NONRESIDENT                                TRAINING                                COURSEMilitary Requirementsfor Petty Of...
CHAPTER 6                            SAFETY AND SURVIVAL                                        LEARNING OBJECTIVES       ...
DIVISION SAFETY                                                                               PETTY OFFICER               ...
NAVOSH Manual for Forces Afloat,                      ON-THE-JOB TRAINING       OPNAVINST 5100.19B—Provides gen-       era...
pause in whatever you are doing to see if a per-           nullify, or prevent them. A JSA serves as a specialson does som...
6-5
communication in mishap prevention at division                The MAA/Safety Force acts as a roving in-and work center lev...
SAFETY ENFORCEMENT                                      NAVY OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY                                          ...
Do not allow personnel with arthritis, neuritis, or         tools or machinery that produces hazardous noisecirculatory di...
HAZARDOUS WASTE/MATERIAL                                       and booties. Make certain each person          PETTY OFFICE...
Figure 6-4.—Types of respirators.TYPES OF RESPIRATORS                                           cartridge. These respirato...
Figure 6-5.—Supplied-air system.                                                        injury may result if the respirato...
particular atmospheric contaminant, refer to                     Education is vital to the overall success of atable 6-1. ...
Table 6-1.—Cartridge Color-Codingthermal insulation, and excessive steam or water                If the computed watch sta...
The PHEL curves are accurate for normal,                          You have a duty to yourself and the peoplehealthy person...
3. A log on one effective DANGER/                          under some conditions. Audit all outstanding tag-      CAUTION ...
Normal reaction to basic human fear can be               is equally important. Since you could also findvery useful. When ...
terrain, and some even may have made it their                         before the details can be seen. Whenhome. With varyi...
The following mistakes can lead to capture for                    Escape is tough; not being caught after escapeyou and yo...
maintain personal hygiene and sanitation and to                dragged through the brush. The interrogationscare for the s...
GROUP SURVIVAL                                               on input from their staff. Above all else, never             ...
need; take stock of what you have; then                                                              improvise. Learn to p...
Your involvement in mishap prevention may                             REFERENCESonly have been that of a safety-conscious ...
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CHAPTER 6 (listed on E7 Bibs) Safety & Survival NAVEDTRA 14145

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CHAPTER 6 (listed on E7 Bibs) Safety & Survival NAVEDTRA 14145

  1. 1. NONRESIDENT TRAINING COURSEMilitary Requirementsfor Petty OfficerFirst ClassNAVEDTRA 14145 CHAPTER 6 SAFETY & SURVIVAL Notice: NETPDTC is no longer responsible for the content accuracy of the NRTCs. For content issues, contact the servicing Center of Excellence: Center for Naval Leadership (CNL); (757) 462-1537 or DSN: 253-1537. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  2. 2. CHAPTER 6 SAFETY AND SURVIVAL LEARNING OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following:1. Identify the responsibilities of the division 8. Describe the safety precautions used when safety petty officer. working with industrial equipment and hazardous materials.2. Explain mishap prevention education and training. 9. Describe the types of respirators and their uses.3. Describe the three types of safety observations and when to use them. 10. Describe the Navy’s Hearing Conservation, Noise Abatement, and Sight Protection4. Describe the purpose of a job safety analysis. Programs.5. Explain the purpose of the enlisted safety com- 11. Describe the Navy’s Equipment Tag-Out mittee. Program (tag-out log audit).6. Explain the Navy’s Occupational Safety and 12. State the different types of survival situations Health (NAOSH) Program. and the responsibility of the senior petty officer.7. Identify the responsibilities of the Hazardous Waste/Material petty officer. 13. State the methods of survival. Mishaps are unplanned events. However, The object of the safety program is to the potential for a mishap is predictable. enhance operational readiness by reducing The event or sequence of events that lead the number of deaths and injuries to per- to an unplanned event can be anticipated sonnel and losses and damage to material through safety awareness. Proper safety knowl- from accidental cause. edge and corrective action can prevent the unplanned mishap. Since people cause mishaps, —OPNAVINST 3120.32B such preventive actions must be directed at individuals. As a junior petty officer, your role in the com- Studies conducted by the National Safetymand safety program involved practicing safe Council, based upon 60 years of data, revealwork habits and reporting safety discrepancies to that the basis of fundamental mishap preven-your leading petty officer. As a senior petty of- tion is to eliminate the small mishap. Aficer, you still have these primary responsibilities; definite relationship exists between mishapshowever, you also have the task of ensuring that involving minor property damage or minoryour division is safety conscious. injury and major damage or severe injury 6-1
  3. 3. DIVISION SAFETY PETTY OFFICER When you act as the safety petty officer, you are not tasked with finding all safety discrepan- cies by yourself. All division personnel share the responsibility of watching for safety violations. One of your primary responsibilities is to train each person in your division to notice those violations. SAFETY DUTIES As division safety petty officer, you must in- crease your own safety awareness in addition to training division personnel in mishap prevention. Always maintain records of safety training con- ducted within your division. If you have recom- mendations about the safety programs, be sure to give them to your division officer. As safety Figure 6-1.—Mishap-injury ratio. petty officer, you must help conduct safety in- vestigations as directed and act as a technical adviser about mishap prevention within your divi-(fig. 6-1). For every 300 minor property damage sion. Additional duties include helping to carrymishaps and every 30 minor injuries, 1 major out the safety duties of the division officer andproperty damage mishap and 1 severe injury oc- serving as the division representative to the com-cur. Preventing minor mishaps can reduce or mand’s safety committee.eliminate major mishaps. Therefore, you should SAFETY INFORMATIONnot only be concerned with serious mishaps, butyou should investigate all mishaps to find what To be an effective safety petty officer, youcaused them. In this way, you can prevent repeats should become familiar with all safety directivesof mishaps, correct unsafe conditions or acts, and and precautions concerning your division. Sinceavoid major accidents. safety instructions vary from command to com- Investigate each mishap, no matter how mand, we cannot give you an accurate listing ofminor, to determine its cause. Then take correc- manuals and instructions with which you shouldtive action to prevent it from happening again. be familiar. If you are assigned as a division safetySimilarly, treat the near mishap as an actual petty officer, first obtain command safety instruc-mishap. Capitalize on its value as a warning to tions and review them. Then review the referenceshelp prevent a real mishap. In your investigation used in developing command or local safety in-of each mishap and near-mishap case, you will structions. The following manuals and instruc-find facts that can help you determine what poten- tions will help guide you in making your dutytial exists for a recurrence. Investigations also help station a safer place to work.to determine the required corrective action to Navy Occupational Safety and Healthremove the potential hazard. The key concept of (NAVOSH) Program Manual, OPNAV-mishap prevention is that the potential for a INST 5100.23B—Encompasses all safetymishap exists, not necessarily that a mishap will disciplines such as aviation safety; weap-occur. ons/explosives safety; off-duty safety Your task as a senior petty officer is to (recreation, public, and traffic); and oc-motivate and train personnel to recognize and cupational safety as well as occupationalunderstand mishap causes and to encourage them healthto take preventive action. In this chapter, we willdiscuss some of the responsibilities and authority Electronics Installation and Maintenanceyou will have in regard to safety. We will also Book, General, section 3, NAVSEA SEdiscuss what you can do to ensure all hands make 000-00-EIM-100—Contains informationsafety awareness a part of their daily work concerning electrical/electronic safety pre-habits. cautions 6-2
