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  1. 1. Escola Básica de Canidelo January 2012 Subject: English 8ºB Cláudia Flávia Mafalda Sara
  2. 2. Rights Exists many people, animals, plants and other things that are treated very bad. Because of it were created laws to be imposed their rights. If exists rights they must be fulfilled, but many people don’t respect the others and their rights.
  3. 3. Humans Rights All the humans have rights and must have liberty. So, in 1948 were created “Universal Declaration of Humans Rights”.
  4. 4. Humans Rights 1st article All humans are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
  5. 5. Humans Rights 2nd article Everyone has the capacity to enjoy the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, whether of race, colour, sex, language, religion, political opinion or of another nature, national or social origin, wealth, birth, or any other condition.
  6. 6. Humans Rights 3rd article Every person has the right to life, liberty and personal security. 4th article No one shall be held in slavery or servitude, slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all its forms. 5th article No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman treatment or punishment or degrading.
  7. 7. Humans Rights 6th article Everyone has the right to be recognized everywhere as a person before the law. 7th article All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination, to equal protection of law. Everyone are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.
  8. 8. Humans Rights 8th article Everyone is entitled to receive from the competent national taxes effective remedy for acts violating the fundamental rights which are recognized by the Constitution or by law. 9th article No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.
  9. 9. Humans Rights 10th article Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal to decide of their rights and duties or the soundness of any criminal charge against him.
  10. 10. Humans Rights 11th article 1. Everyone accused of a criminal act has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law on public trial at which you have been provided all the guarantees necessary for his defense. 2. Nobody can be blamed for any action or omission which, at the time, did not constitute an offence against national or international law. Either stronger penalty shall be imposed than the one that, at the time of practice, was applicable to Penal Act.
  11. 11. Humans Rights 12th article No one shall be subjected to interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, or to attacks upon his honor and reputation. Every person has the right to protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
  12. 12. Humans Rights 13th article 1. Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each State. 2. Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.
  13. 13. Humans Rights 14th article 1. Everyone, the victim of persecution, has the right to seek and enjoy asylum in other countries. 2. This right may not be invoked in case of persecution legitimately motivated by common law crimes or acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
  14. 14. Humans Rights 15th article 1. Everyone has the right to a nationality. 2. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality, nor denied the right to change nationality.
  15. 15. Humans Rights 16th article 1. Men and women of greater age, without any retrace of race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. Enjoy equal rights in respect of a marriage, its duration and its dissolution. 2. Marriage shall not be valid if not with the free and full consent of the spouses.
  16. 16. Humans Rights 17th article 1. Everyone has the right to property, alone or in partnership with others. 2. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.
  17. 17. Humans Rights 18th article Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change religion or belief and freedom to manifest this religion or belief, by teaching, practice, worship and observance, individually or collectively, in public or in private.
  18. 18. Humans Rights 19th article Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to have opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas by any means and regardless of frontiers.
  19. 19. Humans Rights 20th article 1. Everyone has the right to freedom of Assembly and peaceful association. 2. Nobody must be forced to be part of an association.
  20. 20. Humans Rights 21th article 1. Everyone has the right to take part in the Government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives. 2. Everyone has equal right of access to public service in his country. 3. The will of the people will be the basis of authority of Government; This will shall be expressed in periodic and legitimate elections, by universal suffrage, by secret ballot or equivalent process that ensures the freedom to vote.
  21. 21. Humans Rights 22th article Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and the implementation by national effort and international cooperation in accordance with the Organization and resources of each State, economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and free development of his personality.
  22. 22. Humans Rights 23th article 1. Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, fair and favorable work and to protection against unemployment. 2. Everyone, without any distinction, are entitled to equal pay for equal work. 3. Everyone who works has the right to a fair remuneration and satisfactory, that you make, as well as to his family, a life compatible with human dignity, and plus, if necessary, other means of social protection. 4. Everyone has the right to organize trade unions and join them to protect their interests.
  23. 23. Humans Rights 24th article Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic paid vacation.
  24. 24. Humans Rights 25th article 1. Everyone has the right to a standard of living capable of ensuring you and your family health and well-being, including food, clothing, housing, medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other cases of loss of livelihood out of your control. 2. Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children born within or outside of marriage shall enjoy the same social protection.
  25. 25. Humans Rights 26th article 1. Everyone has the right to education. The statement is free of charge, at least in fundamental and elementary grades. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be accessible to all, as well as the statement above, this based on merit. 2. The statement is geared towards the full development of human personality and strengthen respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. The statement shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all Nations and racial or religious groups, and will complement the activities of the United Nations for peacekeeping. 3. Parents have priority of law no choice of instruction which shall be ministered genre to their children.
  26. 26. Humans Rights 27th article 1. Everyone has the right to participate freely in cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to participate in the scientific process and its benefits. 2. Everyone has the right to protection of moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which is the author.
  27. 27. Humans Rights 28th article Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.
  28. 28. Humans Rights 29th article 1. Everyone has duties to the community, in which the free and full development of his personality is possible. 2. In the exercise of their rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for fundamental rights and freedoms of others and meet the fair demands of morality, public order and welfare of a democratic society. 3. These rights and freedoms may not, under any circumstances, be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
  29. 29. Humans Rights 30th article Nothing in this declaration should be interpreted as recognition to any State, group or person, the right to exercise any activity or perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.
  30. 30. Animals Rights Because the animals were treated so badly decided to create, in 27th January 1978, the “Universal Declaration of Animals Rights”. It is used to defend its rights, that are usually forgot.
  31. 31. Animals Rights 1st Article: All the animals born equal and have the same rights to existence.
