A 500-0101 Chapter 2 LPO Leadership Course SG
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    A 500-0101 Chapter 2 LPO Leadership Course SG A 500-0101 Chapter 2 LPO Leadership Course SG Document Transcript

    • LEADING PETTY OFFICER LEADERSHIP COURSE STUDENT GUIDE JANUARY 2006 “The Individual assigned the leadership roles and responsibilities for planning and executing divisional functions; to include the professional and personalgrowth of those personnel assigned within that division.”
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 TOPIC SHEET 2-1 PROFESSIONAL INTERACTIONSA. INTRODUCTION The ability to convey your thoughts clearly, both orally and in writing, will help you as a Leading Petty Officer maintain professional interactions with the people you work with, and help you develop your Sailors.B. ENABLING OBJECTIVES Discuss requirements for delivering a brief. Apply communication techniques to maintain open lines of communication. Describe how Sailors’ welfare issues can be resolved using proper resources and programs. Develop a counseling strategy. Demonstrate an effective counseling session. List useful resources for written communications. Discuss techniques for effectively communicating ideas when writing correspondence. Discuss quantitative and non-quantitative factors and their impact on performance evaluations. Develop standards to evaluate the performance of personnel to determine opportunities for development. Identify conflict management modes. Apply negotiation techniques to influence others.C. STUDENT PREPARATION PRIOR TO THIS TOPIC Read in the Student Guide: Outline Sheet 2-1: Oral Communication Outline Sheet 2-2: Counseling Information Sheet 2-2-1: Navy Counseling CategoriesLeading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-1Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 Outline Sheet 2-3: Performance Evaluation Information Sheet 2-3-1: Written Communication Outline Sheet 2-4: Conflict Management Outline Sheet 2-5: Influencing and Negotiating Complete Assignments in Workbook: Assignment Sheet 2-1: Brag SheetsD. STUDENT REFERENCES 1. NoneE. SUPPLEMENTAL REFERENCES 1. Baker, John. 1998. How to Negotiate. Iowa State University. 2. Creativity and Leadership. (n.d.) Center for Service Leadership. Retrieved 4/11/05 from http://www.gmu.edu/student/csl/creativity.html. 3. Covey, Stephen R. 1991. Principle-Centered Leadership. New York, NY : Fireside. 4. Decker, B. 1966. The Art of Communicating. Menlo Park, CA: Crisp Publications. 5. Shenk, Robert. 1997 The Naval Institute Guide to Naval Writing. Annapolis, Maryland: U.S. Naval Institute. 6. U.S. Navy, NAVEDTRA 11121, Educational Services Officer.F. STUDENT GUIDE MATERIALS 1. Topic Sheet 2-1: Professional Interactions 2. Outline Sheet 2-1: Oral Communication 3. Outline Sheet 2-2: Counseling 4. Information Sheet 2-2-1: Navy Counseling Categories 5. Outline Sheet 2-3: Performance Evaluation 6. Information Sheet 2-3-1: Written CommunicationLeading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-2Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 7. Outline Sheet 2-4: Conflict Management 8. Outline Sheet 2-5: Influencing and NegotiatingLeading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-3Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 OUTLINE SHEET 2-1 ORAL COMMUNICATION1. Introduction Oral communication skills are essential for a leader. The content covered here will provide guidance on how to prepare and deliver a brief, but is also helpful in becoming a better communicator.2. Elements of Effective Communication The principles of effective communications serve both one-on-one and public speaking. There are nine behavioral skills that form the key elements of interpersonal communication. a. Eye Communication Your eyes are the only part of your central nervous system that directly connects with another person. For instance, staring at someone for more than 10 seconds suggests involvement, intimacy, or intimidation. In public speaking, we are interested only in involvement. To be more effective, hold eye contact with each of your audience members for about three seconds. Also beware of eye-dart and slow-blink. Eye dart conveys nervousness and makes the listener feel uncomfortable. Slow blink conveys the message: “I really do not want to be here.” When addressing a group, such as your division at morning quarters, hold your eye contact for about three seconds with an individual because people around them will feel you are involving them directly in your speech. b. Posture and Movement Stand tall. Lean forward with knees slightly flexed. When you are speaking and you are confident, your message comes across effectively. This helps offset distracting effects, e.g., rocking, bouncing, etc. Proper movement projects confidence. Movement adds to your energy, reflects confidence, and adds variety to your communication. This is not to be confused with rocking and pacing. This will help you to connect with the group you are addressing. c. Gestures/Facial Expressions To be effective at interpersonal communication, you should have your hands and arms relaxed and natural when at rest. You should gesture naturally when animated and enthusiastic. You should learn to smile under pressure. • How do you look? Find out how you look to others when you are under pressure. You can get this through feedback from other people or by video taping yourself.Leading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-4Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 • Find your nervous gestures. What do you do with your hands when you are speaking and do not have anything to hold on to? • Very few people exaggerate their gestures or facial expressions. Try to exaggerate your positive gestures. Do not worry about overdoing it. • Smiling – which third describes you? One third of people have open, smiling faces; 1/3 of people have neutral faces; and 1/3 have serious and intense faces. Find out which 1/3 you are in and work on developing a smiling face when you communicate. When it is appropriate, a smile conveys warmth and sincerity. • Remember the personality factor. People will buy your ideas and be persuaded much more readily if they like you. Interpersonal communication means connecting with another person on an emotional level, not just an intellectual level. If you want friends, you have to be friendly. d. Dress and Appearance We form immediate and vivid impressions of people during the first five seconds we see them. Experts estimate that it takes another five minutes to add 50 percent more impressions (negative or positive) to the impression we made in the first five seconds. These first impressions are long lasting. • Wear your uniform with pride and look sharp. Solicit feedback on your personal appearance, starting with your peers and friends. • Dress appropriately at social functions. Your appearance should be appropriate to the company you are in, your position, and the