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NONRESIDENT                                TRAINING                                COURSEMilitary Requirementsfor Petty Of...
CHAPTER 3                                PROGRAMS AND POLICIES                                             LEARNING OBJECT...
CMEO redefines the self-sustaining aspects of                  Responsibility to SubordinatesPhase II and reestablishes mi...
indirectly commits an act of discrimination based on                    COMMAND             ASSESSMENT             TEAMrac...
COMMAND RECORDS. -Command records                                   2. Counseling through the use of locally preparedconta...
command members of the naval service are assigned,                  Reviewing the Report Chitmay designate one or more nav...
4. That, if the accused will attend mast, he or she              using someone as a witness who has no connection with    ...
Punishment                                                             However, the member may only be reduced one grade  ...
disproportionate to the offense has the right to appeal              marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, barbiturates, FCP,t...
Then there are illicit drugs, DRUGS PROHIBITED                 of cotton, syringes, eyedroppers, and hypodermicBY LAW. Ill...
Morphine. -For many years morphine was the drug                      Crack. -Crack is a relatively new form of cocaine.of ...
talk incessantly about any subject at hand and often                 hallucinogens. Although openly and irresponsiblychain...
Abusers usually retain the odor of the substance that            an odor similar to that of burnt rope. You can readilythe...
after extremely high doses. This state clears as the user           become indifferent to their appearance and healthelimi...
of rank or age, are subject to participation in the                them to become involved in constructive activities such...
Small amounts of alcohol produce a feeIing of                   required. In each case, the appropriate action willwell-be...
a library of information on how to mix exotic drinks,                 carefree. The person feels a release from many ordin...
CHAPTER 3 Programs NAVEDTRA 14145
CHAPTER 3 Programs NAVEDTRA 14145
CHAPTER 3 Programs NAVEDTRA 14145
CHAPTER 3 Programs NAVEDTRA 14145
CHAPTER 3 Programs NAVEDTRA 14145
CHAPTER 3 Programs NAVEDTRA 14145
CHAPTER 3 Programs NAVEDTRA 14145
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CHAPTER 3 Programs NAVEDTRA 14145


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  1. 1. NONRESIDENT TRAINING COURSEMilitary Requirementsfor Petty OfficerFirst ClassNAVEDTRA 14145 CHAPTER 3 PROGRAMS & POLICIES Notice: NETPDTC is no longer responsible for the content accuracy of the NRTCs. For content issues, contact the servicing Center of Excellence: Center for Naval Leadership (CNL); (757) 462-1537 or DSN: 253-1537. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  2. 2. CHAPTER 3 PROGRAMS AND POLICIES LEARNING OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following:1. Describe the Navy’s Command Managed Equal 6. Identify various types and classes of drugs. Opportunity (CMEO) Program. 7. Describe some of the common identifiable signs of2. Describe the duties of the command assessment drug and alcohol abuse. team (CAT) and command training team (CTT). 8. Describe the difference between problem drinking3. Describe the procedures for the conduct of mast. and alcohol abuse.4. Describe the programs and policies for identifying 9. Identify the rehabilitation services available for and providing treatment for drug and alcohol drug and alcohol abusers. abusers.5. Describe your responsibilities in support of the Navy’s Drug and Alcohol Abuse Program in achieving “zero tolerance.” Today’s Navy emphasizes equal opportunity. We COMMAND MANAGED EQUALwill discuss the Command Managed Equal Opportunity OPPORTUNITYprogram including the command assessment team and Command Managed Equal Opportunity (CMEO)command training teams. We will discuss conduct of ensures that commands do not wait for discriminatorymast in relationship to equal opportunity and will close incidents to occur before taking corrective action.with programs and policies for drug and alcohol abuse. Commands must assess themselves as often as possible A command must have an environment of equal to problem-solve and to develop their own plans ofopportunity to attain and maintain high morale, action to correct any deficiencies. Equal opportunity isdiscipline, and effectiveness. Positive actions to counter an integral part of each command’s leadership anddiscrimination will help achieve that environment. The management activities.policy of the Navy is to ensure equal opportunity andtreatment for all military and civilian personnel of the As a supervisor you must lead the way byDepartment of the Navy, regardless of race, religion, demonstrating those behaviors you require ofcolor, gender, age, or national origin. The prevention of subordinates. You must show a general respect for alldiscrimination based on educational, cultural, and ethnic people through what you say and what youdifferences and the promotion of sexual equity within do-especially with respect to equal opportunity.the Navy are command responsibilities. The Navy will All Navy units must have a CMEO program. CMEOnot tolerate discrimination resulting in the denial of was preceded by Phase I and Phase II of the equalequal opportunity to any individual. Persistent opportunity program. Phase I was a race relationsdiscrimination is cause for disciplinary action and education program; Phase II was designed to translateultimately may result in dismissal or discharge from the the awareness generated by Phase I into positiveNavy. affirmative actions. 3-1
  3. 3. CMEO redefines the self-sustaining aspects of Responsibility to SubordinatesPhase II and reestablishes minimum programrequirements. The purpose of CMEO is as follows: Your subordinates should never doubt that you fully support the Navy’s equal opportunity program. To 1. To emphasize the commanding officer’s accomplish that, lead by example; that will set a standard responsibility for creating and maintaining a for them to follow. positive equal opportunity climate within the ENSURE SUBORDINATES KNOWLEDGE command OF YOUR SUPPORT OF EQUAL 2. To underscore the chain of command’s OPPORTUNITY. -Clearly state to subordinates that responsibility for identifying and resolving you support and require them to support equal equal opportunity and sexual harassment opportunity. Deal positively and directly with all your problems and concerns people equally, and consider each one individually. 3. To provide commands with the capability to You can recognize poor supervisors easily. They monitor equal opportunity issues, maintain the typically are unable to understand any point of view but flexibility to address their own needs, and their own. They often make derogatory remarks about allocate resources as the situation demands groups of people, frequently stereotype people, and feel free to harass or intimidate members of particular 4, To provide commands with a system for groups. monitoring all personnel issues that affect MAINTAIN CLEAR COMMUNICATIONS individual promotion; duty assignments; or WITH SUBORDINATES. –You must communicate other actions emphasizing merit, ability, clearly with your people if you are to manage them performance, and potential effectively. One of the barriers of supervising people CMEO is an equal opportunity management system who arc different from you is dealing with unknowns.controlled primarily at the command level. If you do not understand how people think, feel, and act,Command-level control makes equal opportunity a you might avoid them. You might substitute what youreality in each command. don’t know with generalized ideas and stereotypes. Therefore, your equal opportunity skills should include the ability to listen and understand what people say.SUPERVISOR’S RESPONSIBILITIES Responsibility to Command One of the trademarks of a good supervisor is theability to develop subordinates by helping them grow As a senior petty officer, you have a responsibilityboth personally and professionally. To develop to communicate your support of equal opportunitysubordinates, first identify their strengths and throughout the command. Your support of equalweaknesses. Then counsel, coach, and provide opportunity does not end with responsibility for youron-the-job training. Last, give timely feedback on their division; you are the example throughout yourperformance as well as fair and constructive command. Every time you venture into other areas,evaluations. others learn a lot about your support of equal opportunity simply by the way you handle yourself Conflict is inevitable in any group of people who outside your divisional or live closely together. Racial, sexual, ethnic, and PROJECT YOUR SUPPORT. -As a senior pettyreligious differences among people can be irritants that officer within your command, you may be called uponcause conflict. Accept the fact that your people will have to give command lectures regarding the responsibilitiesconflicts; then concentrate on managing the conflict of equal opportunity. When giving lectures, project yourrather than ignoring or suppressing it. support as strongly as possible. After all, your view may Support the Navy’s equal opportunity program at be the first intensive look at equal opportunityyour own command by evaluating and resolving subordinates have had since entering the naval service.discrimination complaints at the lowest level possible. ENFORCE EQUAL OPPORTUNITY. -An equalNever suppress legitimate equal opportunity complaints opportunity program can succeed only if the commandor retaliate against personnel who express a sincere identifies, weighs, and corrects insensitive practices.grievance in this area. Any person, military or civilian, who directly or 3-2