  4. 4. NAVOSH Manual for Forces Afloat, ON-THE-JOB TRAINING OPNAVINST 5100.19B—Provides gen- eral shipboard safety precautions By monitoring safety precautions during routine work situations, you can detect unsafe Standard Organization and Regulations of practices and take immediate action to provide the U.S. Navy, chapter 7, OPNAVINST training to correct those practices. Monitoring 3120.32B—Outlines the safety program serves as an evaluation of the training provided and the safety organization on a continuing basis by supervisory personnel. It evaluates the effectiveness of training in all Navy Traffic Safety Program, OPNAV- aspects of everyday life aboard your command, INST 5100.12F—Provides policy and such as the planned maintenance system (PMS), guidance for motor vehicle safety weapons systems operations, damage control, fire Naval Safety Supervisor, NAVEDTRA fighting, and general housekeeping. It even 10808-2—Gives basic guidance to person- evaluates the effectiveness of the tactical employ- nel stationed in safety billets ashore ment of the command. and afloat To be an effective safety petty officer, you will have to become familiar with all aspects of safety These are not all the safety resources available associated with your division’s responsibilities.to you. However, these sources give you a goodstarting point on which you may expand yourknowledge of safety procedures. The Naval Safety SAFETY OBSERVATIONSSupervisor, NAVEDTRA 10808-2, a nonresidenttraining course, is also a very good resource for One of the basic principles of effective mishapstrengthening your awareness of safety proce- prevention is the quick detection of unsafe prac-dures. tices through safety observations. A safety ob- servation is the act of watching and analyzing your people as they do their normal job. You can use MISHAP PREVENTION safety observations as a powerful tool to prevent EDUCATION AND TRAINING mishaps and to determine if your people are per- forming their jobs safely. You can use three As discussed earlier in this chapter, one of the kinds of safety observations: INCIDENTAL,most important tasks you will have as a division DELIBERATE, and PLANNED.safety petty officer is educating personnel in yourdivision. This training will help them to become INCIDENTAL SAFETYeffective safety monitors. Remember, one person OBSERVATIONcannot ensure safe working habits and conditions.An all-hands effort is required to achieve mishap- An incidental safety observation occurs whenfree working conditions. you notice safety hazards without deliberately taking time to look for them. You generally noticeSAFETY EDUCATION them as you go from place to place during your daily routine. Keep your eyes and ears open with The command’s training program and each safety in mind. Don’t become so wrapped up indepartmental training program should include a your thoughts that you overlook safety problems.systematic approach to promote mishap preven- Note the troubled sound of a machine as you gotion. In your division, make effective use of by, take a quick look at the work practices of aeducational materials received from outside new person, or make a mental note of housekeep-sources, such as Navy training films, safety notes, ing conditions. That kind of casual and inciden-and various publications issued by the Naval tal looking helps spot many unsafe practices.Safety Center. Use these resources as aids in yourdivision training. Display in your work spaces as DELIBERATE SAFETYmany resources as are applicable to your com- OBSERVATIONmand to increase personnel interest in safety.Make safety lectures or demonstrations part of The deliberate safety observation goes a stepyour division’s training program to ensure beyond the incidental safety observation. In amaximum safety awareness. deliberate safety observation, you intentionally 6-3
  5. 5. pause in whatever you are doing to see if a per- nullify, or prevent them. A JSA serves as a specialson does some part of a job safely. You watch tool for making jobs safer. The basic principlesstrictly from a safety standpoint. of mishap prevention are (1) to spot potential You may make a deliberate safety observation mishap causes and (2) eliminate potential mishapfor a number of reasons. You may want to check causes.the work of a new person, the job may be a par- The four basic steps of a JSA are as follows:ticularly hazardous one, or the worker may havea reputation for unsafe work. Whatever the 1. Select the job to be analyzed.reason, your observation is deliberate; it is more 2. Break down the job into steps.than a casual glance at a person doing a job. 3. Identify the hazards or potential mishaps. 4. Develop solutions to prevent hazards orTHE PLANNED SAFETY potential mishaps.OBSERVATION You gain the maximum benefits of JSAs only A planned safety observation is when you when you use the analysis and when you in-deliberately schedule a time to watch for safety variably learn more about the jobs you superviseviolations by a person performing a specific job. as a result of doing them. When a supervisor asksIt is usually a part of a continuing program of workers to help develop a JSA, their attitudes im-safety observation. It is designed to check prove. As a result, they often generate cost-regularly on how safely all hazardous jobs are reducing improvements for safer working condi-performed. tions. All those are valuable benefits of the JSA. When making a planned safety observation, However, the major safety benefits are thosedecide in advance which one of your workers and which come from using the completed JSA. Youwhat specific job you will observe. Correct any can make good use of the JSA in the followingunsafe practices you observe at that time. If you areas:observe no unsafe practices, compliment the per-son. Always make a record of whom you observed • Initial job safety trainingand what job they were doing; that informationwill help you in future planned observations. • Regular safety contacts To do a good job of detecting unsafe prac-tices, you need to use all three types of safety • Pre-job safety instructionsobservations—each supplements the others.Together they accomplish the maximum detection • Cost-reduction studiesof unsafe practices. Fill out a Workplace Monitoring Plan,WHAT JOBS TO OBSERVE OPNAV 5100/14 (fig. 6-2), when making safety observations and job analyses; or make your own You cannot, and need not, observe every job form appropriate to your specific work place.a person does. Not all jobs are equally hazardous.Some jobs rarely or never produce mishaps; othershave a reputation for producing mishaps. As a ENLISTED SAFETY COMMITTEEsupervisor you have limited time for safetyobservations because you have many other tasks. Your command’s Enlisted Safety CommitteeTherefore, concentrate on observing the jobs most makes recommendations concerning the com-likely to produce mishaps. Put priority on observ- mand safety program. These recommendationsing jobs known to be hazardous and those which are submitted to the safety council (at the depart-have the greatest potential for producing serious ment head level) where they are reviewed forinjury or loss. appropriate action. Your command safety com- mittee convenes to exchange information; im- prove communications; review conditions, JOB SAFETY ANALYSIS mishaps, and injuries; and suggest improvements. It also convenes to make written safety recom- A job safety analysis (JSA) is the study of a mendations to the safety council and the com-job to (1) identify possible hazards or potential manding officer. These meetings should convenemishaps and (2) develop solutions to eliminate, monthly in an effort to enhance interdepartmental 6-4
  6. 6. 6-5
  7. 7. communication in mishap prevention at division The MAA/Safety Force acts as a roving in-and work center levels. Committee membership spector for hazards and risks (unsafe work prac-is as follows: tices) that could result in injury to personnel or damage to equipment. The force also assists the 1. Command safety officer (senior member) safety officer in making the safety program visible 2. Division safety petty officer to all personnel and ensuring it is a workable 3. Chief master-at-arms system. 4. Recorder A good safety program is made possible The ideas shared in safety committee meetings through the MAA/Safety Force inspections andcan broaden your own knowledge about mishap through a system of internal reporting; the inspec-prevention and increase your ability to identify tions and reports focus command attention onpotential mishap areas. material deficiencies and operating practices that jeopardize personnel and equipment. Figure 6-3 shows the form used for such reports. Make every MAA/SAFETY FORCE effort to support the MAA/Safety Force in its The Master at Arms (MAA)/Safety Force is duties. When assigned to the MAA/Safety Force,another vital link in the safety program. You may you can make a difference in safety at your com-be a member of the safety force as a senior petty mand. The safety force is the key to an effectiveofficer. safety program and to a safe working environment. Figure 6-3.—Safety hazard report. 6-6
