European Biofuel Standards & Regulations

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European Biofuel Standards & Regulations

  1. 1. EUROPEAN BIOFUEL STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS BARRY CAHILL (PSA PEUGEOT CITROEN) CONVENOR CEN TASK FORCE ETHANOL CONVENOR CEN TASK FORCE BIODIESEL 27 February 2007PSA Peugeot Citroën 1
  2. 2. BIOFUELS : a positive double impact An immediately available solution to reduce exhaust pollutants and CO2Gasoline pathway Diesel fuel pathway MT Ethanol FAEE FAME BtL Beet, Syn- Ethyl esters of rapeseed, Methyl esters of rapeseed... « Biomass to liquid » : Cereals fuels sunflower, soy... Fischer Tropsch diesel Sugar ® cane(Brazil) Cellulose (R&D) NexBTL®, HBio® Refinery component HTU® + HD0 ETBE 2
  3. 3. European Biofuel Standards and Regulations Intense activity in Europe regarding biofuels: EU policy for 5.75% bio energy in automotive fuels in 2010 7% bio energy in 2015 10% bio energy in 2020 Reasons are well known : reduce dependancy on petroleum products reduce C02 emissions support the agricultural communityA major activity supporting this policy is the establishment of European regulations and standards 3
  4. 4. European Biofuel Standards and RegulationsIn Europe, fuel specifications are established by three means: By EU Directive: the parameters and limits are those that influence the environment e.g. lead, sulphur, volatility, PAH... Generally a Directive is obligatory in all EU member states. By CEN standards: these are full standards drawn up by industry experts, incorporating Directive elements (when they exist) and incorporated into National Regulations Additionally, national standards apply for special cases, e.g. France allows B30 for captive fleets Sweden allows E95 for diesel bus fleets 4
  5. 5. STANDARDS PROGRESS TO DATEWhat have we achieved so far? A CEN Task Force worked on a Biodiesel specification that is now the Standard EN 14214: methyl ester based on knowledge of existing oils, mainly rapeseed, sunflower involved experts from Auto, Oil, Agricultural industries fuel can be used at 100% in adapted vehicles, or as a blend component in conventional diesel fuel working well in market, 3.2 MT in 2005, will double soon. component at 5% in EN590 diesel fuel component at 30% in captive fleet fuel finished fuel at 100% in Germany for adapted vehicles 5
  6. 6. STANDARDS PROGRESS TO DATECEN Taskforce working on European ethanol standardsince 2004, now practically finished: known as prEN 15376 involves experts from Auto, Oil, Agricultural industries specifies ethanol as a blending component at up to 5% many new measurement standards developed takes into account specific requirements of ethanol distribution and use in Europe: low water content range of non-harmful denaturants level of impurities that will not harm exhaust gas treatment systems when used at up to 5% draft standard will be voted this year 6
  7. 7. prEN 15376 ETHANOL 7
  8. 8. TRENDS FOR THE FUTUREEngine technology is being driven to high levels of sophistication due to: customer expectations for driveablity, power, low maintainance reduced fuel consumption / CO2 increasingly severe exhaust emissions regulations more space for vehicle occupants / less space for engines down-sizing enginesThe EPEFE programme in Europe, and similar programmes elsewhere,have shown that engines are sensitive to fuel quality. So engine progressmust be matched by progress in fuel quality to adapt fuels to engineneeds.The presence of biological components add an extra set of fuelcharacteristics that may compromise good engine driveability anddurability. 8
  9. 9. Recent progress in Diesel enginesMany millions of high pressure direct injection « common rail »engines are is use since introduction in 1998 9
  10. 10. Diesel Particulate Filter System Injector + régulator High pressure Fuel tank HDi pump Calculator engine Feed pump 1 2 3 1. Pilot injection ADDITIVE TANK 2. Principal injection 3. Secondary injection Common rail Sensors : P and T injectionl Exhaust gas DPF silencer Oxydation catalyst DPFEngine fuel COMMON RAILsystem The particule is intercepted and burned 10
  11. 11. Effects of Biofuels on EnginesEthanol in Gasoline Increases volatility driveablility impact evaporative emissions impact Water content increased corrosion of components water separation, engine damageBiodiesel in petroleum-based Diesel fuel less stable than conventional Diesel fuel injector fouling, engine power loss impurities, catalyst damage boiling characteristics engine oil dilution, engine damage 11
  12. 12. Next StepsCreate a new diesel fuel standard to permit B10Review EN14214 biodiesel standard to allow a widerfeedstock baseCreate a new standard for gasoline permitting E10Modify prEN15376 ethanol standard for use at allpercentage blendsCreate a European standard for E85 fuel 12
  13. 13. World Biofuel Standards?Engine requirements in terms of fuel are the same theworld over - see World Wide Fuel CharterThe engine constraints mentioned earlier incite enginemakers to demand fuels of very high qualityBiofuel producers must recognise and follow this trend ifthey wish to access the market. If automobile ownersassociate biofuel with vehicle problems, there is not anyfuture for biofuelsWorld biofuel standards may be possible, but only at highquality levels consistent with engine requirements 13
  14. 14. Conclusion / PerspectivesThe internal combustion engine will remain as theautomotive power source for many years to come.Fossil fuels with renewable energy forms, includingbiofuels blends, will contribute to sustainability.Fuels of high quality, including biofuel blends withbackwards compatibility, are essential for trouble-freevehicle operation.Good fuel standards and market quality monitoring are anessential components of this scenario 14

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