social situation. • Never underestimate the impact your appearance makes. The effect of your initial appearance on others is far greater than you think. Your personal appearance is an upward manifestation of your ability to set and maintain a standard. e. Voice and Vocal Variety Your voice transmits energy. Use a tape recorder to record your voice to become aware of how much or how little energy you transmit to others. • Your vocal tone and quality can count for the majority of your message. If people cannot see you (i.e., telephone, radio, 1MC) the majority of believability comes from intonation and resonance. • Do not read speeches. Use notes and outlines of main ideas when you speak. This will allow you to let your mind spontaneously select words and maintain contact with your audience.Leading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-5Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 f. Language, Pauses, and Non-words • Direct language. Language is made of both words and non-words. People communicate most effectively when they are able to select the right words. An example of a non-word is “huh.” • Pause. A pause is better than a non-word. Use this technique to solicit feedback. Practicing and receiving feedback will assist you in recognizing how natural you appear when you pause. • Non-words. Replace non-words with pauses. “Umm,” “O.K.,” “you know,” “well,” “and,” etc., are not only sloppy, but also distracting when repeated as a habit. Pauses are an integral part of language. Do not be afraid to use a pause for emphasis. Replacing non-words with pauses makes your language stronger. g. Listener Involvement The more involved your listener is, the more you can convince and persuade that person of your message. Decker (The Art of Communicating, 1966) identifies nine techniques for involving listeners. These techniques are divided into three areas: • Style Drama. Create a strong opening by announcing a serious problem or making a startling statement. Develop a sense of drama by telling a moving story. Bring it to life by being as descriptive as possible. Eye communication. Survey your listeners, constantly ensuring they are watching you. Try to gauge reactions of your audience by using proper eye contact. Movement. Purposeful movement transmits a sense of energy and keeps the audience focused on you. Visual aids. If possible, use visual aids. This adds to the stimulation and reinforces learning. • Interaction Questions. There are three types of questions that help obtain a deeper level of involvement: Rhetorical questions. Use these when you do not have time to actually discuss an issue but want to make them think. Calling for a show of hands in response to a question (voting). This gets your listeners involved and gives you a quiet way to gauge reactions.Leading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-6Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 Asking for volunteers to answer questions. Even though only one person gets up, the energy level of the group will increase. Demonstrations. A demonstration, by yourself or a volunteer, adds variety to the way information is presented. A good example of this is role-playing. Gimmicks. Have fun with your listeners. Get them involved, but always stay in control of the session. Keep things appropriate for your organization and your listeners as well. Use creativity while keeping things in good taste. • Content Interest. Be sensitive to short attention spans. Remember that we exist in the sound bite era. Before you speak, ask yourself, “How will I benefit my listeners?” Make sure your information is current, appropriate, and delivered in a dynamic fashion. Humor. Make your humor appropriate to your listeners and relevant to your point. Be professional. h. Humor Humor, properly used, adds to the attraction of the content and helps hold interest. • Using humor. Humor is one of the most important skills for effective interpersonal communication. • Do not tell jokes. Only a very few people tell jokes well, and you are taking a risk that the jokes may not be politically correct. • Do tell stories and anecdotes and remember to smile. There is much to be gained in telling humorous stories, anecdotes, or incidents. Everyone has a humorous story, and the fact that it is personal adds to the comfort level of delivery and the warmth of the talk. Remember, people prefer to look at a smiling face. i. The Natural Self Be authentic. Be yourself in all communication circumstances, understanding and using your natural strengths, and building communication weaknesses into strengths. You must do a self-assessment. • Acknowledge your strengths and your weaknesses. Once you have acknowledged your natural strengths and weaknesses, work on both of them. • Convert your weaknesses into strengths. Establish a routine in which you polish and perfect your strengths and turn your weaknesses into strengths.Leading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-7Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-01013. Oral Briefs An additional administrative duty you may have as an LPO is to prepare a brief. Military briefs differ from public speaking in several ways. Typically, military briefs are relatively short and to the point. Since the audience is a “command audience,” attention-getting devices are normally not needed. a. Purpose The primary purpose of a brief is to inform, but it also may have other purposes; first, to ensure the listener’s understanding of a particular mission, operation, or concept; second, to enable the listener to perform a specific procedure; and third, to provide the listener with information on which to base decisions. Often, several people participate in a brief. In a briefing for an operational plan, for instance, one group may cover the administrative, tactical, logistical, and operational phases, and another group may explain the mission. To enable the listeners to grasp all this information as a unit, each briefer must give only the essential information in as few words and as few minutes as completeness and clarity will permit. b. Types The two major types of oral briefs are formal and informal. A daily, informal brief of the members of your work center will require a different approach and degree of preparation than a formal brief of your XO. c. Techniques (1) Preparation Formal briefs usually allow a period for preparation. In this preparation, consider the: • Purpose (to inform, persuade, or both) • Nature of the audience • Complexity of the topic • Characteristics of the briefing space • Requirement for practice and feedback. In preparing to brief others, you must analyze the data, choose the significant facts, and organize them carefully. Your explanation should be simple, precise, and factual. Jokes and anecdotes rarely have a place in a brief. If you are able, however, you may occasionally use humor to help you make a point or clarify a problem. Assume the listeners