  4. 4. indirectly commits an act of discrimination based on COMMAND ASSESSMENT TEAMrace, religion, color, gender, age, or national origin is (CAT) . -The effectiveness and success of CMEOsubject to disciplinary action. The commanding officer depends on several elements. However, the most criticalmay take one or more of the following actions: is the ability of a command to accurately assess its own equal opportunity status. Commands make that Counsel individuals concerning their assessment through a command assessment team responsibilities. (CAT). A cross-section of people of different ranks, If counseling is not effective, or if further action genders, races, and departments within the command is warranted, take the following administrative or compose the CAT. disciplinary actions: COMMAND TRAINING TEAM. -Many people – Give a warning in the Navy do not know their military rights and responsibilities. Therefore, each command forms a – Lower evaluation marks command training team to provide CMEO Navy Rights and Responsibilities (NR&R) workshops. The CTT – Award nonjudicial punishment (NJP) conducts training periodically or when the command – Submit a recommendation for separation for receives a great enough assignment of new personnel to the best interest of the service warrant training. EVALUATE AND RESOLVE COMPLAINTS The standard CMEO Navy Rights andAT THE LOWEST POSSIBLE LEVEL. -If you Responsibilities (NR&R) workshop covers basic Navyreceived a complaint concerning equal opportunity, equal opportunity principles, policies, and procedureshandle it swiftly and fairly. Make sure it is resolved at that all hands should understand. It is a 1-day workshopthe lowest competent level the situation will allow. In about the following subjects:extreme cases you may have to ask someone above you 1. Enlistment contractsin the chain of command to help resolve the problem.Others in your command will judge your maturity as a 2. Communicationssenior petty officer based on how you handle these 3. Rights, responsibilities, and privilegessituation. 4. Pertinent Navy regulationsCOMMAND RESPONSIBILITIES 5. Authority of officers and petty officers 6. Sexual harassment prevention Commands are responsible for teaching their 7. Perceived barriers of race, gender, and culturepersonnel about the different forms of equal opportunity 8. Grievance and redress proceduresdiscrimination and what they can do about them. Theyalso must teach personnel their rights and 9. Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) andresponsibilities in regard to the Navy’s equal command-specific issuesopportunity program. Equal opportunity can beobserved from two perspectives: Administration 1. Personnel 2. Administration In the administration of CMEO, commands compile data to determine measures needed to ensure equal opportunity. They collect data through surveys,Personnel command records, interviews, and observations. They then must determine how to use that data. Command personnel make up two teams that SURVEYS. -Surveys are an efficient way to collectevaluate and assess its equal opportunity status. The data. Although commands can design them to gathercommand assessment team (CAT) evaluates how much information about a variety of topics, they are not ascommand members actually know about equal sensitive as interviews in uncovering real issues andopportunity. The command training team (CTT) problems. Like observations, surveys often produceassesses the command’s compliance with the Navy’s findings that can be validly interpreted only whenequal opportunity objectives as a whole. considered along with other sources. 3-3
  5. 5. COMMAND RECORDS. -Command records 2. Counseling through the use of locally preparedcontain information relevant to equal opportunity such counseling sheetsas training, sailor of the month/quarter/year, awards, 3. A letter of Instruction (LOI)meritorious mast, and discrimination complaints. 4. A page 13 INTERVIEWS. –Interviews provide informationthat is not available in command records. Interviews 5. A special evaluationreveal not only what is actually happening at a In some cases you may be required to documentcommand, but also what people perceive to be facts by entering them as a page 13 service record entryhappening and how they feel about it. In a sensitive area or as a special evaluation. Since page 13 entries andlike equal opportunity, information about what people special evaluations become a permanent part of athink and feel is often as important as documented facts. member’s record, you should use the less severe OBSERVATIONS. -Observations are a means of counseling methods first.determining what people actually door how they behaveand interact. They are also an indirect way of collecting Nonjudicial Punishmentdata on what people think and feel. As an unbiasedobserver, the CAT must be able to distinguish between The Navy awards nonjudicial punishment in equalfacts, opinions, and judgments. To avoid bias, the team opportunist y cases involving repeat offenders. You willmust also use other data sources from which to draw be put on report and must appear before theconclusions. commanding officer (captain’s mast). Some of the punishments that may be given at captain’s mast are: USE OF DATA COLLECTED. –Informationcollected from records, interviews, observations, and Restrictionsurveys provides managers with CMEO-related data Correctional Custodyabout specific groups of people within the command. Asa minimum, commands maintain specific data on Confinement on diminished rationsretention, advancement, and discipline of the crew. If the Extra dutydata shows the existence of disproportionate numbersof minorities, commands investigate and take Forfeiture of payprecautions to ensure they are not the result of Reduction in gradediscriminatory practices. Recommendation for SeparationCOMMAND ENFORCEMENT A member’s command must recommend a member Commands may use three methods to enforce equal for separation in cases of equal opportunityopportunity: discrimination as well as misconduct. 1. Warning (counseling) CONDUCT OF MAST 2. Nonjudicial punishment (NJP), commonly called captain’s mast Nonjudicial punishment is better known in the Navy 3. Separation from the Navy as captain’s mast. The term derived from the early sailing days when the usual setting for this type of naval With warning being the lesser and separation the justice was held on the weather deck at the front of thehigher extreme. ship’s main mast. Based on article 15 of the Uniform Code of MilitaryWarning (Counseling) Justice (UCMJ), commanding officers may award punishment for minor offenses without the intervention Commands may use a variety of counseling of a court-martial. They may award that punishment tomethods to instill in a subordinate the serious nature of both officer and enlisted members. The article likewisethe Navy’s equal opportunity program. The following empowers officers in charge to impose nonjudicialare some of those methods, listed in the order of their punishment upon enlisted members assigned to the unitseverity: of which the officer is in charge. Similarly, the 1. Verbal counseling commander of a multiservice command, to whose 3-4