  8. 8. SAFETY ENFORCEMENT NAVY OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH (NAVOSH) The safety organization must continually PROGRAMmonitor measures taken to ensure the commandmeets established safety standards and criteria. The Navy’s Occupational Safety and HealthThe best policing system is one of self-policing (NAVOSH) Program covers all Navy safety areas.by both supervisory personnel and workers. Those areas include aviation; weapons and ex- To evaluate safety enforcement, monitor the plosives; off-duty safety (recreation, public, andadequacy of inspections of mishap prevention traffic); and occupational safety as well as occupa-measures, the supervision of routine work, and tional health. The NAVOSH Program specificallyspecial command evolutions. Monitor your divi- addresses the maintenance of safe and healthfulsion’s adherence to prescribed operating and main- conditions in the work place. All levels of com-tenance procedures. Also monitor the correction mand within the naval ashore and afloat establish-of inspection discrepancies, the submission of ments must begin and manage a NAVOSHwork requests, and the full use of the 3-M systems. Program based on OPNAVINST 5100.23B. Each As shown by the following quotation, com- Navy member must comply with all NAVOSHplacency, haste to complete a job, and the standards and applicable rules, regulations, and‘‘it-can’t-happen-to-me” attitude all tend to oppose orders. Violators of NAVOSH regulations or in-an effective self-policing safety program. Although structions are subject to disciplinary action basedmany people may be familiar with that quotation, on the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ).its safety message is one all should know. Personnel must report to their supervisor all observed work place hazards, injuries, occupa- tional illnesses, or property damage resulting from THE ENEMY an accident. I am more powerful than the combined INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT armies of the world. I have destroyed SAFETY PRECAUTIONS more men than all the wars of all nations. I massacre thousands of people every year. Industrial equipment includes all fixed or por- I am more deadly than bullets, and I have table electric-, electronic-, pneumatic-, and wrecked more homes than the mightiest hydraulic-powered tools used in repairing, main- guns. taining, calibrating, or testing equipment. In the United States alone, I steal Before assigning personnel to operate or repair over 500 million dollars each year. I spare industrial equipment, make sure they have no one, and I find my victims among the demonstrated a practical knowledge of its opera- rich and poor alike, the young and old, the tion or repair and of all applicable safety precau- strong and weak. Widows know me to tions. Before allowing personnel to operate their everlasting sorrow. I loom up in industrial equipment, make certain the equipment such proportions that I cast my shadow is in good working condition and all installed or over every field of labor. attached safety features are in place and work- I lurk in unseen places and do most ing. Do not allow personnel to operate defective of my work silently. You can be warned equipment until it is suitably repaired. Disconnect against me, yet, you heed me not. I am any equipment requiring repair from its power relentless, merciless and cruel. I am source and tag it out, following OPNAVINST everywhere—in the home, on the streets, in 3120.32B, until repair is completed. To minimize the factory, at railroad crossings, on land, possible injuries, post operating instructions and in the air, on the sea. safety precautions at each piece of equipment and I bring sickness, degradation and death locate warning plates where everyone can see yet few seek me out to destroy me. I crush, them. I maim, and I wiIl give you nothing and rob you of all you have. I am your worst PNEUMATIC TOOLS enemy—I am CARELESSNESS. Only allow authorized and trained personnel to —Author Unknown operate pneumatic tools, and make sure those per- sonnel wear and use personal protective devices. 6-7
  9. 9. Do not allow personnel with arthritis, neuritis, or tools or machinery that produces hazardous noisecirculatory diseases to use vibrating tools such as levels.hammers, tampers, riveters, or caulkers. HAZARDOUS MATERIALSPROTECTIVE CLOTHING ANDSAFETY EQUIPMENT While personnel in confined and limited Based on NAVOSH Manual for Forces spaces aboard ship can use hazardous ma-Afloat, OPNAVINST 5100.19B, you must see terials safely, they must use extra precau-that your personnel know and observe safety tions in handling and storing them. Handling,precautions. Before allowing personnel to begin storing, or using hazardous materials canwork, you must make sure the work site present a danger to personnel, property, oris safe and that personnel are properly out- the environment. Hazardous materials mishapsfitted with protective clothing and equip- can result in fires or in the release of poisonousment. vapors in unventilated spaces. The use or storage of the following materials is prohib- To comply with NAVOSH requirements, ited aboard all ships except in authorizedinspect your people before allowing them to areas such as medical department pharmacies,operate rotating machinery. Make sure they clinical and chemical laboratories, and cargoare not wearing loose or torn clothing, neck- spaces:ties, neck chains, unbuttoned long sleeveshirts, rings, beads, or bracelets. When yourpeople operate power-driven industrial tools Trichlorethylene (Used only by shipsor equipment, ensure they wear approved having equipment designed for its use)safety glasses with side shields, goggles, orface shields. If they are working in foot-hazardous areas, require them to wear safety Benzene (benzol)shoes with a built-in protective steel toe.Do not allow them to wear shoes made of Beta naphthylaminematerials that can easily melt or catch firewhen in hot-work areas. Require them towear the following special safety footwear as Carbon tetrachloridefollows: DDT xylene emulsion 1. Semiconductive safety shoes to dissipate static electricity Hydrocyanic acid gas 2. Molders’ “congress” style safety shoes when handling molten metal and oxygen or nitrogen plant operations Insecticides or DDT 3. Rubber or synthetic material safety-toe boots for protection against acids, caustics, Methyl bromide and other liquid chemical hazards Plastic trash cans Check to see that personnel wear proper handprotection. For example, they should wear leathergloves when handling sharp materials or hot work. TetrachloroethaneThey need to wear electrical-grade insulating rub-ber gloves when handling electrical circuits orcaustic or toxic chemicals. Personnel also must Dry-cleaning solvent (Stoddard solvent),wear proper ear protection when working with Type I, of FED SPEC P-D-680 6-8
  10. 10. HAZARDOUS WASTE/MATERIAL and booties. Make certain each person PETTY OFFICER tapes gloves and booties to the sleeves and legs of the coveralls. As a senior petty officer, you maybe assignedas the hazardous waste/material petty officer. As 4. Provide each member of the team with athe hazardous waste/material petty officer, you continuous-flow air-line respirator with fullare responsible for the proper labeling, handling, faceplate.and storage procedures of hazardous material and 5. Make sure members wet the asbestos in-hazardous waste. You are also responsible for sulation before removing it. Providetraining division personnel in the proper handling portable vacuum cleaners designed withand use of hazardous materials and hazardous special filters for use during the rip outwaste disposal. You must always be on the and cleanup. Make sure members put alllookout for hazardous material/waste safety scraps in special bags and attach cautionviolations. labels to the bags.ASBESTOS For more detailed information on protective measures, refer to Naval Ships’ Technical Manual For many years, the Navy used asbestos (NSTM), chapter 635, Thermal, Fire and Acousticas the primary insulation (lagging) material Installation.in high-temperature machinery, boilers, andthe piping of boiler plants at shore facil-ities. Asbestos is now recognized as a major RESPIRATORY PROTECTIONhealth hazard. Inhaling asbestos fibers canresult in a lung disease known as asbestosis. Many repair and maintenance operationsAsbestos exposure has also been associated generate air contaminants that can be dan-with cancer of the lung. Aboard ship, many gerous if inhaled. See that your people arepipes and boilers are still insulated with properly protected from such contaminants.asbestos. However, the Navy has instituted These contaminants may be in the form of dust,a program to use less harmful materials, such as fumes, gas, or mist or fog from sprays and sprayfibrous glass, for pipe and boiler insulation. painting.Asbestos insulation cannot be removed exceptfor an emergency as approved by the commanding The commanding officer of each unitofficer. designates a program manager for respiratory pro- tection, usually the unit’s safety officer or gas- free engineering officer. The program managerCONTROL MEASURES FOR trains safety petty officers (SPOs) or damage con-ASBESTOS REMOVAL trol petty officers (DCPOs) in selecting, fit-testing, and maintaining respirators. The designated If you or your people are required to rip out department/division SPO or DCPO does theasbestos insulation, take the following control following:measures: 1. Provides annual training on respirator 1. Arrange for each person assigned to a selection, use, care, and maintenance rip-out team to receive a special physical examination. 