are ready for a serious talk ─ they want to hear the vital information on a specific subject presented as clearly as possible. When you give a brief, you are likely to face a captive audience. Analyze the rank and experience of the people you are to brief, and try to determine what your bestLeading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-8Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 approach will be. You cannot always say what your listeners want to hear, but you can try to speak in the manner they will most easily understand, which is necessary in a good brief. (2) Organization As a member of the Navy, you need to be adept at stating your ideas accurately, briefly, and clearly. Logical organization of your material will help your listeners understand it. When organizing the introduction, body, and conclusion of the brief, keep the purpose of the communication in mind. The purpose could be to give your listeners an understanding of a certain mission, operation, or concept. Alternatively, the purpose could be to enable them to perform a specific procedure. In either case, organize your material as you would for a speech. On the other hand, if the purpose is to provide your listeners with information on which to base decisions, a problem-solving plan to organization can be most effective. (a) Introduction Since your listeners need and want to know about your subject, you will not need time-consuming, attention-getting devices. If another speaker introduces you and your subject, you need only give a quick overview of the subject and proceed immediately to the main points. If you are not introduced, you might simply say, “Good morning. I’m Petty Officer Jones; I’ll be briefing you on _____________.” You should state the point clearly and concisely at the beginning of your brief so that your audience knows what they are listening to and what they can expect from the rest of your brief. (b) Body You must amplify the point you are trying to make or the area you are trying to cover. You should support that point. You must bring the audience enough information to inform them or to help them make a decision, whatever the purpose of your presentation happens to be. The information for the body of your brief requires careful consideration from the standpoint of content as well as delivery. If possible, present only the facts. Your facts should be provable, and you should have the proof with you in case your listeners ask for it. Because you must be brief, you may have to omit many details from your talk. This can cause you to oversimplify a difficult subject. One way to avoid over-simplification is to prepare a folder of “documentation” for your listeners to refer to after you finish the brief. In your opening remarks, tell them it is available. You gain in several ways fromLeading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-9Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 letting your listeners know at the outset that they will have access to complete information on your subject. 1) First, your listeners are more apt to accept the validity of your information because they know they can check your evidence. 2) Second, they are less likely to ask needless questions or to interrupt for other reasons. 3) Third, they will go along with very simple visual aids because they know they can get information that is more detailed if they need it. Another way is to prepare “backup” slides that present detailed information on specific issues. If questions are asked, you will be ready and will increase the confidence your audience has in you. If certain facts are not available and you must make an assumption, identify the assumption, say that it is necessary, and continue. If your listeners wish to challenge the assumption, they can do so during the question-and-answer period, at which time you should be able to explain your rationale. Normally, you do not interpret the information in your brief. Present the facts and let your listeners draw the conclusions. Such phrases as “In my opinion,” “I think,” and “I take this to mean” are generally signs that the briefer is going beyond the mere presentation of information and is interpreting the meaning of the information. Emotional appeals have no place in a brief. Your listeners will be justified in doubting your objectivity if your presentation is charged with emotion. This does not mean that your delivery should be dry and lifeless ─ rather, quite the contrary. Because you must present pertinent information and nothing more, you should strive for an animated and interesting delivery. Visual aids can help you show quickly and clearly many things that you would have trouble putting into words. One glance at a map would show your listeners more about air bases in Communist China than 15 minutes of words alone. Practice the brief with your visual aids until you can use them smoothly. They should be an integral part of your presentation. If you do not practice your brief, such simple acts as uncovering or recovering a chart can cause awkward breaks in a brief. (c) Conclusion You must end your brief appropriately. The conclusion should bring the brief together in a concise manner; reviewing the topic but keeping it short. This part of a brief should be short but positive. Summarize your main points if you feel it is necessary. Since a question-and-answer period usually follows a brief, one concluding sentence might be “Ladies and gentlemen, are there any questions?”Leading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-10Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 If a question period is not to follow, you might simply say, “Ladies and gentlemen, this concludes my brief.” Know your subject forward and backward. You will face challenges no matter how rational you are. As an experienced speechwriter might say, “Nothing is more embarrassing than to have some know-it-all in the back of the room raise a hand and ask a question that succeeds in wresting control of the subject matter from you.”Leading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-11Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 OUTLINE SHEET 2-2 COUNSELING1. Introduction Your Sailors’ performance and welfare are integral to your success as a leader. Conducting counseling is a means to address any concerns or issues your Sailors may have. This topic will introduce characteristic of an effective counselor, as well as steps to take for an effective counseling session.2. Characteristics of Effective Counselors An effective counselor combines several traits to be successful. a. Desire to help others An effective counselor displays a sincere interest in people. Successful counselors also know their limits, are aware of referral sources, and are willing to make necessary referrals as necessary. b. Patience Effective counselors remain in control in an atmosphere of excitement, discontent, or hostility, and they manifest self-control