4-7 to 4-8 line authority, 4-3 Controlling, 2-1 to 2-9 staff authority, 4-3 basics of control, 2-1 to 2-4 aids to control, 2-3 to 2-4 inspections, 4-4 line responsibility, 4-1 MBE, 2-3 MIS, 2-3 to 2-4 staff responsibility, 4-1 to 4-2 evaluating your controls, 2-2 to 2-3 personal staff, 4-2 steps to effective control, 2-1 to 2-2 specialized staff, 4-2 define performance-monitoringAdvancement and training programs, 7-6 procedures, 2-2Aids to control, 2-3 to 2-4 evaluate performance againstAudits, 2-4 standards, 2-2 make corrections, 2-2 set standards, 2-2 methods of control, 2-4 to 2-6 audits, 2-4 B budgets and audits, 2-4 PPBS, 2-4Budgets and audits, 2-4 ZBB, 2-4 nonquantitative methods, 2-4 quantitative methods, 2-4 time and performance charts, 2-5 GANTT chart, 2-5 PERT chart, 2-5 to 2-6 total quality management, 2-6 to 2-8Carper rf*7f*]nrmon+
  • 106. Controlling Continued total quality management Continued leadership and TQM, 2-8 Inspections, 4-4 TQM focus on process, 2-8 Introduction to management planning, customer-supplier relationship organizing, and decision making, 1-1 to 1-20 under TQM, 2-8 decision making and problem solving, TQM, what is it?, 2-6 1-14 to 1-20Counseling, 3-6 to 3-7 classifying decisions, 1-14Court martial, 3-9 problem solving, 1-14 to 1-20 group problem solving, 1-16 to 1-20 individual problem solving, 1-15 to 1-16 D introduction to management, 1-2 to 1-7 evolution of management thought,Decision making and problem solving, 1-14 to 1-5 to 1-7 1-20 behavioral theory, 1-6 to 1-7Discipline, 3-7 to 3-10 classical theory, 1-5 to 1-6Drugs and alcohol, 7-5 contingency approach, 1-7 functions of management, 1-4 to 1-5 controlling, 1-5 leading, 1-5 E organizing, 1-5 planning, 1-4 to 1-5Educational programs, 7-5 to 7-6 staffing, 1-5Effective listening, 6-1 to 6-2 what is management?, 1-2 to 1-4Effective speaking, 6-2 to 6-3 levels and types of management,Equal opportunity, 7-1 to 7-2 1-2 to 1-3Evolution of management thought, 1-5 to what does a manager do?, 1-3 to 1-4 1-7 organizing, 1-13 to 1-14 behavioral theory, 1-6 to 1-7 goals and objectives, 1-13 t 1-14 classical theory, 1-5 to 1-6 management by objectives contingency approach, 1-7 (MBO), 1-14 what is an objective?, 1-13 planning, 1-8 to 1-13 evaluating plans, 1-12 to 1-13 accountability and responsibility, 1-13Family Service Centers (FSCs), 7-6 accuracy, 1-12Financial responsibility, 7-5 comprehensive viewpoint, 1-12Foreign nationals the Status of Forces cost-effectiveness, 1-12 to 1-13 Agreement (SOFA), 4-6 flexibility, 1-12Fraternization, 7-2 simplicity, 1-12Functions of management, 1-4 to 1-5 personal planning, 1-9 planning steps, 1-8 to 1-9 analyze the objective, 1-8 consider all possible alternatives, 1-8 develop an alternate plan, 1-9GANTT chart, 2-5 evaluate the situation, 1-8
  • 107. Introduction to management planning, Micromanaging, 5-6 organizing, and decision making Continued Mission organizational plan, AI-1 to AI-5 planning Continued Motivation, 5-11 to 5-12 time element in planning Continued long-range plans, 1-11 short-range plans, 1-12 time span and planning, 1-12 N types of plans, 1-10 to 1-11 single-use plans, 1-11 NAVMILPERSCOMINST 1616.1 A, 3-4 to 3-5 standing plans, 1-10 to 1-11 Navy Leadership Development Program strategic plans, 1-10 (NLDP), 7-6 