2. Issues respirators appropriate for protec- tion against the hazardous exposure 2. Make certain each rip-out team consists of three qualified persons, including one 3. Monitors the use, cleaning, and reissue of supervisor. respirators and provides the program manager with a monthly program report 3. Provide each person on the team with the following complete set of protective cloth- 4. Assures continuing availability of the ing: special overalls, head covering, gloves, required respiratory protection 6-9
  11. 11. Figure 6-4.—Types of respirators.TYPES OF RESPIRATORS cartridge. These respirators may be disposable or have a disposable prefilter on a cartridge. You should be familiar with three basic types ofrespirators: AIR-PURIFYING, SUPPLIED-AIR, and The supplied-air respirator (fig. 6-5) is used whenSELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS insufficient oxygen is present, when the contaminant(SCBA). has no odor, or when the contaminant is of such high concentration or toxicity that a cartridge filter is The air-purifying respirators (views A through D, inadequate. This respirator is not used infig. 6-4) remove air contaminants by filtering or immediately dangerous to life or health situationsabsorbing them as the air passes through the (IDLH) areas. IDLH areas are those in which death or 6-10
  12. 12. Figure 6-5.—Supplied-air system. injury may result if the respirator or its air line fails. The self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) (fig. 6-6) provides protection in oxygen-deficient environments or other environments dangerous to life or health. Since the SCBA is the most complex respirator in use today, use it only after receiving proper training in its use. Use the oxygen breathing apparatus (OBA) only in emergency situations. Use Mark V gas masks only for protection against chemical warfare agents and high airborne radioactivity levels. Surgical masks are for medical use only; never use them in place of a filter respirator. IDENTIFICATION OF RESPIRATOR CARTRIDGES AND GAS MASK CANISTERS Each air-purifying respirator cartridge type is designed specifically for the class of contaminant it removes. Federal regulations require each cartridge type to be color-coded. The color-coding may be in the form of an affixed label or a colored plastic cartridge case. To identify the type to be worn for protectionFigure 6-6.—Self-contained breathing apparatus against a (SCBA). 6-11
  13. 13. particular atmospheric contaminant, refer to Education is vital to the overall success of atable 6-1. hearing conservation program. Make sure your personnel receive instruction in and understand NOTE: When labels only are colored, the cart- the rationale for the following elements of theridge or canister will either be gray or a natural hearing conservation program:metallic color. The National Institute for Occupa-tional Safety and Health (NIOSH) must approve 1. Proper wearing and maintenance ofall cartridges. hearing-protective devices 2. The command program and personnel The color-coded label also specifies the max- responsibilities for off-duty practices toimum contaminant concentration level against help protect hearingwhich the cartridge or canister provides protec-tion. For example, a label may read as follows: Encourage your personnel to use hearing- protective devices during off-duty activities when DO NOT WEAR IN ATMOSPHERES they are exposed to hazardous noise sources, such IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO as lawn mowers, chain saws, and firearms. All LIFE. MUST BE USED IN AREAS personnel exposed to gunfire in a training situa- CONTAINING AT LEAST 20% OXY- tion or to artillery or missile firing under any cir- GEN. DO NOT WEAR IN ATMO- cumstances must wear hearing-protective devices. SPHERES CONTAINING MORE THAN If your personnel must work in hazardous 1/10% ORGANIC VAPORS BY VOL- noise areas or with equipment that produces UME. REFER TO COMPLETE LABEL sound levels greater than 84 dB or peak sound ON RESPIRATOR OR CARTRIDGE pressure levels of 140 dB, enter them in a hear- CONTAINER FOR ASSEMBLY, MAIN- ing testing program. Personnel should have TENANCE, AND USE. received a reference hearing test upon entry into NOTE: The 20% oxygen requirement naval service. Do not assign personnel who do not cited above does not apply to submarines, have a reference hearing test in their health record which may operate with an atmosphere of to duty in designated hazardous noise areas until as low as 18.5% oxygen. they receive a reference hearing test. All person- nel should receive a hearing test periodically and before termination of naval service. HEARING CONSERVATION AND NOISE ABATEMENT HEAT STRESS Hearing loss is recognized as an occupationalhazard related to certain trades. For example, Heat stress is the strain placed on the bodygunfire and rocket fire produce high-intensity im- as it attempts to regulate its temperature as a resultpulse or blast noises, which can cause hearing loss. of any combination of air temperature, thermalHearing loss can also result from the continuous radiation, humidity, air flow, and work load. Thisor intermittent noises of aircraft and marine condition can readily produce fatigue, severeengines and industrial activities. Hearing loss has headache, nausea, and poor physical and mentalbeen and continues to be a serious concern. performance. Prolonged exposure will cause heatTherefore, the Navy has developed a hearing con- exhaustion or heat stroke and severe impairmentservation program to prevent occupational noise- of the body’s temperature-regulating ability. Ifrelated hearing loss. The program requires the not properly treated, these conditions can be lifefollowing preventive measures: threatening. Adhere to the command’s Heat Stress Pro- 1. The survey of work environments to iden- gram by reporting heat stress conditions as they tify potentially hazardous noise levels and occur. Educate your division about the Heat to identify personnel at risk Stress Program, the identification of heat stress 2. The modification of environments that conditions, stay time, and rotation of personnel. contain, or equipment that produces, Heat stress has occurred in engineering spaces, potentially hazardous noise to reduce the laundries, sculleries, steam catapult spaces, and noise level to acceptable levels whenever workshops aboard our ships. In many instances, technologically and economically feasible clogged ventilation systems, damaged or missing 6-12
  14. 14. Table 6-1.—Cartridge Color-Codingthermal insulation, and excessive steam or water If the computed watch stander or worker stayleaks produce heat stress conditions. Conduct heat times are greater than the duration of the watchstress surveys in your work area at the following or work periods (normally 4 hours) in which youtimes: conduct heat stress survey, conduct another survey during the hottest time of the day. If the When the watch or work station’s dry-bulb computed stay times are greater than the normal temperature exceeds 100°F watch or work period at the hottest time of day, you are required to conduct only two surveys each During conditions of unusually high heat day. If the computed stay times are less than the or moisture scheduled duration of watch or work periods, in- crease the frequency of conducting surveys; con- Before conducting engineering casualty duct them at equally spaced intervals a minimum drills of once per stay time period at the affected stations. During operations in hot, humid climates To compute heat stress surveys, use a wet bulb globe temperature index (WBGT) meter. Transfer During the performance of exceptionally the readings to heat stress monitoring report arduous work sheets. Once documented, compute the stay time by using the six physiological heat exposure limit During engineering plant restoration after (PHEL) curves, ranging from light work (PHEL actual casualties CURVE 1) to heavy work (PHE CURVE 6). 6-13