when provoked. c. Emotionally Stable It is important for effective counselors to maintain a calm demeanor. d. Courteous Generally, effective counselors are polite and courteous. However, there may be specific examples where confrontation is necessary for counseling to be effective. e. Non-judgmental It is important that an effective counselor does not convey his/her personal standards. f. Empathetic An effective counselor needs to be empathetic. This involves the ability of seeing a situation from where the Sailor being counseled sees it. The counselor does not pass judgment against the Sailor being counseled for personal views, but addresses wrong ideas and attitudes firmly, fairly, and dispassionately.Leading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-12Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 g. Active listener Active listening or effective listening skills are critical to be an effective counselor. The counselor listens to what is said as well as what is implied by observing tones and reaction.3. Steps for an Effective Counseling Session a. Prepare Preparation for a counseling session is necessary to observe and adequately document behavior. Gather as much information as possible about the problem and the Sailor being counseled. Talk to peers, other people in the chain of command, and check any available records. Part of your preparation is to review counseling records, if any exist, on the Sailor being counseled. Consider where you want to be at the end of the session. Determine the purpose of the counseling session. Preparation is the key to successful counseling. Sometimes planning may not be possible, such as when a Sailor asks for help or when we give a pat on the back for an on- the-spot observation. In such situations, counselors who know their people, their people’s responsibilities, and can mentally prepare, can respond to their needs. b. Initiate the Session The counselor needs to initiate the session. • Indicate that you want to talk with the Sailor being counseled. In some instances, the Sailor being counseled may initiate the session. • Choose an appropriate place to meet. Be aware of the CO’s counseling policy before conducting cross-gender or closed-door counseling. Ensure consistency when selecting the counseling location. If there is concern about cross-gender or closed-door counseling, consult the Equal Opportunity program specialist and command directives. • Agree on a time to meet. Whether by memo, telephone, or face-to-face, stress the importance of maintaining the Sailor’s dignity and keeping private issues private to the extent possible (confidentiality).Leading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-13Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 Belittling the Sailor being counseled in front of shipmates or showing little respect for feelings will hinder your counseling attempts. c. Create Suitable Conditions • Ensure physical comfort, if possible (e.g., chairs, coffee, or other things to help put the Sailor being counseled at ease). • Guarantee confidentiality within your legal and ethical bounds. Do not joke with anyone about the counseling session. • Be attentive to what the Sailor being counseled is saying. • Consider what you will do to eliminate interruptions. d. Explore and Understand the Real Situation • State the reason for the meeting. In a career counseling session, the Sailor being counseled may often initiate the meeting. If so, the Sailor being counseled should state the reason for the meeting. • State your concerns regarding the Sailor being counseled. (Include your observations of the Sailor’s behavior.) • Elicit relevant information from the Sailor being counseled. Be sure to use open- ended questions. • Discuss the situation fully so you both understand it. Ask clarifying questions to determine how well the Sailor being counseled understands the discussion. e. Define Goals and Develop a Plan Move toward the ideal (where the Sailor being counseled would like to be or should be). The Sailor being counseled needs to state the goal. In order to move toward the goal the following steps should be taken. • Have the Sailor being counseled verbalize the ideal state (goal). Stating the goal demonstrates that the Sailor being counseled is taking responsibility for solving the problem and demonstrates your positive expectations of the Sailor being counseled concerning his or her own ability to solve the problem. • State your realistic expectations about the Sailor being counseled. • Identify blocks to problem resolution that are created by an external source, such as the Navy, family members, etc.Leading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-14Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 • Identify blocks to problem resolution that are created by the Sailor being counseled. • Identify potential sources of help. • Outline options for action steps; assist the individual and make the individual take responsibility. • Encourage the Sailor being counseled to make a commitment to action steps that support the goal. You may even ask, “How committed are you to this action plan?” • State your positive expectations about the Sailor being counseled. Determine the measures to identify progress toward the goal. f. Monitor and Follow-up • Agree on who is responsible for monitoring measurable change – the counselor, the Sailor being counseled, or others in the chain. • Agree on what will be done if the planned action steps are not implemented. By whom? When? Also, discuss what the Sailor being counseled should do if there are problems in implementing the action plan. • Agree on a time and place for the follow-up session(s). Mention what the agenda for the next meeting will include. g. Document The heart of a successful counseling program is good documentation. This applies to both positive and corrective counseling experiences. NAVPERS 1616/25 (5-90), Record of Enlisted Counseling is an excellent form to document the counseling session. This form can be used for a variety of counseling purposes and helps to structure the documentation of the session.Leading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-15Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 INFORMATION SHEET 2-2-1 NAVY COUNSELING CATEGORIESA. INTRODUCTION There are four general types of counseling sessions. These include personal, career, performance, and disciplinary.B. INFORMATION 1. Personal Personal counseling is necessary when a Sailor has difficulty coping with situations, either on or off the job. Personal problems may be financial, legal, educational, moral, or religious. They may also include rank and promotion, job assignment, or any problem involving the individual’s well being. Supervisors need to be concerned about a member’s personal life because personal problems frequently affect work performance. Supervisors who know their people can more effectively work with their personal problems. Purpose