  6. 6. command members of the naval service are assigned, Reviewing the Report Chitmay designate one or more naval units for the purposeof administering NJP. For each such unit, the Regardless of how the commission of a minorcommander must designate in writing a commissioned offense is brought to your attention, you will probablynaval officer as commanding officer for the need to prepare a rough NAVPERS 1626/7. (The legaladministration of discipline under article 15. In addition, office or administration office normally prepares thea flag or general officer in command may delegate all or smooth.) Always address the report to the officer inpart of his or her powers under article 15 to a senior charge or the commanding officer of the accused. If theofficer on the staff. However, the senior officer must be offender has violated more than one article of theeligible to succeed to command in the absence of the UCMJ, identify the separate offenses by Arabicflag or general officer. In addition, those powers can numerals in the section entitled Details of the Offense.only be delegated with the express approval of the Chief If the offender has violated a single article more thanof Naval Personnel or the Commandant of the Marine once, identify successive violations by Arabic numeralsCorps, as appropriate. Punishment must be imposed in parentheses. In each instance, be sure to give enoughwithin 2 years of the offense. If it is not imposed within details to describe the offense fully and give the UCMJthat period the offender may not later be punished for article number violated. Use numerals in the blocksthe offense. marked Place of Offense(s) and Date of Offense(s) that correspond to those used in identifying the offenses in Details of Offense(s).MAST PROCEDURES List military witnesses to the offense in the order of their seniority, followed by civilian witnesses, if any. You can receive notification that someone has Include the command or address of all witnesses. If acommitted an offense in a variety of ways–a shore patrol witness is attached to the same command as thereport a verbal complaint by a victim, or a local report offender, give only his or her division or department. Ifchit, to name a few. Except when serious crimes are attached to another command, identify that commandinvolved, document charges on the Report and completely. Give civilian witnesses’ complete businessDisposition of Offense(s), NAVPERS 1626/7. Then and home addresses if available. Finally, be sure toprocess the form in the manner prescribed by the form obtain the signature of the person placing the accuseditself. on report. The NAVPERS 1626/7 is a one-sheet (back andfront) form. It serves several functions; among them are Reading of Rightsthe following: 1. It reports the offense(s). The officer contemplating imposing NJP must ensure the accused is fully advised concerning all legal 2. It records that the accused has been advised of rights associated with the possible imposition of NJP. his or her rights under article 31. The accused must be advised within a reasonable time 3. It records any pre-mast restraint. of the report of an offense. Failure to advise the accused properly may render any subsequent nonjudicial 4. It serves as a preliminary inquiry report. punishment invalid. 5. It records the action of the executive officer The Judge Advocate General (JAG) Manual (XO) at screening mast. contains details concerning required premast advice to 6. It records that the accused has been advised of an accused. The advice must include the following as a his or her rights to refuse NJP (if he or she has minimum: the right under the circumstances of the case). 1. The offense(s) the accused is suspected of 7. It shows the action of the CO at mast. having committed 8. It records that the accused’s appeal rights have 2. That the commanding officer is contemplating been explained. mast for the alleged offense(s) Remember, however, that NAVPERS 1626/7 does 3. That, if the accused is not attached to ornot include all of the required premast advice you must embarked in a vessel, he or she has a right togive the accused. demand court-martial in lieu of mast 3-5
  7. 7. 4. That, if the accused will attend mast, he or she using someone as a witness who has no connection with will receive a hearing at which time he or she the issuing of discipline would probably be a good will be accorded the following rights: procedure. a. To be present before the officer conducting the hearing Premast Screenings b. To have the rights of the accused under Before the commanding officer hears a person’s article 31 of the UCMJ explained to him or case, it is referred to an officer for a preliminary inquiry her after which it will be screened by the executive officer c. To be advised of the offense(s) of which he at executive officer’s investigation (XOI). or she is suspected At small commands, cases will be referred almost d. To be present at the presentation of all automatically to division officers for the preliminary information against him or her either by inquiry. At large commands, the disciplinary officer or testimony of a witness or by the receipt of the legal officer will be delegated authority to appoint copies of the witness’s written statement(s) the preliminary inquiry officer (PIO). The job of the PIO is not to develop a case against the accused. Rather, the e. To have available for his or her inspection all PIO must collect all available facts concerning the physical information or documentary offense itself and the background of the accused. The evidence to be considered by the hearing PIO completes Section E of the NAVPERS 1626/7 as officer follows: f. To have full opportunity to present any 1. Inserts a short resume of the division officers matter in mitigation, extenuation, or defense opinion of the accused of the offense(s) of which he or she is suspected 2. Lists the names of the witnesses whose presence the PIO thinks is necessary to dispose of the case g. To be accompanied at the hearing by a at mast personal representative (provided by the accused) to speak in his or her behalf, who 3. Recommends disposition of the case may, but need not, be a lawyer 4. Summarizes the evidence that supports the 5. That, if punishment is imposed, the accused has recommendation the right of appeal The recommendation of the PIO is not binding. The 6. That, if the accused demands trial by commanding officer will evaluate each court-martial, the charges against him or her recommendation separately. may be referred to court-martial The XO may screen the case by holding an informal No preset forms exist for the accused to use to hearing or may merely review the record of the accusedacknowledge receipt of the above premast advice. and the report chit. If given the power by theHowever some commands may design their own forms commanding officer, the XO may dismiss the case, butfor local use. In addition, the first page of the NAVPERS may NEVER impose punishment.1626/7 reflects acknowledgement of some of the above At XOs screening mast, the accused is advisedpremast advice. For example, it contains a place for the again of the right to refuse NJP and to demand a trial byaccused to acknowledge he or she has been advised of court-martial. Article 15 does not give that right tothe nature of the offense(s) charged against him or her persons attached to vessels. The accused may elect notand of his or her right to remain silent under article 3 lb. to be tried by court-martial at XOs mast, but thenIn any event, when provisions are made for demand trial by court-martial at captain’s mast. The onlyacknowledgment in writing by an accused of premast requirement is that the accused make the demand beforeadvice, the accused should acknowledge in writing, punishment is imposed. Case law requires that a suspectwhen available, the receipt of premast advice and make be provided the opportunity to discuss with counsel thesure someone witnesses the acknowledgement. If the legal consequences of accepting or refusing NJP. If heaccused refuses to sign an acknowledgment, have the or she is not provided that opportunity, the record of anywitness attest to the giving of the warnings and the punishment imposed will not be admissible in anyrefusal of the accused to acknowledge. In such cases, subsequent court-martial proceeding. 3-6
  8. 8. Punishment However, the member may only be reduced one grade as a result of a single mast appearance. If the commanding officer is convinced by the 7. EXTRA DUTY -Extra duty means offendersevidence that the accused is guilty of the offense and must perform duties in addition to their normal duties.deems punishment appropriate, article 15 provides wide Only enlisted members may receive this type oflatitude. punishment. Extra duty normally may not exceed 2 The rank of the commanding officer and the status hours a day, after which offenders are grantedof the offender limit the type of punishment the CO can liberty–unless, of course, their liberty has beenimpose. However, under appropriate circumstances, the curtailed. Personnel may not perform extra duty oncommanding officer may impose nine types of Sundays, although Sundays count in the computation ofpunishment: the number of days worked. However, they may perform extra duty on holidays. 