  15. 15. The PHEL curves are accurate for normal, You have a duty to yourself and the peoplehealthy personnel who have had adequate rest (6 you work with to know and enforce all safetyhours sleep in the past 24 hours) and adequate regulations. Before assigning personnel to a taskrecovery time from previous heat stress exposure that can harm them in any way, ensure they are(2 hours recovery for every 1 hour of exposure, familiar with and know the correct safety pro-or 4 hours maximum). cedures. Check to see that they wear the proper Develop a working knowledge of all aspects protective clothing, use the correct respirator forof this program so that you can recognize heat the work being performed, and have adequate eyestress conditions as or if they occur. Then take and hearing protection. Take no short cuts inproper actions. doing a job safely. Obtain copies of OPNAVINST 5100.23B, Naval Occupational Safety and Health (NAVOSH) Program Manual, and OPNAVINST SIGHT CONSERVATION 5100.19B, NAVOSH Manual for Forces Afloat. Become familiar with them, Remember the old Navy policy requires the provision of eye adage “The life you save may be your own.”protection for Navy personnel working in eye-hazardous areas at government expense. Person-nel must wear eye protection while performing any EQUIPMENT TAG-OUT LOGeye-hazardous operations. Eye-hazardous opera- The equipment tag-out log is the controllingtions include pouring or handling molten metals document for the entire tag-out procedure. Theor corrosive liquids and solids, cutting and number of tag-out logs maintained depends onwelding, drilling, grinding, chipping, and sand- the ship’s size. For example, a minesweeper mayblasting or other dust producing operations. Any only require one tag-out log for the whole ship,persons in the vicinity of such operations must while a major combatant may require a separatealso wear eye-protective equipment. log for each department. Individual force com- All Navy activities that perform eye-hazardous manders specify the number of logs various shipoperations must have a sight conservation pro- classes must maintain and the areas in which thegram. The program should include, but not be ship will maintain them.restricted to, the following: On ships maintaining more than one tag-out log, authorizing officers must exchange informa- 1. Determination and evaluation of eye- tion concerning tag-out actions. When a tag-out hazardous areas, processes, and occupa- affects other authorizing officers, the initiating tions party obtains verbal permission from those of- 2. Operation of a vision-screening program ficers to tag-out the system or equipment in ques- 3. An effective equipment maintenance pro- tion before authorizing the tag-out. Examples of gram systems that may require such coordination are 4. Procedures for the use of temporary eye ship’s service electrical distribution, hydraulics, wear air, ventilation, and air-conditioning chill-water 5. A comprehensive training/education pro- systems. gram The tag-out log is a record of authorization 6. An effective enforcement program of each effective tag-out action. It contains the following documents: To establish an effective sight conservationprogram, the safety officer must identify eye- 1. A copy of the main instruction and anyhazardous areas and post appropriate warning other amplifying directives for administer-signs. Commands must equip all areas where per- ing the system. (These documents are keptsonnel maybe exposed to corrosive materials with in the front of the log.)emergency eyewash facilities. The Navy considers 2. A DANGER/CAUTION tag-out indexany person found to have vision in one eye of and record of audits (index/audit record).20/200 or worse to be visually impaired. You can- (The index/audit record provides a sequen-not assign people who have visual impairment to tial list of all tag-outs and ensures serialduties that present a hazard to their remaining eye. numbers are sequentially issued. They areMake certain these personnel wear protective eye used in audits of the log. The cognizantwear at all times, regardless of their occupation department head may remove the indexor work station. page with all tag-outs listed as cleared.) 6-14
  16. 16. 3. A log on one effective DANGER/ under some conditions. Audit all outstanding tag- CAUTION tag-out record sheet of all tags out sheets against the index/audit record section. associated with tag-out of systems and As part of the audit, check each tag-out record components for the stated reason(s). (This sheet for completeness and check the installed log helps identify all tags associated with tags. Make sure the positions of valves or switches the stated reason(s). All effective sheets are haven’t been changed from the description on the kept in one section of the log.) tag, the label, and the record sheet. Log the date 4. Cleared DANGER/CAUTION tag-out and time on each tag-out record sheet. Note any record sheets that have been cleared and discrepancies you found (if you found none, note completed. (These sheets are kept in the that also) followed by your signature. Your log until received and removed by the signature verifies the log is up to date. cognizant department head.) SURVIVALINSTRUMENT LOG Survival requires the desire and ability to live. Labels associated with OUT-OF-COMMIS- In a survival situation, you may find yourself inSION and OUT-OF-CALIBRATION instruments unusual conditions of deprivation, emotionalare logged in the instrument log. This log con- shock, and hardship. These conditions may oc-tains record sheets identifying various instruments cur for an indefinite period. They are oftenthat are out of commission or out of calibration. brought about by the forced landing of an air-The authorizing officer signs the labels and the craft at sea or in a remote jungle, a desert, or anrecord sheets and signs for the clearing of the Arctic land area.items from the record sheets. Survival depends on you. You must be physically fit and know how to locate or collectRECORD SHEETS water. You must know what plants and animals are available for food, how to find or catch them, Some ships going through an overhaul have how to prepare them, and how to recognize thoseused between 2,000 and 3,000 DANGER/CAU- which will harm you. The more you know aboutTION tags. A record sheet keeps track of all these the conditions peculiar to the region you are in,tags. The front of the record sheet contains the including the plant and animal life, the better arename of the system or component, serial number your chances for survival.of the tag-out, date and time of tag-out issue, and You can remain alive anywhere in the worldreason for the tag-out. It also has a place for when you keep your wits. Remember that naturedocumentation (blueprints, rip-outs, and so forth) and the elements are neither your friend nor yourand authorizing signatures. On the back of the enemy. By using your wits, you can make themrecord sheet, you will find a record of the number work for you instead of allowing them to workof the tags, the person hanging the tags, and the against you.person second-checking all the tags. It also con- Before learning basic survival facts, you firsttains the authorization for clearance of the tags need to understand the psychological obstacles ofby the authorizing officer and the repair activity survival. Those obstacles all have in common thatrepresentative. The record includes the date and very normal human emotion called fear: fear oftime of removal of the tags along with the initials the unknown, fear of discomfort, fear of people,of the person(s) removing them. After the tags and fear of one’s weaknesses. Fear of the environ-have been cleared and the record sheet properly ment leads us to fear the discomfort we mayfilled out for the removal of the tags, the sheet suffer.is put in the back of the tag-out log in the cleared Although you may have many natural fearssection for destruction at a later time. The date in a survival situation, they need not be aand time cleared are recorded in the tag-out index/ drawback. Fear is the reaction that enables youaudit record. to get out of the situation you’re in. If you con- trol it, fear is a very valuable tool for survival,AUDITS but you must recognize its presence. Proper train- ing lessens the fear of the unknown. By adding Audits are an important part of the tag-out your equipment and survival knowledge to yoursystem. You should audit every 2 weeks, except will to survive, you can survive with much lesson nuclear-powered ships, where you audit weekly discomfort and risk of bodily injury. 6-15