Personal counseling is used to help an individual reach a solution to a personal problem. Available Resources Navy Fleet and Family Support Centers, www.persnet.navy.mil/pers66/index.htm offers a wide range of command programs for service members and their families. Some of the programs offered are listed below. • Information and Referral – These services include information about NFSC programs and services, community agencies and resources available in both the military and civilian communities. Volunteer opportunities are also available for active and retired military and family members. • Relocation Assistance – Relocation Services help service members and families deal with the stress of moving by providing education, information, and individual assistance. • Exceptional Family Member Program (EFMP) – The EFMP ensures military family members with special needs are able to receive required services wherever they are assigned. • Personal Financial Management – This program assists active duty military and family members to enable them to manage finances effectively and avoid debt.Leading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-16Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 • Employment Assistance – These programs and services assist transitioning and retiring military personnel in building employment skills. Services are also available for family members seeking employment assistance. • Parenting Workshops/Stress Management – These prevention and enrichment programs are designed for individuals, couples, and families. • Counseling – Clinical counseling services are available for individuals, couples, and groups. • Volunteer Opportunities – Consider volunteering with your Navy Family Service Center. Navy Marine Corps Relief Society, www.nmcrs.org, exists to help those eligible, to cope with unusual financial needs, and to continue living within their means. To do this, counseling, loans, grants, various services, and referral to other community resources are available. There are no fees for such help. Depending on the circumstances of the need, financial assistance can be provided in the form of an interest-free loan, a grant, or a combination loan and grant. The form of financial assistance is determined by analyzing the individuals budget that is prepared with the help of one of the Societys trained budget counselors or interviewers. The American Red Cross, www.redcross.org, is uniquely equipped to provide an exclusive worldwide communications and support network that serves as a lifeline between military service members and their families. For the American Sailor and his or her family, the Red Cross is the connection to home, relaying urgent information ─ a family crisis, a death in the family, a financial emergency, or a joyous birth. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), www.va.gov, is a worldwide resource that provides information on VA programs, veterans’ benefits, VA facilities worldwide, and VA medical automation software. The VA serves several major constituencies, including the veteran and his/her dependents, Veterans Service Organizations, the military, the public, and VA employees around the world. The Naval Personnel Command has set up a Quality of Life Mall on its Web site, (www.persnet.navy.mil/). Other services the Naval Personnel Command provides are easily linked, such as the Navy Family Ombudsman Program, Navy Wifeline Association, etc. For information on: • Burial at sea, visit www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq85-1.htm#anchor148456. • Deaths and funerals, see U.S. Navy Regulations, Chapter 12, Section 10, neds.nebt.daps.mil/regs.htm. • Decedent Affairs, see NAVMEDCOMINST 5360.1 (series), Decedent Affairs Manual, navymedicine.med.navy.mil/instructions/external/5360-1.pdf.Leading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-17Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 Impact or Outcome Since personal counseling is used to help an individual reach a solution to a personal problem, the resolution to this type of problem would lead to a happier person in general, and to a happier more content Sailor on-the-job. Clearly personal problems can lead to problems at work, and having a support system to aid in the resolution of personal problems leads to a better work environment in general. 2. Career Career counseling is an important component of Sailor development. Career counseling is called for when a Sailor is making a significant decision concerning career change, seeking options or ideas to plan career paths, or considering further education or training. A supervisor is responsible to ensure a Sailor has all the appropriate assistance and guidance to fully consider all aspects of the career decision. Purpose Career counseling is used to help an individual make decisions about career changes, career paths, education, and training. Available Resources For information on career counseling, see: • Your Command Career Counselor. • Your Command Retention Team. • NAVPERS 15878, Retention Team Manual, available: www.npc.navy.mil • NAVPERS 15909, Enlisted Transfer Manual available: www.npc.navy.mil • The BUPERS Web site at www.npc.navy.mil • The CNET Web site at www.cnet.navy.mil. • The CANTRAC Web site at https://cetarsweb.cnet.navy.mil/pls.cetars/main.action?V_LOC=home For information on the Naval Reserves, see www.navres.navy.mil/navresfor/. Impact or Outcome Having career counseling available to Sailors enables them to define their career options and paths. When guided in a positive manner this career counseling and guidance can lead to well-trained personnel, and a higher level of retention.Leading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-18Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 3. Performance Performance counseling is conducted to help Sailors achieve and sustain a high level of performance. Counseling is appropriate for the individual who is not performing at a level consistent with unit or command standards as well as the individual who is performing in an average or above average manner. Performance counseling can also be positive and involve setting goals for personal and professional development. Mid-term counseling and scheduled counseling are major focuses of the Navy’s performance evaluation system. Counseling shall be performed at the midpoint of each evaluation cycle and when the fitness or evaluation report is signed. Purpose The purpose of performance counseling is to enhance professional growth, encourage professional development, and improve communication among all command members. Available Resources For information on performance see BUPERSINST 1610.10A, Navy Performance Evaluation and Counseling System, or the BUPERS web site at www.npc.navy.mil. Performance evaluations will be discussed in more detail in Topic 3-4, Performance Evaluation. Impact or Outcome Performance counseling serves as a means for small corrections and guided improvement as well as identifying growth areas. It helps ensure quality work and is an appropriate setting in which to identify retraining needs. It is the perfect place for professional goals to be identified and mentoring relationships established. The outcome of performance counseling can serve as improvement in average or below average performers, as well as guidance and identification of growth areas in above average personnel. This ultimately affects the work center in improved performance of its entire staff. 