1. RESTRICTION -Restriction is the least severeform of denying liberty. It involves moral rather than 8. FORFEITURE OF PAY –A forfeiture of pay isphysical restraint. Generally, while restricted, the the permanent loss of entitlement to a specific amountmember will continue to perform his or her military of pay. Only basic pay, sea pay, or foreign duty pay isduties but may be required to report to a specified place subject to forfeiture.for muster during the period of restriction. The 9. DETENTION OF PAY –A detention of pay iscommanding officer may restrict both officers and much less severe than the forfeiture, because theenlisted members. member will get the detained money back at the end of 2. ARREST IN QUARTERS -Arrest in quarters the detention period. The detention period may notalso involves moral rather than physical restraint. An exceed 1 year and may not extend beyond the expirationarrest in quarters restricts the offender to his or her living of the member’s current enlistment. Only sea pay,quarters unless the restriction is specifically broadened. foreign duty pay, and basic pay may be detained. TheAlthough this punishment may require the offender to maximum amount subject to detention is computed inperform certain duties, article 1020 of Navy Regulations the same fashion as that for a forfeiture.prohibits that person from exercising military authority FINES. -A fine is not an authorized punishment atover subordinates. Flag or general officers in command NJP and cannot be awarded.or an officer exercising general court-martial (GCM) EFFECTIVE DATES OF PUNISHMENTS. -Asauthority may impose this type of punishment on a general rule, punishments awarded at mast take effectcommissioned or warrant officers only. immediately upon imposition, unless they are 3. CORRECTIONAL CUSTODY –Correctional suspended, stayed, or otherwise deferred. An offendercustody is the physical restraint of persons during duty may receive a new nonjudicial punishment whileor nonduty hours, or both. It may be awarded only to serving a nonjudicial punishment of restraint. In suchnonrated persons. It could include extra duty, fatigue cases, the offender interrupts the original punishment ofduty, or hard labor. restraint to begin serving the new punishment. After the 4. CONFINEMENT ON BREAD AND completion of the new punishment, the person will complete the remainder of the original punishment.WATER -Confinement on bread and water may be Before a second forfeiture or detention of pay may takeimposed only on nonrated personnel attached to or effect, the offender must complete all previousembarked in vessels. Maximum duration is 3 days. forfeitures. Commanders may defer confinement on 5. ADMONITION AND REPRIMAND -The two bread and water or correctional custody for a period ofdegrees of punitive censure, in their increasing order of up to 15 days if the needs of the naval service dictateseverity, are admonition and reprimand. The such deferment. For example, the commanding officercommanding officer may impose punitive censure on may award a person confinement on bread and waterenlisted personnel either orally or in writing but must while the ship is at sea if the ship has no confinementimpose it on commissioned and warrant officers in facility. Therefore, the commanding officer may deferwriting. the sentence until an ashore confinement facility becomes available, but not for more than 15 days. 6. REDUCTION IN GRADE –A reduction ingrade, or “bust,” is considered the most severe form of APPEALS PROCEDURE. -A member awardedNJP. It means a member may be reduced one grade. NJP who believes the punishment unjust or 3-7
  9. 9. disproportionate to the offense has the right to appeal marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, barbiturates, FCP,the award to higher authority. The member must submit and opiates. They tested each sample three times-twicethe appeal in writing and include the reasons he or she using radio immunoassay and once using highly specificconsiders the punishment unjust or disproportionate. gas chromatography or mass spectrometry. TheseNormally, members must submit the appeal to the area technical procedures are designed to protect thecoordinator having GCM authority. individual. They are standardized at all laboratories and centrally monitored through a blind sample quality Article 15 requires the appeal to be made control program. Facilities using these procedures are“promptly,” which means within 5 days of subject to frequent inspections. These inspections areimposition–except under the most unusual one part of the Navy’s care and expense in ensuring thecircumstances. Appeals not brought within this period credibility of the urinalysis program.may be rejected on that basis. DRUG ABUSE EDUCATION DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE Drug abuse is incompatible with naval service. It is The Navy emphasizes drug abuse prevention.costly in lost man-hours and unnecessary administrative Education programs make up the largest segment ofand judicial processing and is a critical drawdown on prevention. General military training on drug abusemorale and esprit de corps. It undermines the very fiber prevention and control is annually delivered to overof combat readiness, safety, discipline, judgment, and 500,000 enlisted personnel. Other specific educationloyalty. For those reasons, the United States Navy has programs include the Navy Alcohol and Drug Safetytaken a zero tolerance stand on drug abuse. Zero Action Program (36 hours of prevention and remedialtolerance is a compassionate policy that offers help to instruction) with an average annual attendance ofdrug abusers who want help. However, it is also a tough 53,000. Supervisory personnel attend an 8-hour policy,policy that separates from the naval service those who identification, and referral seminar. In addition todefy authority through continued abuse. providing general drug abuse education to every person in the Navy, the Navy trains its own command drug and The Department of Defense authorizes the use of alcohol program advisors, aftercare programurinalysis for disciplinary purposes. Urinalysis has coordinators, drug and alcohol counselors, and programbecome the most valuable detection and deterrence tool managers.used by the Navy. New technology enables wide-scaletesting for the use of drugs. Today, recruits are tested Results from the Department of Defense worldwidewithin 48 hours of arrival at basic training. Those testing surveys of drug and alcohol use among militarypositive for any drug other than marijuana (THC) are personnel have shown a gratifying decrease in the useimmediate y discharged. Those testing positive for THC of illicit drugs among naval personnel. Drug use amongare charged with a first drug offense, which is all personnel within the 30 days before each survey wasdocumented in their record. They are randomly retested reduced from 33% in 1980, to 16% in 1982, to 10% infor the next 6 months; if found positive again, they are 1985.discharged. The recruits are tested again as they report Because drug abuse is incompatible with navalto their first technical school and then tested three times service, the Navy will always maintain its zero toleranceannually throughout their naval service. Knowledge of stand and will continue to wage war on drugs.the certainty of this testing and the severe personal andcareer consequences for drug abuse act as a powerfuldeterrent. TYPES OF DRUGS AND THEIR EFFECTS The Navy has taken a firm stand against drug abuse. This section describes different types of drugs andIt processes for immediate separation from service any how they affect the user. There are medicinal drugs usedofficer, chief petty officer, or petty officer identified as to treat illness or to relieve pain. Without them therea drug abuser or as drug dependent. would be a lot of pain and suffering. These drugs include The Navy’s five drug screening laboratories are aspirin, antihistamines, antacids, penicillins, and alocated at Norfolk, Virginia; Jacksonville, Florida; variety of others. Drugs have a definite purpose in ourGreat Lakes, Illinois; Oakland, California; and San society especially when they are prescribed byDiego, California. In fiscal year 1986, these laboratories physicians to cure illness. When used as prescribed bytested close to 2 million urine samples for six drugs: physicians, drugs are legal. 3-8
  10. 10. Then there are illicit drugs, DRUGS PROHIBITED of cotton, syringes, eyedroppers, and hypodermicBY LAW. Illicit drugs and some legal drugs normally needles. Abusers use them all in the injection process.available only by a doctor’s prescription are Spoons or bottle caps hold the narcotic in a little watermanufactured by unscrupulous individuals for sale to for heating over a match or lighter; cotton falters theunderground buyers. These drugs are usually inferior narcotic as it is drawn through the needle into a syringeproducts prepared in unsanitary laboratories for future or an eyedropper. Abusers usually keep the used cottonmarketing on our nation’s streets. because it retains a small amount of the narcotic. They can then extract it if unable to obtain additional drugs. Some types of drugs that are used legally and You can easily identify a bent spoon or bottle cap usedillegally are narcotics, stimulants, depressants, to heat the narcotic because it becomes blackened by thehallucinogens, and deliriant. These drugs are described heating follows: Under federal law, some preparations containing NARCOTICS. -Narcotic drugs include some of the small amounts of narcotic drugs maybe sold without amost valuable medicines known, as well as some of the prescription; for example, cough mixtures containingmost abused. The term narcotics originally referred to codeine. Although these preparations are relatively freeopium and the drugs made from opium, such as heroin, of addiction potential when used as directed, they havecodeine, and morphine. Opium is obtained from the been abused.opium poppy plant; morphine and codeine are extractedfrom opium. Medical science has developed Opiates. -Natural and synthetic morphine-likesynthesized drugs, called opiates, that have properties drugs derived from opiates are the most effective painsimilar to heroin, codeine, or morphine. Those drugs are relievers known. Physicians often prescribe them foralso classified as narcotic drugs. short-term acute pain resulting from surgery, fractures, burns, and the latter stages of terminal illnesses such as A drug abuser under the influence of narcotics cancer.usually appears lethargic and drowsy or displayssymptoms of deep intoxication. The pupils of the eyes Since opiates depress the central nervous system,are often constricted and fail to respond to light. they produce a marked reduction in sensitivity to pain, create drowsiness, and reduce physical activity. Side Some abusers may drink paregoric or cough effects can include nausea and vomiting, constipation,medicines containing narcotics. The person’s breath itching, flushing, constriction of pupils, and respiratoryoften has the medicinal odor of these preparations. Other depression.