  17. 17. Normal reaction to basic human fear can be is equally important. Since you could also findvery useful. When you are afraid, your body be- yourself as the senior person in a survival situa-comes more alert, you hear better, you see better, tion, you need to know your authority and respon-and you can perform amazing feats of strength. sibilities. Even though we overcome our fears to someextent, a lack of confidence in our strength and AUTHORITY ANDability may seriously weaken our will to survive. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THETherefore, you must prepare, both physically and SENIOR PERSON IN Apsychologically, to deal with stresses in survival SURVIVAL SITUATIONsituations. We have each acquired, to some degree, many You have worked hard to advance to yourpersonality traits that are helpful in a survival position of leadership. One of the most impor-situation. Most of us have come through some tant responsibilities you may have is to functiondifficult, drawn out, emotionally draining prob- as the senior person in a survival situation. Thatlems. We have learned the value of persistence and is where the leadership skills you have been work-perseverance when the odds seemed against us. ing on will pay off. You will be responsible forReaching a coveted goal in sports requires such the lives of your shipmates and for seeing that theytraits. You may have surmounted moments of are safe.danger or crisis with a physical or psychological Navy Regulations and article IV of the Codestrength you didn’t know you had. of Conduct give the senior person in a survival The key to survival is your attitude. The situation the authority to take charge. Even if youdevelopment of at least twelve important traits, are not the senior person in charge, you have theor characteristics, will help you develop a survival responsibility to fully back the senior person inattiude: charge. If the senior member becomes injured or dies and you are the next senior person, you will • Courage assume responsibility for your group. The members of your group will depend on you to lead • Determination them in evading the enemy and reaching safety. Although you have the authority and respon- • Cheerfulness sibility of leadership, listen to your subordinates, as they may have useful ideas. Survival requires • Positiveness every person to give 100 percent toward a group effort. Failure on one person’s part could cause • Flexibility the group to end up in a prisoner-of-war camp. Think before you act, and weigh every situation • Willingness carefully. Use the helpful ideas of the group. • Purpose ASHORE • Attentiveness Survival ashore becomes a personal struggle between the environment and the specific qualities • Confidence people bring to the situation. Disaster subjects people to severe stresses they are not normally ex- • Productiveness posed to. Some people remain remarkably calm for varying periods, even under extreme stress. • Persistence Others, however, become overwhelmed by disaster and unable to cope with what might be • Certainty a life-threatening situation. People suffer the worst reactions when, with little or no warning We cannot overemphasize the importance of or preparation, they suddenly find themselves indeveloping these traits. They can be more valuable an unstructured and undefined situation.to your survival than your survival equipment. When you are faced with a survival situation You could find yourself in two types of on land, remember several facts. The obstaclessurvival situations—survival ashore and survival to overcome aren’t so much physical as mental.at sea. Knowing how to survive in each situation In all probability, others have survived in that 6-16
  18. 18. terrain, and some even may have made it their before the details can be seen. Whenhome. With varying degrees of effort, they transiting from area to area, use availablemanaged to adjust to the terrain, climate, and en- cover, such as bushes, trees, and rockvironment. Your problem is you are not prepared formations, to distort your shape.to live there; you never expected your plane tocrash-land in a jungle or some other remote area. SHADOW: Since shadows may be more Remember your goal in a survival situation revealing than the object itself, placeashore is to get back to friendly forces. If you are objects in the shadows of other objects toisolated in an enemy area, you have the major make them easier to overlook.problem of avoiding the enemy (evasion). If you COLOR: Contrast between the color of anare captured, you have the problem of surviving object and its background makes a personthe prisoner-of-war (POW) camp. or object easily visible. The greater the con- trast in color, the greater the visibility.Evasion Therefore, as a general principle, the camouflage should match the darker and In a survival situation within enemy territory, medium light colors of the background.you must focus on evasion of the enemy. Using vegetation and other materialsTherefore, you need to know the two methods the found locally to screen and stain equip-enemy uses to detect your presence: ment makes it blend into the background. Moonlit nights require the same precau- 1. Observation by specially trained and equip- tions as those used in daylight.ped observation teams. The teams may be situatedon high terrain to scan the area with a variety of Conceal your presence when traveling by usingdetection devices, such as binoculars, telescopes, screens, backgrounds, and shadows to the fullestand sound-detection equipment. advantage. Under favorable conditions enemy 2. The use of dogs, foot patrols, and observers can see as far as 100 yards in openmechanized units to patrol a given area. Such woods. Since even a dark night furnishes shadows,teams physically search an area for signs of choose a route that provides a concealingevaders and escapees, such as footprints, cold background and avoids the skyline. On bright,campfires, or discarded or lost equipment. moonlit nights the shadows along the edge of the woods make the best route. Sound gives an One way you can protect yourself and your amplified, revealing signal at night. Move care-group from the eyes of the enemy is by using fully, quietly, and close to the ground.camouflage. Camouflage is a major evasion tac- In areas of light undergrowth, take the routetic used to hide an object, personnel, or equip- farthest into the woods for safety. Heavierment. Camouflage permits you to see without undergrowth is an obstacle to movement.being seen. Therefore, when rapid movement is more impor- If you are in charge of a large group hiding tant than full concealment, travel along the out-from the enemy, first break the group into many side edge of the woods.small groups. Small groups are easier to conceal. Although concealing your presence is of majorThe enemy may estimate your location from your importance, the most common deterrent to suc-actual movements or from physical signs left when cessful evasion is a negative attitude. If you haveyou moved through an area. Your position; shape; a positive attitude, you have the natural tendencyshadow; or color of equipment, vehicles, or per- to take positive action. A negative attitude maysons can also reveal your location in the follow- be caused by, related to, or a lack of the fol-ing ways: lowing: POSITION: An observer can easily see the place of concealment if a person or an • Patience object doesn’t blend in with the back- • Common sense ground. When you choose a position for concealment, use a background that will • Flexibility absorb personnel or an object. • Resourcefulness SHAPE: At a distance, an observer can recognize the form or outline of an object • Security 6-17
  19. 19. The following mistakes can lead to capture for Escape is tough; not being caught after escapeyou and your group: is even tougher. Escape demands courage, cunning, and much planning—of ways to escape, 1. Lack of, or insufficient, preparation and a route to follow, and the location of friends. poor physical condition Above all, escape demands physical stamina— 2. Absence of either opportunity or motiva- stamina you must acquire under the worst con- tion ditions imaginable. Experience has proven that 3. Failure to realize civilians areas dangerous “model” camps with regular rations and con- to an evader as members of the military siderate treatment are the exception. But no mat- 4. Attempting to fit into the society rather ter what extremes you encounter as a POW, strive than into the background to keep yourself physically able and sufficiently 5. Knowing nothing about the topography, equipped to escape as soon as possible. climate, or people of the area If you are captured, try to make your escape 6. Not knowing how to use your equipment, early. You may never be in any better physical where it is located, or its purpose (and condition to escape than at that moment. Prison thus its value) rations barely sustain life, certainly not enough 7. Failure to use any opportunity to leave to build up a reserve of energy. The physical treat- the vicinity of your landing when the ment, lack of medical care, and insufficient enemy is in the area rations of prison life soon show their effects in 8. Failure to properly hide discarded equip- morale and physical weakness, night blindness, ment or trash and loss of coordination and reasoning power. 