4. Disciplinary Disciplinary counseling is conducted when an individual has violated a specific order or regulation. Disciplinary counseling is directive and one-way guidance. It should include a discussion of the violation and necessary changes in performance or behavior. It may also include discussion of the options available to the individual within the chain of command. Emphasis should still be focused on retaining the Sailor being counseled as a full, productive member of the work center.Leading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-19Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 Purpose Disciplinary counseling is used to help an individual understand the seriousness of violating a specific order or regulation, and to ensure this type of violation will not occur in the future. Available Resources Resources may include those up the chain of command as well as the Equal Opportunity (EO) program specialist, Personnel, LCPO, and Command Master Chief. In addition, personal counseling may be appropriate. For information on: • Standards of Conduct, see U.S. Navy Regulations, Chapter 11, neds.nebt.daps.mil/regs/htm. • Uniform Regulations, see http://buperscd.technology.navy.mil/bup_updt/508/unireg/uregMenu.html • JAGINST 5800.7 (series), Manual of the Judge Advocate General (JAGMAN). • The Uniformed Code of Military Justice may also be helpful. Impact or Outcome Disciplinary counseling ultimately is intended to correct and improve an individual’s performance. It is generally directed to a specific incident, or set of behaviors. Often the work center would be affected adversely by any behaviors requiring disciplinary counseling. Clearly, improvement after such a counseling session would affect the work center in a positive manner.Leading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-20Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 OUTLINE SHEET 2-3 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION1. Introduction For the LPO, a common type of written communication is the performance evaluation. Performance evaluations are also an opportunity to apply performance-counseling skills such as the evaluation process and feedback.2. Performance Evaluations a. Factors that Impact Performance Evaluation Factors that impact performance evaluation generally fall into two categories: quantitative and non-quantitative. (1) Quantitative Factors “Figures, numbers, percentages, dollars, ratios, grades – whatever you can quantify might conceivably be more meaningful to a selection board sweating hard to judge one person against another fairly. Figures and graphics are hard to dispute and sometimes seem to be more objective than descriptive statements. Seek them and make use of them, within reason, and with good knowledge of their likely effect (Shenk, 1997, p. 166).” (2) Non-quantitative Factors “Details regarding nonquantifiable achievements are equally useful and usually more plentiful. Accomplishments affecting the primary mission are perhaps most significant, and the variations of actual achievements require description. Adjectives without supporting details are weak, so support the accolades with facts (Shenk, 1997, p. 167).” b. Documentation Routine documentation is the key to a successful evaluation program. It provides the basis for a realistic appraisal that reflects a Sailor’s performance. Documentation involves positive as well as negative performance. The Privacy Act of 1974 places limitations on files that may be maintained on individuals. Personal notes or records (such as wheel books) may be kept as memory aids regarding performance, conduct, and development of persons supervised, and are not prohibited as long as: • They are kept and maintained only for the personal use of the supervisor who wrote them.Leading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-21Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 • They are not circulated to anyone else. • They are not under the control of, or required by, the Navy. • They are kept or destroyed as the supervisor who wrote them sees fit. • The information is safeguarded and protected to preclude unauthorized disclosure. • They are not regarded as a “secret file” and are used openly as memory aids when discussing a member’s performance and general counseling. c. Using Standards-Based Evaluation The evaluation report creates an objective record of performance on which official actions may be based. Evaluation preparation has several important components; the mid-term counseling, the brag sheet, and the written EVAL. Superior commands pay special attention to establishing, communicating, and enforcing standards. They are concerned about job performance standards, knowing how well they perform affects safety, accomplishing their mission, and ultimately the security of our country. In superior commands: • Standards are clear and consistent. • Standards are realistic and high. • Standards are continuously monitored. • Positive and negative feedback is frequently given. • Performance problems are handled quickly and appropriately. • All levels participate in enforcing standards. d. BUPERINST 1610.10A This instruction provides guidance in performance evaluations. Refer to it as you research the following for the LPOLC: • Individual Trait Average • Summary Group Average • Promotion Recommendation • Block 51.Leading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-22Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 INFORMATION SHEET 2-3-1 WRITTEN COMMUNICATIONA. INTRODUCTION Even if writing is not significant a part of the job, every Sailor needs to be able to write well. Advancements and increased responsibilities require greater versatility in writing. You should improve your writing skills to ensure your message is properly transmitted. Your credibility as a leader depends on your ability to communicate effectively.B. WRITTEN COMMUNICATION CONCEPTS 1. The Writer’s Triangle As in navigation, good writers look for fixed points of reference from which to plot their positions and ideal headings. The classic writer’s triangle is: Writer Audience Subject “By knowing your audience, your subject, and yourself, you can gauge your position with respect to any written communication (Shenk, 1997, p.5).” (a) Audience – The originator’s attention to the audience or recipient(s) can affect the routing or attention of correspondence. What is the rank, position, or billet you are