“beginner” narcotic abusers inhale narcotic drugs, suchas heroin. They sometimes have traces of this white Heroin. –Heroin is a white or brown powder knownpowder around their nostrils. Constant inhaling of to the addict as H, horse, caballo, white stuff, white lade,narcotic drugs makes their nostrils red and raw. Harry, joy powder, doojee, sugar, stag, or smack. It produces an intense euphoria resulting in an easing of The drug addict usually injects narcotics directly fears and relief from worry; however, a state ofinto a vein. The most common site of the injection is the inactivity bordering on stupor often follows. Sinceinner surface of the arm at the elbow. After repeated abusers rapidly develop a tolerance for the drug, theyinjections, scar tissue (tracks) develops along the veins. must ingest increasingly large quantities to get a “kick.”Because of the easy identification of these marks,narcotic abusers usually wear long sleeves at odd times. Abusers ingest heroin in a variety of ways, includingFemales sometimes use makeup to cover the marks. sniffing (snorting), smoking, or injecting it into a veinSome males get tattooed at injection sites. Abusers who (mainlining) or just under the skin (joy popping). Theinject narcotics under unsterile conditions often get latter two methods require the abuser to liquify theblood poisoning. They often contract diseases such as powder before using it.hepatitis and acquired immune deficiency syndrome Heroin is manufactured from morphine and, weight(AIDS) and tropical diseases such as malaria. for weight, is up to 10 times more potent than morphine. Those who inject drugs must keep the equipment Users “cut” or dilute pure heroin with other substancesthey used to inject the drugs handy. Therefore, they may such as milk sugar (lactose) or quinine, or both. The drughide the equipment on themselves or in a place where sold to the addict as heroin usually contains one partthey will have temporary privacy, such as a nearby heroin plus nine parts or more of other substances. Sincelocker or washroom. Some commonly used instruments those other substances are quite often toxic to the humanand accessories are bent spoons, bottle caps, small balls system, they can result in the death of the user. 3-9
  11. 11. Morphine. -For many years morphine was the drug Crack. -Crack is a relatively new form of cocaine.of choice for the relief of pain. The street addict calls it Crack is a street cocaine mixed with baking soda andwhite stuff, M, hard stuff, morpho, untie, and Miss water to remove impurities. It is about 50 to 60 percentEmma. Addicts use it when they have difficulty getting pure, while street cocaine is 20 to 40 percent pure. Usersheroin. Small doses produce euphoria. The body’s can smoke crack without the fire hazard involved intolerance for the drug and physical dependence on it free-basing. Crack produces a feeling of euphoria morebuild rapidly. quickly and with more intensity than cocaine snorted into the nasal passages. The high comes in 4 to 6 seconds Codeine. -More commonly abused in the form of versus 6 to 8 minutes from snorting.cough preparations, codeine is less addictive thanmorphine or heroin. It is also less potent in inducing Crack causes blood vessels to constrict and the hearteuphoria. When withdrawal symptoms occur, they are rate to rapidly increase, which leads to high bloodless severe than with more potent drugs. pressure. Those changes can cause the heart or arteries to burst and can cause massive heart attacks. Methadone. –Methadone was invented by Germanchemists in 1941 when the supply of morphine to In the brain, crack triggers the release ofGermany ran low. It has many properties similar to those neurotransmitters, causing the euphoric effect. Cocaineof morphine-it relieves pain and produces physical and blocks the reuse of the neurotransmitters by the brain,psychological dependence. Methadone has one major thus leaving the brain in a depressed state. The more adifference from morphine and heroin–when methadone person gets high, the more their supply ofis taken orally, under medical supervision, it prevents neurotransmitters is depleted, and the deeper thewithdrawal symptoms for approximately 24 hours. depression that follows the euphoria. That rapidly progresses to a psychological dependence on the drug STIMULANTS. -Stimulants are drugs that just for the person to feel normal.stimulate the central nervous system. The most widelyknown stimulant in this country is caffeine, an One reaction to crack is called excited delirium. Iningredient of coffee, tea, cola, and other beverages. this state, a person becomes paranoid and starts shoutingSince the effects of caffeine are relatively mild, its use and thrashing. The person also becomes violent, withis socially acceptable and not an abuse problem. unexpected strength, often breaking mirrors, glass, andHowever, the use of the more potent synthetic stimulants other objects. The pupils in the eyes dilate. The bodysuch as amphetamines, methyl phenidate, and also undergoes hyperthermia (overheating), causing thephenmetrazine can result in abuse problems. Stimulants person to disrobe to cool off. Such episodes last aboutproduce excitation, increased activity, and an ability to an hour. Sudden tranquility or a transition to a depressedgo without sleep for extended periods. state may follow, which can lead to respiratory arrest followed by death. The main trait of stimulant abusers is excessiveactivity. They are irritable and argumentative, appear Amphetamines. –Amphetamines are often calledextremely nervous, and have difficulty sitting. In some “uppers” or pep pills. Amphetamine andcases, the pupils of their eyes will be dilated even in a methamphetamine drugs provide help for variousbrightly lit place. disorders. They help overweight patients reduce their appetites and provide relief for patients with narcolepsy, Stimulant abusers often go for long periods without a disorder characterized by an overwhelming need forsleeping or eating and usually cannot resist letting others sleep. They also benefit selected patients withknow about it. aggressive psychiatric or neurological disorders. Cocaine. -Cocaine is a white or colorless crystalline Amphetamines have a drying effect on the mucouspowder. Persons who abuse cocaine either inhale the membranes of the mouth and nose and cause bad breathpowder or inject it directly into the bloodstream. It can that is unidentifiable as to a specific odor such as onion,induce euphoria, excitation, anxiety, a sense of garlic, or alcohol. Because of the dryness of mouth,increased muscular strength, and talkativeness; it can amphetamine abusers lick their lips to keep them moist.also reduce the feeling of fatigue. It causes the pupils to That often results in chapped and reddened lips, which,become dilated and the heart rate and blood pressure to in severe cases, may become cracked and raw.increase. In larger doses, cocaine can produce fever,vomiting, convulsions, hallucinations, and paranoid Abusers may rub and scratch their nose vigorouslydelusions. An overdose can depress the heart and and frequently to relieve the itching sensation caused bybreathing functions so much that death results. “ dryness of the mucous membrane in the nose. They often 3-10