9. Improper cover and concealment while There are other reasons for making your traveling escape early after your capture. Friendly artillery 10. Improper and careless use of fire fire and air strikes occurring during that time may 11. Ineffective and insufficient camouflage of increase your chances of getting away. The first persons, equipment, and shelter guards you will have are not as well trained in 12. Leaving evidence of passage, such as handling prisoners as those farther back from the tracks in soft ground and broken twigs front lines. Some of the first-line guards may even 13. Approaching members of the local be walking wounded who are distracted by their population, assuming them to be friendly own condition. In addition, you know something 14. Lack of noise discipline about the terrain where you are captured, and you 15. Traveling too near to roads, streams, know the approximate location of friendly units. lakes, or populated areas Several days later and many miles away, you may 16. Not treating injuries, which can later be in strange territory. An escape from a POW weaken your evasion chances camp is much more difficult and requires more 17. Failure to use deceptive techniques while detailed planning. It must be organized and sup- procuring domestic plants and animals ported as any other military operation. 18. Taking easy, short travel routes The misfortune of being captured by the enemy does not end your usefulness to your You must consider a lot of conditions when country. Your duty is to continue to resist theevading the enemy. Remember, you and your enemy by all possible means, to escape, and togroup will probably be captured if you are seen. help others escape. While a prisoner of war, never accept specialPrisoner-of-War (POW) Camp favors in return for your promise not to escape or a promise to provide the enemy with informa- What happens if you and your group become tion. Informing, or any other action endanger-prisoners of war? After all, that is possible. Isola- ing the well-being of a fellow prisoner, istion, fear, injury—all work in favor of the enemy FORBIDDEN. Prisoners of war may not help theto increase your chances of capture in spite of a enemy by identifying fellow prisoners who maydetermined effort on your part to evade. The sur- have valuable knowledge.render of your arms, however, doesn’t mean you If you are the senior person in a POW camp,forfeit your responsibilities as an American ser- you must provide strong leadership to maintainviceperson. The Code of Conduct directs that you discipline. Organization, resistance, and even sur-begin planning your escape the minute you are vival may be extremely difficult without discipline.taken prisoner. Therefore, discipline yourself and your group to 6-18
  20. 20. maintain personal hygiene and sanitation and to dragged through the brush. The interrogationscare for the sick and wounded. and beatings continued for 3 days, but LTJG All United States officers and noncommis- Dengler refused to give in. Later he escaped fromsioned officers should continue to carry out their his guards but was recaptured and again severelyresponsibilities and exercise their authority if cap- beaten. After 6 months in captivity, LTJGtured. The senior line officer or noncommissioned Dengler successfully escaped, killing severalofficer within the group of prisoners assumes guards in the process. On the 17th day, a pilotcommand according to rank or date of rank, who escaped with him was killed, and LTJGwithout regard to his or her branch of service. Dengler had to continue alone. Although suffer-That person is the lawful superior of all lower ing from malnutrition, jaundice, fatigue, andranking personnel. If the senior officer or non- badly cut and swollen feet, LTJG Dengler refusedcommissioned officer is incapacitated or unable to give up. Finally, on the 22nd day after histo command for any reason, the next senior per- escape, he managed to lay out a crude SOS onson will assume command. a bed of rocks, which attracted the attention of Article I of the Code of Conduct says “I am a United States Air Force aircraft. Later, a rescuean American, fighting in the forces which guard helicopter ended his ordeal by plucking him tomy country and our way of life. I am prepared safety.to give my life in their defense. ” These are perhaps The stories of personnel who steadfastlythe most important words of the Code, because followed both the spirit and letter of the Code ofthey signify the faith and confidence of Americans Conduct are numerous.in their government, their country, and their Full compliance with the laws of armed con-service. From the time John Paul Jones made his flict is not always easy, especially when you aredefiant reply “I have not yet begun to fight” to a POW. For instance, you might be extremelythe present, Americans have traditionally fought angry and upset because you were taken prisoner.wherever the enemy was and with whatever But you should NEVER engage in reprisals or actsweapons were available. When captured, the of revenge that violate the Code of Conduct,Americans have continued the battle in a newarena. When facing an enemy interrogator, they AT SEAhave been under fire just as though bulletsand shell fragments were flying around them. Survival at sea depends upon your knowledge,Disarmed, POWs have fought back with mind your equipment, your self-control, and your train-and spirit, remaining faithful to their fellow ing. Basic Military Requirements provides a goodPOWs, yielding no military information, and review of survival equipment, abandoning shipresisting every attempt of indoctrination. Each of procedures, and at-sea survival hints.us has the responsibility to honor these traditions Think of the vastness of both military andby carefully adhering to the meaning of each commercial operations at sea. Then you canarticle of the Code of Conduct. The many realize the dangers the crews and passengers faceAmericans who have accepted that responsibil- under such a wide range of environmentality are heroes in the finest sense of the word. conditions. One such hero was Lieutenant (Junior Grade) As the senior person in an at-sea survival situa-Dieter Dengler, USNR. In February 1966 LTJG tion, your responsibilities are great. First you mustDengler was on a bombing mission over North make sure your group is afloat and safe. ThenVietnam when his aircraft was badly damaged by you must know how to operate the equipmentground fire. LTJG Dengler crash-landed his air- available to you and ration food and water.craft in nearby Laos and attempted to evade cap- Take charge of the situation and remainture. After successfully evading the enemy for 1 calm—that will greatly increase your chance forday, he was captured and led to a village where survival. Talk to your people; do your best to keephe was interrogated and told to sign a Communist morale up by singing, praying, joking, or tellingpropaganda statement condemning the United stories. Keep the others involved. Remember, asStates. LTJG Dengler’s repeated refusal to give long as you are alive, the chance for rescue ismore than his name, rank, service number, date excellent.of birth, or to sign any statements resulted in Don’t sell short the value of group support.severe beatings. Many survival experiences have proven that stick- When he continued to refuse to answer ques- ing together as a group may make the differencetions, he was tied behind a water buffalo and in surviving an ordeal. 6-19
  21. 21. GROUP SURVIVAL on input from their staff. Above all else, never appear indecisive. The best chance for survival belongs to the If situations require you to act immediately,group that works TOGETHER and has a leader consider the facts and make decisions rapidly. Thewho accepts responsibility for the group. When ability to think on your feet usually determinesyou are the senior person, accept responsibility successful survival. for your group by taking steps to lead membersto work together. BASIC ELEMENTS OF SURVIVAL Organize group survival activities. Group sur-vival depends largely upon the organization of its You can reduce, or even avoid, the shockmanpower. Organized action by group members of finding yourself isolated behind enemy lines,who know what to do and when to do it, during in enemy hands, or in a desolated area.ordinary circumstances and during a crisis, Just remember the basic elements of sur-prevents panic. Keeping the group informed, vival represented by each letter in the worddevising a plan, and sticking to the plan helps S-U-R-V-I-V-A-L shown in figure 6-7.achieve organization. Assign each person a task that fits his or her • S—Size up the situation by consider-personal qualifications. If one person can catch ing yourself, the country, and the enemy.fish but cannot cook, let that person provide thefish. Always learn each member’s special skills so When you think about yourself and yourthat you can use each person to the