addressing? Is the person senior, junior, or at the same level in the organization? How important is the boss of the person you are writing to? Personality – be aware of background and preferences. For example, unless the reader is an aviator, avoid aviation phrases and terminology. Writing style and use of acronyms and jargon should be tailored to the audience, and closely monitored when writing to non-military audiences. (b) Subject considerations – Readers tend to read the entire document if the subject directly affects their lives; i.e., pay. Other subjects may not hold the reader’s interest beyond the first two paragraphs, so the point must be made quickly. Knowing the subject and the way readers usually treat a document is valuable. In long documents, headings help alert readers to key information. Writing technical material requires great patience and detail. Space considerations in briefings orLeading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-23Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 messages require word economy and discipline. Use of examples, statistics, and graphics may be appropriate to support a position. (c) In knowing yourself, writers should always remember who they are and the self- image they want to project in the correspondence. Deference and respect are always good qualities in writing to seniors, but this is sometimes forgotten when juniors write to selection boards, criticizing their seniors or the service to explain problems or low marks. Act to be believed and respected whenever you write or speak. Know what your writing sounds like, and make use of that knowledge to get your message across. (d) One other perspective of writing, not included in the writer’s triangle, is writing for “the boss.” Frequently, you may be drafting written correspondence or documents for someone else’s signature. Writing for seniors can require considerable adjustment. Advice can include: Keep the facts in, and leave the adverbs out; give the senior more than needed; solicit feedback from your senior; learn the seniors key phrases; obtain samples of previous CO/XO correspondence to use as examples. 2. Purpose of Naval Correspondence The major purpose of written communications is to establish a formal chain of command, authority, procedures, tactics, and historical record. While most Sailors should be familiar with memorandums and Naval letters, Naval correspondence includes documents that serve virtually all the administrative functions of the Navy.Leading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-24Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 OUTLINE SHEET 2-4 CONFLICT MANAGEMENT1. Introduction Webster’s New World Dictionary provides synonyms for conflict that include “fight,” “struggle,” and “contention” and defines it as a “sharp disagreement or opposition of interests, ideas, etc.” The very nature of the LPO position guarantees that conflict will be a part of his or her work experience. In general, all organizations, including the Navy are becoming much more interested in understanding the causes and impacts of workplace conflict.2. Sources of Conflict Workplace conflict is inevitable. Conflict exists in our work lives for several reasons: there is competition for limited resources; we experience role conflict from competing demands or expectations; there are personality clashes; or we have to cope with aggressive personalities. One way of categorizing the many sources of conflict we experience is in terms of external factors, internal factors, and the behavior of others (Schermerhorn 1994). External factors are those factors that surround the work group and impact all members equally. Examples are poorly functioning equipment, time constraints, and badly designed policies or procedures. Any or all can contribute to workplace conflict. Internal factors exist within work center personnel and include dissimilar values, biases, fear of the unfamiliar, unrealistic expectations, and inflexibility. These factors are major sources of conflict between individuals who work together toward a common goal (a work center team). The behavior of others that we perceive as annoying or irritating can be a source of interpersonal conflict. Failure to listen, disrespectfulness, judgmental comments, repeated excuses, clash of styles, offensive language or personal hygiene are all potential sources of conflict to individuals who work or live together.3. Conflict Management Modes Conflict management modes or conflict management styles refer to the different approaches that people use when they find themselves in a conflict situation. Individuals view conflict differently. Some see conflict as something to be avoided at all costs. This may be because these individuals have experienced the destructive effects of conflict, or their personality types are not comfortable with confrontation or disagreement with others. Some individuals see all conflicts as something to be dominated ─ winning at all costs. Other individuals recognize which conflicts are important to win, which are to be negotiated, and which are not important at all. Ideally, a leader will become the third type of individual, one who manages conflict to enhance the work center and reduces the negative destructive effects of conflict.Leading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-25Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 The most common model for determining conflict management style is based on the balance between satisfying your own concerns (assertiveness) and satisfying the concerns of others (cooperativeness). Each of us has a preferred style of dealing with conflict, but individual approaches to conflict can change, based on the stakes involved in winning or losing. For example, a mild-mannered person who normally shuns conflict may become confrontational if his or her family is threatened. The following matrix identifies the five most common conflict management styles (adapted from Thomas 1992 and Hersey 1996). HIGH Win-Win ASSERTIVENESS Win-Lose Collaboration Competition Compromise Lose-Lose Lose-Win Avoidance Accommodation LOW ACCOMODATION HIGH a. Win-Lose/Competition - refers to the type of person who only worries about having their own needs met and does not care much about other’s needs or concerns. This quadrant is high in recognizing one’s own needs (assertiveness) and low in recognizing other’s needs (accommodation). This competitive approach is appropriate in sporting events (winners and losers). Since the winner gets all and the loser gets nothing, this approach is not appropriate when the feelings and concerns of both parties need to be considered. Feeling like a loser is not a positive emotion. When an individual has low power and is in conflict with a higher-powered individual, he or she will most probably choose to stop feeling like a loser by escaping from the situation – either literally or figuratively. For example, leaving the