  12. 12. talk incessantly about any subject at hand and often hallucinogens. Although openly and irresponsiblychain-smoke. promoted as a means of expanding consciousness, hallucinogens have yet to be proved valuable medically. Because the body develops a tolerance toamphetamines, abusers must increase their dosages to Hence, neither standard dosage forms nor markingsobtain the psychic effects they desire. Tolerance to all exist that make visual identification possible.the effects does not develop uniformly. Even a “tolerant” Illicit labs produce hallucinogens in the form ofabuser can experience high blood pressure, abnormal capsules, tablets, powders, or liquids; peddlers and usersheart rhythms, loss of appetite, excitability, use many methods to transport or hide the drugs. Fortalkativeness, trembling hands, enlarged pupils, heavy example, LSD has been found in sugar cubes, candy,perspiration, and stereotypic compulsive behavior. In paper, aspirin, jewelry, liquor, cloth, and even on theserious cases, a drug psychosis resembling paranoid back of postage stamps.psychosis develops. In addition, violent behavior mayfollow the use of amphetamines because of Persons who use hallucinogenic drugs (such asunpredictable mood changes. LSD) are highly unlikely to do so while at work. They usually use such drugs in a group situation under special Amphetamines for medical purposes are available conditions designed to enhance their prescription under a variety of trade names. They are Hallucinogens distort the user’s perception of objectivealso manufactured in clandestine laboratories as reality. They produce illusions involving the variouscrystalline powder, as tablets, and in a variety of liquid senses and, if taken in large doses, can produceforms; they are then sold through illicit channels. hallucinations. Persons under the influence of DEPRESSANTS. –The drugs depress the central hallucinogens usually sit or recline quietly in anervous system. Abusers of depressants, such as trance-like state. On occasion, users become fearful andbarbiturates and certain tranquilizers, exhibit most of the experience a degree of terror that may cause them tosymptoms of alcohol intoxication with one important attempt to escape from the group situation. An importantexception: no odor of alcohol is detected on their breath. point to remember is that the effects of LSD may recurDepressant abusers may stagger or stumble and days, or even months, after someone has taken it.frequently fall into a deep sleep. In general, depressant The effects of hallucinogens are not solely relatedabusers lack interest in activity, are drowsy, and mayappear to be disoriented. to the drug. They are modified by the mood, mental attitude, and environment of the user. Hallucinogens Since depressants depress the central nervous usually distort or intensify the sense of perception andsystem, they are prescribed in small doses to reduce lessen the user’s ability to discriminate between fact andrestlessness and emotional tension and to induce sleep. fantasy. Users may speak of “seeing” sounds andSome are valuable in the treatment of certain types of “hearing” colors. Their judgment of direction andepilepsy. distance is generally out of proportion. Their pupils Continued and excessive dosages of depressants dilate and their eyes become extremely sensitive to light.result in slurred speech, faulty judgment, a quick temper, They commonly experience restlessness andand a quarrelsome disposition. Overdoses, particularly sleeplessness until the drug wears off. The drugs havewhen taken in conjunction with alcohol, result in an unpredictable mental effect on persons each time theyunconsciousness and death unless the user receives take them. As with stimulants and depressants, the userproper medical treatment. of hallucinogens may develop a psychological Therapeutic doses cause minimal amounts of dependence. However, unlike depressants,psychological dependence, whereas excessive doses hallucinogens have not been shown to produce ataken over a period of time result in both physical and physical dependence.psychological dependence. Abrupt withdrawal, VOLATILE CHEMICALS. -The volatileparticularly from barbiturates, can produce convulsions. chemicals include model airplane glue, lacquer thinner,Depressants are exceedingly dangerous. gasoline, fingernail polish remover, and lighter fluid. HALLUCINOGENS. -Hallucinogens are The substances contain xylol, creosol, naphtha, benzol,chemicals extracted from plants or synthesized in tetraethyl lead, and other chemicals that can causelaboratories. LSD, mescaline, psilocybin and psilocin, severe damage to the body by attacking the oxygenand PCP (phencyclidine) are all examples of level. 3-11
  13. 13. Abusers usually retain the odor of the substance that an odor similar to that of burnt rope. You can readilythey have inhaled on their breath and in their clothes. detect the odor on the person’s breath and clothing.Irritation of the mucous membranes in the mouth and When smoked, marijuana appears to enter thenose may result in excessive nasal secretions. Redness bloodstream quickly because the onset of symptoms isand watering of the eyes commonly occur. The user may rapid. It affects the user’s mood and thinking. Theappear intoxicated or lack muscular control and may effects of the drug on the emotions and senses varycomplain of double vision, ringing in the ears, vivid widely, depending on the amount and strength of thedreams, and even hallucinations. Drowsiness, stupor, marijuana used. The social setting in which it is takenand unconsciousness may follow excessive use of the and the effects anticipated by the user also influence thesubstance. person’s reaction to the drug. Abusers usually inhale these drugs from the You probably will not recognize marijuana (pot)container or from plastic or paper bags. Therefore, users unless they are heavily under the influence. Indiscovery of plastic or paper bags or handkerchiefs early stages, when the drug acts as a stimulant, userscontaining dried plastic cement is a telltale sign of this may be very animated and appear almost hysterical.form of drug abuse. They commonly talk loudly and rapidly and easily burst MARIJUANA. –Marijuana is a greenish, into laughter.tobacco-like material consisting of the leaves, flowers, Usually, the effects of the drug start about 15small stems, and seeds of the plant Cannabis Sativa L, minutes after the person inhales the smoke of thewhich grows throughout the world. Its fibers have been cigarette. The effects can last from 2 to 4 hours. At lowused to manufacture twine, rope, bags, clothing, and doses of one or two cigarettes, persons who becomepaper. The sterilized seeds are used in various feed intoxicated may experience an increased sense ofmixtures, particularly bird seed. Traffic in, and use of, well-being, initial restlessness, and hilarity. That stagedrugs from the cannabis plant are now restricted by law is followed by a dreamy, carefree state of relaxation andin most countries, including the United States. an alteration of sensory perceptions, including Although known to exist for nearly 5,000 years, we expansion of space and time. Users also experience aprobably know less about marijuana than any other more vivid sense of touch, sight, smell, taste, and sound;natural drug. In the past, it has been used in the treatment a feeling of hunger, especially a craving for sweets; andof a variety of clinical disorders. Very early in China’s subtle changes in thought formation and expression. Tohistory, it was used to relieve pain during surgery. In an unknowing observer, a person in this state ofIndia it was used as medicine; in the United States it was consciousness would not appear noticeably differentused as an analgesic, a poultice for corns, and a from a normal state.component in a variety of patented medicines. At higher but moderate doses, the user experiences You can identify marijuana smokers by their the same reactions experienced with the use of lowpossession of such cigarettes, often called sticks, doses, only they are intensified. Still, you wouldreefers, or joints. A marijuana cigarette is often rolled in scarcely notice the changes. The person may alsoa double thickness of brownish or off-white cigarette experience altered thought formation and expression,paper. Smaller than a regular cigarette, with the paper such as fragmented thoughts, sudden loss of ideas,twisted or tucked in on both ends, the marijuana impaired immediate memory, disturbed associations,cigarette often contains seeds and stems and is greener and an altered sense of self-identity. Some perceive ain color than regular tobacco. feeling of enhanced insight. Such distortions can produce feelings of panic and anxiety in those who have Another clue to the presence of “reefers” is the way little experience with drugs. The panic and anxiety canin which they are often smoked. Typically, such smokingoccurs in a group situation. Because of the rapid burning cause persons to fear they are dying or going crazy. That panic reaction usually disappears as the effects of theand harshness of the marijuana cigarette, it is generally drug wear off. Low to moderate doses of the drugpassed rapidly, after one or two puffs, to another person. produce minimal changes in body functions.Users inhale the smoke deeply and hold it in the lungsas long as possible. When inhaling, persons often cup At very high doses, effects may include distortionsthe cigarette in the palms of both hands to save all the of body images, loss of personal identity, fantasies, andsmoke possible. An additional clue to marijuana use is hallucinations. In addition, toxic psychoses can occur 3-12