greatest group, hope for the best, but be prepared for thebenefit of the group. worst. Recall what you have read about survival Assume command and establish a chain of and expect it to work. That will give you con-command that includes all members of the group. fidence that you and your group can survive,Good leadership lessens panic, confusion, and which will increase your chances for success. Getdisorganization. Make certain each person knows to a safe, comfortable place as quickly as possi-his or her position in the chain of command and ble. Once you find a safe place, look at your situa-is familiar with the duties of every other person, tion, think, and form a plan. Your fear will lessenespecially your duties as the senior member. while your confidence will increase. Be calm andUnder no circumstances leave leadership of the cautious until you know where you are and wheregroup to chance acceptance by some member after you are going.a situation arises. Being in a strange country may cause part of Maintain respect for your leadership by using your fear. Therefore, try to determine where youit wisely; be the leader and set the example. Group are by landmarks, by compass directions, or bysurvival is a test of effective leadership. Watch recalling intelligence information passed onto youout for problems that could turn into serious by your leaders.arguments. Keep troublemakers from attracting Think about what moves the enemy mightundue attention, and keep those who may “crack make by putting yourself in the enemy’s shoes.up” from disrupting the group. Prevent care- What would you do? Watch the enemy’s habitslessness caused by fatigue, hunger, and cold. and routines. Base your plans on your observa-Know yourself and the members of your group; tions. Remember, you know where the enemy is,take responsibility for each person’s welfare. but the enemy does not know where you are. Develop a feeling of mutual dependence withinthe group by stressing that each person depends • U—Undue haste makes waste.on the others for survival. Emphasize that thegroup will not leave the wounded or injured Don’t be too eager to move. Acting hastilybehind—that each member’s responsibility is to makes you careless and impatient, causing you tomake sure the group returns intact. A feeling of take unnecessary risks. Don’t end up like the manmutual dependence fosters high morale and unity. who rushed ahead without any plan. He tried toEach member receives support and strength from travel at night but only injured himself by bump-the others. ing into trees and fences. Instead of lying low and Make the decisions no matter what the situa- trying to evade the enemy, he fired at them withtion. However, base your decisions on the infor- his rifle and was caught. Don’t lose your temper.mation and advice of other members of the Loss of self-control may cause wrong thinkinggroup—much as admirals make decisions based and poor judgment. When something irritating 6-20
  22. 22. need; take stock of what you have; then improvise. Learn to put up with new and unpleasant conditions. Keep your mind and that of your group on SURVIVAL. Don’t be afraid to try strange foods. • V—Value living. Conserve your health and strength and that of your group. Illness or injury greatly reduces your chances of survival and escape. Hunger, cold, and fatigue lower your efficiency and stamina, make you careless, and increase the possibility of capture. Be aware that your spirits may be low because of your physical conditions- not because of the danger. Remember the goal for you and your group—getting out of your situation alive. Concentrating on the time after your rescue will help you value living while trying to survive. • A—Act like the local populace. “At the railroad station, there were German Figure 6-7.—Elements of survival. guards,” one escapee related. “I had an urgent need to urinate. The only rest room was an ex- posed one in front of the station. I felt too em-happens, stop, take a deep breath, and relax; then barrassed to relieve myself in front of all thestart over. Face the facts—danger does exist. To passersby. I walked throughout the entire towntry to convince yourself otherwise only adds to stopping occasionally and inquiring if a rest roomthe danger. was available.” This man was detected and cap- tured because he failed to accept the customs of • R—Remember where you and your group the locals. When you are in a strange situation, are. accept and adopt local behavior to avoid attract- ing attention. • V—Vanquish fear and panic. To feel fear is normal and necessary. It is • L—Learn basic skills.nature’s way of giving you that extra shot ofenergy when you need it. Learn to recognize fear The best life insurance is to make sure youfor what it is and control it. Look carefully at a learn the techniques and methods of survival sosituation to determine if your fear is justified. thoroughly that they become automatic. Then youWhen you investigate, you will usually find many will probably do the right thing, even if you panic.of your fears are unreal. Be inquisitive, and search for any additional sur- When you are injured and in pain, controlling vival information.fear is difficult. Pain can turn fear into panic andcause you to act without thinking, Loneliness canalso cause panic. It can lead to hopelessness, SUMMARYthoughts of suicide, carelessness, and even cap-ture or surrender. Recognizing the effects of fear Everyone in the Navy has the job of prevent-can help you overcome panic. ing mishaps. Mishap prevention reduces personal injury and damage to material and equipment. • I—Improvise. Try to help the Navy reach its ultimate goal of preventing all mishaps by recognizing the need for You can always do something to improve your mishap prevention; then take steps daily to pre-situation. Figure out what you and your group vent mishaps. 6-21
  23. 23. Your involvement in mishap prevention may REFERENCESonly have been that of a safety-conscious persontrying to do your job as effectively and safely as Naval Safety Supervisor, NAVEDTRA 10808-2,possible. However, you may gain greater respon- Naval Education and Training Programsibilities by being appointed as division safety Management Support Activity, Pensacola,petty officer. In that position, you must become Fla., 1988.more aware of unsafe working conditions and beprepared to take immediate action to correct Naval Ships’ Technical Manual, S9086-AA-them. Without your help, a near mishap today STM-010, Chapter 001, General—NSTMcould be a fatal mishap tomorrow. Publications Index and User Guide, The Navy has gone to great expense to train Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington,people like you to run its ships safely. Without D,C., 1987.you and your shipmates, we would not have aNavy. Personnel safety is not automatic; it mustbe practiced constantly. The Navy still has in- NAVOSH Manual for Forces Afloat, OP-juries, but they are less frequent than they were NAVINST 5100.19B, Office of the Chiefin the past because crew members now practice of Naval Operations, Washington, D.C.,good safety habits. 1985. You are responsible for the functions of thesafety organization within your ship or unit. You Navy Occupational Safety and Health (NAV-must promote safety, safety publications, and OSH) Program Manual, OPNAVINSTsafety instructions. 5100.23B, Office of the Chief of Naval The tag-out system is an important part of the Operations, Washington, D.C., 1983.safety organization. Without it, we would havea great increase in injuries and deaths. It is a work-ing system that, if correctly used, will save many Seabee Combat Handbook, NAVEDTRAlives. 10479-C3, Naval Education and Training Every ship follows safety procedures for Program Management Support Activity,hazardous waste and material control. If you are Pensacola, Fla., 1989.assigned as the hazardous waste/material controlpetty officer, your will be responsible for those Shipboard Hazardous Materials/Hazardousprocedures. Waste Management Plan, NAVSEA 59593- The Navy is safety-conscious. Always prac- A7-PLN-010, Naval Sea Systems Command,tice safety, whether on or off ship. The Navy and Washington, D.C., 1983.your loved ones value you and want you to be assafe as possible. At some time you and your shipmates may Shipboard Heat Stress Control and Personnel Protection, OPNAVINST 5100.20C, Office offind yourselves in a survival situation; you couldbe the person in charge. If that happens, you will the Chief of Naval Operations, Washington,have the responsibility of keeping yourself and D.C., 1985.your people alive until you are rescued. Therefore,you must know the basic elements of evasion, sur- Standard Organization and Regulations of thevival at sea, survival ashore, and group survival. U.S. Navy, OPNAVINST 3120.32B, Office ofIf you find yourself in a survival situation, the Chief of Naval Operations, Washington,remember to NEVER GIVE UP HOPE. D.C., 1986. 6-22

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