Navy, or diverting most of his or her creative energy into other areas of their life. b. Lose-Win/Accommodation - These are the types of people who always give others what they want without speaking their minds. They typically do not talk about their own needsLeading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-26Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 or what is important to them. Relationships are more important to them than their own goals. They do not like to hurt anyone’s feelings, want to be liked and accepted, and prefer to make everyone happy. They prefer to give in rather than face a confrontation or anger. When the stakes are low, this is an appropriate style. If I would be happy either at the beach or in the mountains, and my spouse really wants to go to the beach for vacation, the accommodation approach makes him or her happy and me happy. However, when this approach is used consistently, accommodators become doormats. c. Lose-Lose/Avoidance - Avoiders neither stand up for their own needs, nor make sure the other person is happy; they just retreat and avoid the issue by withdrawing from the conflict. Located in the lower left quadrant (low assertiveness and low accommodation), these individuals avoid conflict regardless of the importance of the issue. In doing so, they save themselves from the risk associated with confrontation and the possibility of losing, but also lose the opportunity to stand up for what they want, to discover the other person’s needs and wants, and to achieve personal growth. In some cases, this style can be useful to leaders because some conflicts, like those between co-workers, will work themselves out and may even serve to tighten the bond between them. If the leader intervened, the opportunity would have been lost or escalated, but not resolved. d. Win-Win/Collaboration - These are individuals who see the benefits to conflict and work toward a solution that will meet the needs and concerns of all parties. A collaborator wants everyone to be satisfied and realizes that everyone needs to have a say in the outcome of a conflict. By including all parties and listening to all concerns, the end result is often a better outcome than just meeting the needs of one party. It is important to remember that just feeling like your concerns are important, and that there is a genuine attempt to reach accommodation, increases positive feelings and creates an atmosphere of cooperation and productivity. This is always an appropriate approach to take if possible. The win-win approach should always be tried first, before moving on to other approaches. Although ideal, this approach is not always available to leaders due to time constraints, or in a counseling or punitive situation. e. Compromise - Sometimes mistakenly seen as collaboration, compromise means that each party gives up a part of what he or she wants. Certainly this can be an effective way to resolve some conflicts ─ especially when you need to reach a quick decision that keeps both parties somewhat happy ─ but it also can be a way to avoid working for a true win- win outcome. If a true win-win outcome is the desired goal, avoid a rush to compromise. Additionally, compromise often results in a mediocre resolution that meets no one’s needs. Remember the choice of the beach versus the mountains? Meeting half way could put you in the Swamp View Hilton!Leading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-27Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 OUTLINE SHEET 2-5 INFLUENCING AND NEGOTIATING1. Introduction Leaders must possess and successfully demonstrate skills in influencing subordinates, peers, and superiors, in addition to negotiating with personnel at all levels and communities in order to achieve specific goals.2. Influencing Influencing is not manipulation, but rather a building of good working relationships. This ability to persuade others to your perspective requires you to build good working relationships through strong interpersonal and communication skills. The following are methods to influence others, grouped into two categories: a. Lead by Example (1) Exercise patience with others When stressed, impatience may get the better of us and we may say or do something we never intended. Patience is the calm acceptance of reality, understanding life and work is comprised of processes and cycles. (2) Distinguish between the person and the behavior or performance The ability to distinguish between the person and the performance in others requires a personal sense of self-worth. Do not confuse or let your Sailors confuse their own self-worth with their job performance. (3) Keep promises you make to others The ability to make and keep promises is a measure of our integrity. (4) Focus on the circle of influence Working positively within your realm of control will expand your circle of influence. b. Foster Professional Interactions (1) Seek first to understand Empathize; understand the other’s point of view. (2) Create a climate for questions and new ideas Do not criticize, judge, belittle other’s questions or ideas (Covey, 1998).Leading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-28Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-01013. Negotiating When there is a conflict of interest, what one wants is not what the other wants, negotiation is where both sides discuss possible solutions. The following are negotiation techniques everyone can use. • Set the agenda Identify the issue you are trying to resolve. • Establish your goals Know what you want to accomplish before you begin. • Know your wants and needs Negotiate to meet your needs, not your wants. • Do not confuse your goals with the issue Goals are what you want to accomplish and issues are differences that arise during the negotiation. • Mutual protection is better than mutual destruction Negotiate to find a solution that will benefit all parties. • Relationships are important Do not destroy the relationship you have with the other party involved in order to accomplish your goal. • Avoid trying to exercise power or controlling the process of negotiations Recognize the needs of the other party involved. • Do not stereotype Recognize people for who they are, not what you think they are. • Do not bargain against yourself Wait for a response from the other party involved. • Identify interference Identify what will interfere with meeting your needs. • Seek a settlement Respond to meet your needs and goals. Do not reciprocate emotion. • Be proactive, not reactive Do not wait for the other party to take the lead in seeking a solution, make a proposal. • Be flexible Be willing to “give” in order to “get” (Baker, 1998).Leading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-29Professional Interactions
    • STUDENT GUIDE A-500-0101 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK DO NOT WRITE IN STUDENT GUIDELeading Petty Officer Leadership Course SG 2-30Professional Interactions