  14. 14. after extremely high doses. This state clears as the user become indifferent to their appearance and healtheliminates the drug from the body. habits. A person under the influence of marijuana has a Other more specific signs should also arouseharder time making decisions that require clear thinking; suspicion, especially if a person exhibits more than onetherefore, the user becomes more open to other peoples of these signs. Among them is secretive behaviorsuggestions. Since marijuana affects people’s reflexes regarding actions and possessions (fear of discovery).and thinking, their performance of some tasks while For example, abusers may wear sunglasses atunder the influence of the drug is dangerous, such as inappropriate times and places to hide dilated ordriving. constricted pupils; they may also wear long-sleeve garments, even on hot days, to hide needle marks. OfABUSER IDENTIFICATION course, when a person associates with known drug abusers, that is a sign of potential trouble. Drug abuse in its various forms can produceidentifiable effects. However, persons taking drugs Because of the expense of supporting a drug habit,under a physician’s instructions may sometimes abusers may try to borrow money from a number ofexperience side effects that may be mistaken as signs of people. If they fail to get money that way, abusers willdrug abuse. For example, such disorders as epilepsy, often steal items, such as cameras, radios, or jewelry,diabetes, or asthma may require maintenance drug that can easily be converted to cash.therapy that will produce low-level side effects; or a Persons with a severe habit will use drugs while onperson might be drowsy from taking a nonprescription duty. In such cases, you may find them at odd times inproduct, such as an antihistamine. Many people use places such as closets or storage rooms.legitimate drugs following a physician’sinstructions–but without the knowledge of their Generally, drugs have indirect harmful Therefore, finding tablets, capsules, or other Because abusers may not feel hungry, they often sufferforms of drugs on a person suspected of being an abuser from malnutrition; and because they are so involveddoes not necessarily mean the drugs are narcotics or with taking the drug, they usually neglect themselves.some other dangerous drug. A clue to the possibility of They are more likely to contract infections because ofdrug abuse comes with seeing the same symptoms over their poor nutrition and because they may injectand over again. contaminated drugs intravenously. They are also likely No instant tests exist for identification of most to use poor or unsterile injection techniques. That maydrugs. The only way many drugs can be identified is result in serious or fatal septicemia (blood-poisoning),through a series of complicated laboratory procedures hepatitis, and abscesses at the point of injection as wellperformed by a trained technician. Simple visual as in internal organs. Contaminated needles are alsoinspection cannot be relied upon for drug identification. known to spread AIDS.Many potent drugs that are misused arc identical in Although you may have difficulty recognizing drugappearance to relatively harmless drugs-many of which abusers, you should take the steps needed to providepeople can easily get without a prescription. them with help when you realize they have a drug Not all drug abuse-related character changes appear problem. Spotting drug abuse in its early stages (whenharmful in the initial stages. For example, a person who professional help can be effective) can result in theis normally bored and sleepy may, while using rehabilitation of many potential hard-core addicts.amphetamines, become more alert and thereby improveperformance. A nervous, high-strung person may, while Urinalysis Testingusing barbiturates, be more imperative and easier tomanage. Consequent y, you must not look only for The Navy has adopted the use of urinalysis testingchanges for the worse, but you must look for any sudden as a major means of detecting and deterring drug abuse.changes in behavior. The cause could be drug abuse. The main objective of urinalysis testing programs is to Signs that may suggest drug abuse include sudden detect and deter abuse. This ensures the continuedand dramatic changes in discipline and job performance, visibility of the command’s drug abuse program. Theunusual degrees of activity or inactivity, and sudden term random sampling applies to any commanddisplays of emotion. Abusers may show significant urinalysis testing program in which the individuals to bechanges for the worse in personal appearance; they often tested are selected at random. All members, regardless 3-13
  15. 15. of rank or age, are subject to participation in the them to become involved in constructive activities such urinalysis testing program. as volunteer work, sports, clubs, divisional outings, The urinalysis program uses a system of divisional tours, off-duty education, community servicebiochemical testing of urine samples to achieve the activities, part-time jobs, and hobbies.following: For nonusers who have never used drugs or who 1. Establish a valid and reliable means for the have merely experimented with them, drug abuse detection of drug abuse. education can highlight valid reasons for not using drugs. This type of education also offers alternative 2. Serve as a strong deterrent against drug abuse. ways of achieving satisfaction. Use the basic alternative 3. Monitor the status of personnel in drug and appeal to “turn on” to life. alcohol abuse rehabilitation programs. One former user who is a recognized antidrug 4. Provide statistical data on the prevalence and authority suggests four basic steps in dealing with demographics of drug abuse. people who already may be using drugs regularly:Drug Detection Dogs 1. Develop a sympathetic and an honest attitude. 2. Provide accurate information. Commands can request, through the security department, the use of drug detection dog (DDD) teams 3. Provide information from sources that areto help identify drug abusers. Dogs are effective, and the credible to the user, such as ex-users.possibility of their repeated use increases their 4. Give people alternatives to the use of drugs.effectiveness as a deterrent. The only persons needingprior knowledge of a DDD inspection or an authorized The young member, particularly on board ship, maysearch are the commanding officer and the dog handler. need special counseling. When members walk up theDDDs may conduct inspections anywhere under naval gangplank upon reporting for duty, they arejurisdiction at any time. apprehensive and have a strong desire to be accepted. They may alter their beliefs and actions in an effort to Dogs are trained to inspect for controlled substances be accepted by their peers, even if acceptance includesand will not harm humans unless provoked. No matter using effective a dog-and-handler team is in detectingdrugs, the physical presence of the team alone is often You can control this situation and eliminate manythe best deterrent to drug abuse. Abusers can seldom fool of the problems that may occur by providing properdogs; they rarely succeed in their efforts to mask the guidance at this crucial time. When you receive newtrace odors the dogs are capable of detecting. members in your division, assign one of your most competent division personnel to help them adapt to theirDRUG ABUSE PREVENTION new environment. That person will encourage and guide the young members to develop acceptable values and Today, the basic approach to drug abuse prevention specific goals.calls for understanding that goes beyond informationabout drugs. You need to understand people, their ALCOHOL ABUSEfeelings, their needs, their goals, and their reasons fortaking drugs. You also need to understand the effects ofa family or group situation upon human behavior. Alcohol is the number one drug problem in theShowing people you care about them is the most United States today. The leading causes of death for theimportant tool of all for preventing the abuse of drugs. 17- to 25-year age group are alcohol-related driving accidents, suicides, and homicides. About 55 percent of Learn how to recognize the potential drug abuser all fatal auto accidents are alcohol related, and 60and the situations that might contribute to a person’s percent of all motorcycle deaths involve alcohol.choice to abuse drugs. Offer the abuser or potentialabuser alternatives to drugs. Help your people to Historically, alcohol has had widespread use in ourdevelop attitudes and value that oppose the acceptance society. Throughout history, alcoholic drinks have beenof drug abuse. Help them to see that drugs provide only used with meals, at social gatherings, in religioustransitory, counterfeit experiences that can never change ceremonies, and at celebrations. Alcohol does havethe real world, but constructive activity can. Encourage some acceptable uses, but it also can be abused. 3-14