planning and organizing, 1-1 to 1-12 Nonjudicial punishment (NJP), 3-9JAGMAN investigations, 3-9 to 3-10 Personnel management, 3-1 to 3-10 counseling, 3-6 to 3-7 career development, 3-6 to 3-7Labor-management policy, 4-5 to 4-6 problem solving, 3-6Leadership and motivation, 5-1 to 5-13 directive counseling, 3-6 leadership, 5-1 to 5-10 nondirective counseling, 3-6 authority, 5-4 to 5-5 set the stage, 3-6 earned authority, 5-4 to 5-5 discipline, 3-7 to 3-10 legal authority, 5-4 court martial, 3-9 moral authority, 5-5 extra military instruction (EMI), core values, 5-2 3-8 delegation, 5-6 to 5-11 fair and equal treatment, 3-9 chain of command, 5-6 to 5-7 JAGMAN investigations, 3-9 to 3-10 giving orders, 5-7 to 5-10 nonjudicial punishment (NJP), 3-9 micromanaging, 5-6 withholding privileges, 3-8 to 3-9 responsibility and accountability, evaluating, 3-3 to 3-6 5-6 developing evaluators, 3-5 to 3-6 effective leadership, 5-2 NAVMILPERSCOMINST 1616.1 A, leadership variables, 5-2 to 5-4 3-4 to 3-5 adverse remarks, 3-5 power, 5-5 to 5-6 gaining power, 5-5 block 38, 3-4 losing power, 5-5 to 5-6 block 39, 3-4 motivation, 5-11 to 5-12 block 41, 3-4 motivational objectives, 5-11 block 42, 3-4 the will to work, 5-11 to 5-12 block 43, 3-4 avoid negative motivation, 5-12 performance counseling, 3-5 full employment on essential manning, 3-1 tasks, 5-12 training, 3-1 to 3-3 promote teamwork, 5-12 training junior officers, 3-2 provide for personal needs, 5-11 training subordinates, 3-2 provide positive motivation, 5-12 training your replacement, 3-2 to 3-3 start right, 5-11 PERT chart, 2-5 to 2-6 Plan of the Day notes, 6-4 to 6-5 Programs and policies, 7-1 to 7-7 M advancement and training programs, 7-6 drugs and alcohol, 7-5 Management by objectives (MBO), 1-14 educational programs, 7-5 to 7-6
  • 108. Programs and policies Continued Family Service Centers (FSCs), 7-6 Sexual harassment, 7-2 to 7-3 financial responsibility, 7-5 Sexual responsibility, 7-3 to 7-4 what about bankruptcy?, 7-5 Single parenting, 7-4 what if I am already in financial trouble?, 7-5 fraternization, 7-2 health and physical readiness, 7-4 to 7-5 Time and performance charts, 2-5 Navy Leadership Development Program Total quality management, 2-6 to 2- (NLDP), 7-6 Training, 3-1 to 3-3 retention, 7-6 sexual harassment, 7-2 to 7-3 sexual responsibility, 7-3 to 7-4 U single parenting, 7-4 Union history, 4-5 womens mission in the Navy, 7-4 W R Where to find it, AIM to AII-19 Womens mission in the Navy, 7-4Retention, 7-6 Written communiction, 6-3 to 6-5
  • 109. A FINAL QUESTION: What did you think of this TRAMAN? Of the course material used with thisTRAMAN? Comments and recommendations received from enrollees have been a major source ofcourse improvement. You and your command are urged to submit your constructive criticisms andyour recommendations. This tear-out form letter is provided for your convenience. Typewrite if possible,but legible handwriting is acceptable. DateFrom: . SSN: NAME (RANK, RATE, CIVILIAN) ZIP CODETo: Naval Education and Training Program Management Support Activity (Code 318) Pensacola, Florida 32509-5000Subj: MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS: A GUIDE FOR SENIOR AND MASTER CHIEF PETTY OFFICERS, NAVEDTRA 100491 . The following comments are hereby submitted.