  16. 16. Small amounts of alcohol produce a feeIing of required. In each case, the appropriate action willwell-being and light headedness. However, since depend upon the facts and circumstances.alcohol is a depressant that slows down the central The Navy recognizes. that society has oftennervous system, those good feelings quickly wear off. associated a stigma with alcoholism that has little basisLarge amounts of alcohol over a long period of time in fact and is counterproductive to successfulcause anxiety. Just as with other dangerous drugs, rehabilitation. The effects of this stigma have reinforcedalcohol may cause physical and psychological the alcoholic’s or alcohol abuser’s denial of anydependence. This dependence is an illness called problem. The effects of this stigma have alsoalcoholism. encouraged supervisory and medical personnel to cover The Navy’s age-old problem with alcohol is up in an attempt to protect the member’s career. To bringepitomized in the lyrics of an old drinking song, “What the alcohol problem into the open where it can bedo you do with a drunken sailor?” Until the last few treated, the Navy must reduce the effects of the stigmayears, the answer was, You let him go down the hatch to the minimum.or down the tubes. For a long time we have contributed Members who have undergo successful alcoholto the career demise of the alcohol abuser because of our treatment and recovery have the same job security andown traditional involvement in alcohol use. We have not opportunities for continued service and promotion asaccepted the evidence that alcohol, although legal, is a other Navy members. However, any misconduct,drug that some people cannot handle. Until recently, misbehavior, or reduction in performance caused byalcoholism was considered a disciplinary or alcohol will affect performance evaluations, dutyadministrative problem, which, if unresolved, could assignments, continued service, job security, andonly lead to a discharge from the Navy. promotion opportunity. Because alcohol abuse involves the family of theNavy Policy Regarding Alcoholism abuser, the Navy encourages the development of programs and activities that contribute to a healthy Various SECNAV and OPNAV instructions set forth family life. The Navy also encourages the developmentNavy policy regarding alcoholism. Alcohol and Drug of programs to help restore to a healthy state thoseAbuse Prevention and Control OPNAVINST 5350.4B, families who are suffering from the effects ofprovides the Navy’s policy on drug and alcohol abuse. alcoholism. Immediate members of the family of theThe Navy Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program (NADAP) alcohol-dependent person may receive thoseuses this instruction as a guide. rehabilitation services available at their command. The Navy acknowledges its responsibility for Persons must make their own decision to use or notcounseling all members regarding the dangers of to use alcoholic beverages lawfully. Department of thealcohol by providing information to help alcoholics Navy policy toward alcohol consists of three courses ofrecover. The Navy meets its responsibility by providing action. The first is to promote responsible attitudes aboutalcoholism treatment centers and specialized alcohol in those who choose to drink. The second is tocounseling. You share the responsibility of assisting the promote the social acceptance of those who choose notcommand in referring those who are alcoholic to to drink. The third is to provide both drinkers andtreatment facilities. nondrinkers with realistic information about alcohol and alcoholism. Military members are responsible for their owndrinking habits; if they believe they have an alcoholproblem, they are responsible for seeking treatment. Understanding Alcohol and Its EffectsEach member remains accountable for any deteriorationof performance caused by his or her own alcoholism. Surprisingly, many experienced drinkers are relatively ignorant of the way their favorite beverages Firmly maintain and affirm the Navy’s drug and affect them, for better or worse. The same applies to theiralcohol abuse policies as they relate to standards of nondrinking families and friends who may be concernedbehavior, performance, and discipline. Do not consider about why drinkers behave as they do.alcoholism, in itself, as grounds for disciplinary action;however, do evaluate a member’s demonstrated conduct Until recent years, when drinking problems forcedresulting from the use or abuse of alcohol. Then, if public concern, little factual alcohol- and health-relatedneeded, take disciplinary or administrative action as information was available. Although people could find 3-15
  17. 17. a library of information on how to mix exotic drinks, carefree. The person feels a release from many ordinarythey could find little about what happens after the tensions and inhibitions; in other words, the persondrinking starts. loosens up. Most people drink in moderation mainly to The person who wants to drink responsibly must achieve this relaxed state.know the short-term and long-term effects of alcohol on As more alcohol enters the blood, the depressantthe body. Those who want to understand the social action of alcohol involves more functions of the brain.custom of drinking, problem drinking, and alcoholism At a level of 0.10 percent (1 part to 1,000), voluntarymust also know these effects. motor actions-hand and arm movements, walking, and SHORT-TERM EFFECTS. –Most people drink sometimes speech-become clumsy.alcoholic beverages to get feelings of pleasure as well A level of 0.20 percent (1 part to 500) measurablyas to relieve tension. No doubt that is the reason for the impairs the controls of the entire motor area of the brainpopularity of alcohol as a social beverage. Drinking has as well as that part of the brain that guides emotionalbecome such a familiar part of our society that we do behavior. At this stage the person will stagger and maynot think of alcohol as a drug. However, it is as much a want to lie down. The person may also become easilydrug as one prescribed in carefully regulated dosages by angered, may become boisterous, or may weep. Thea physician. person is drunk. Alcohol affects the whole body through the central A concentration of 0.30 percent (1 part to 300) dullsnervous system–the brain. Alcohol does not act directly the person’s response to stimulus and understandingon the tongue or legs to cause the familiar signs of controlled by the deeper areas of the brain. At this levelslurred speech and an unsteady gait connected with a person may be confused or may lapse into a stupor.drunkenness. Instead, it affects the parts of the brain that Although aware of surrounding sights and sounds, thecontrol those parts of the body. person has poor understanding of what he or she sees or Alcohol can act as a stimulant at low doses and as a hears.brain depressant at higher doses. The speed with whichalcohol brings on drunkenness and drunken behavior With 0.40 to 0.50 percent alcohol in the blood (1depends upon the rate of its absorption into the part to 250 or 200), the person becomes unconscious andbloodstream and a persons tolerance for alcohol. may go into a coma. Still higher levels of alcohol block the center portions of the lower brain that control Although the body must digest food before it can breathing and heartbeat, causing death to occur.enter the bloodstream, it does not have to digest alcohol.Alcohol immediately passes directly through the wall of This progression of effects is not unique to alcohol.the stomach and small intestines into the bloodstream. Other hypnotic-sedative drugs, such as barbiturates,Then the blood rapidly carries it to the brain. ether, and chloral hydrate, can also produce this progression of effects. Even the first few sips of an alcoholic beverage maycause changes in mood and behavior. These changes Blood-alcohol levels have important legalmay be influenced by what the person has learned to implications. In most states, a person with aexpect from previous drink experiences. blood-alcohol level of 0.05 percent or less is legally presumed sober and in condition to drive a motor Alcohol is metabolized (burned and broken down)in the body at a fairly constant rate. As a person drinks vehicle. However, in some states, a person with a levelfaster than the alcohol can be burned, the drug of 0.10 percent or 0.08 percent is legally presumedaccumulates in the body. That results in higher and intoxicated or under the influence; in others, thehigher levels of alcohol in the blood. 0.15-percent level means legal impairment. BLOOD-ALCOHOL LEVELS AND CHRONIC HEAVY DRINKING. –Drinking large BEHAVIOR. –The first consistent changes in mood and amounts of alcohol for an extended length of timebehavior appear at blood-alcohol levels of reduces the brain’s sensitivity to the alcohol. Therefore,approximately 0.05 percent; that is, 1 part alcohol to a person must drink greater amounts of alcohol to feel2,000 parts blood. That level would result if a 150-pound its effects. This change in the sensitivity of the brain isperson took two drinks in succession. A blood-alcohol called tolerance. Increased tolerance is a symptom of alllevel of 0.05 percent can affect a person’s thought, chronic users of addictive drugs and is believed to be thejudgment, and restraint and cause the person to feel basis of addiction or dependence. 3-16