  32. 32. Animals Rights 2nd Article: 1. Every animal has the right to be respected. 2. The man, like a animal species, can’t attribute him the right to exterminate the other animals or to exploit them, in violation of that right. He has the obligation to put his knowledge to the animals. 3. All the animals have the right to attention, care and protection of man.
  33. 33. Animals Rights 3rd Article: 1. No animal will be subjected to bad manners or even cruel acts. 2. If the death of an animal is necessary, it must be instantaneous, painless and not generate anguish.
  34. 34. Animals Rights 4th Article: 1. Every animal that belongs to a wild species has the right to live free in its natural environment, land, air or water, and to reproduce. 2. Any deprivation of liberty, including some that have educational purposes, is opposed this right.
  35. 35. Animals Rights 5th Article: Every animal that belongs to a species that live traditionally in contact with man, has the right to live and to grow with the conditions of life and freedom that be appropriate of its species. Any modification of that rhythm or conditions, which is imposed by man with commercial purposes, is opposed this right.
  36. 36. Animals Rights 6th Article: Every animal that man has chosen as a friend, has the right to the duration of its life be according to their natural longevity. The abandonment of an animal is cruel and degrading act.
  37. 37. Animals Rights 7th Article: Every animal that work has the right to a reasonable limit of time and intensity of work, an adequate food and rest.
  38. 38. Animals Rights 8th Article: An animal experimentation that involve a physical and psychological suffering isn’t compatible with the animals rights, whether they be medical, scientific, commercial or any other kind of experimentation. The experimental and alternatives techniques must be used and developed.
  39. 39. Animals Rights 9th Article: When an animal is bred for human food, it must be fed, housed and transported, like sacrificed without that with those acts result pain or anxiety.
  40. 40. Animals Rights 10th Article: Animals mustn’t be exploited for human entertainment. Animals exhibitions and shows that made use of animals, aren’t compatibles with animal dignity. 11th Article: Any act that causes the death of an animal, without necessity, is a crime against life.
  41. 41. Animals Rights 12th Article: Every act that causes the death of a large number of wild species is genocide, that is, a crime against the species. The contamination and destruction of the natural environment lead to genocide.
  42. 42. Animals Rights 13th Article: A death animal must be treating with respect. Violent scenes in which animals are the victims, should be forbidden in the cinema and in the television, except if these scenes are meant to show the attacks against animals rights.
  43. 43. Animals Rights 14th Article: The organisms of protection and safeguard of the animals must be represented at government level. Animals rights must be defended by law, like are human rights.
  44. 44. Plants Rights Like us plants have rights. The “Universal Declaration of Plants Rights” is constitued by 22 articles.
  45. 45. Plants Rights 1st article We declare by principle that plants have a right to live, just as animals do, free of excessive human exploitation, be it the name of science or sport, exhibition or service, nutrition or fashion. The goal ultimately is to avoid the risk of extinction of any species. A healthy vegetation in Nature benefits humans and animals alike.
  46. 46. Plants Rights 2nd article Intervene by all means possible to help species in danger of extinction. 3rd article Ensure protection in all places, including remote areas with endemic vegetation, from cloud forests, table mountains and high barren plateaus, down to beaches, mangrove swamps and deserts. There are very fragile wetlands as well as vegetated areas close to cities, which must be protected.
  47. 47. Plants Rights 4th article Protect remaining tropical forests in developing countries against the indiscriminate use of highly destructive mechanized equipment, such as chainsaws or even tools of minor destructive power like machetes. Legislation against the indiscriminate cutting of trees in those countries must be assured.
  48. 48. Plants Rights 5th article Ban all looting of endemic plants for collectors and avoid buying plants that have not been grown but plundered from the forest. Not create private herbaria of rare plants, which may be in danger of extinction.
  49. 49. Plants Rights 6th article Let us eliminate all the depreciative words referring to plants. There are synonyms, like sub-vegetation, invasive plants, etc. but above all, each plant has a name, the so called scientific name, which consists of the names of the genus and species in addition to the name of the family it belongs to. This approach calls for education and respect that is learned from childhood and through schooling, including to university level. In this way we learn to observe, understand and appreciate plants.
  50. 50. Plants Rights 7th article Avoid cruelty against plants such as inadequate pruning or excessive lopping or any other unwise procedure, which often can cause the death of the plant. 8th article Limit and aim to halt destructive shifting cultivation (slash and burn) by addressing the underlying social and ecological causes.
  51. 51. Plants Rights 9th article Avoid fires at all costs. Fire entails the risk of spreading into other zones of vegetation in the neighborhood and can damage forever biodiversity and a region's climate. 10th article Recommend non-degrading methods as alternatives to "slash and burn" practice, abandon the use of fire, reduce monoculture - changing species to be cultivated - and conserve nitrogen-fixing bacteria like rhizobium, and fungus like mycorrhizas, etc. Ask for the assistance of experts in agriculture.
  52. 52. Plants Rights 11th article Encourage the cultivation of nourishing, medicinal, ornamental and other useful plants of all types and protect them against insects and other animals, preferably in a way that is non-damaging to the environment.
  53. 53. Plants Rights 12th article The botanist researcher should work together with people, who take care of living plants. Scientific institutions, universities and botanical gardens ought to dispose of trained horticulturists with vast experience in plant reproduction, who take into consideration the feasibility of growing plants at different altitudes and different climates, or an adequate environment is created.
  54. 54. Plants Rights 13th article Create seed banks and germplasm banks for the genetic care of plants and establish nurseries in each region with its typical flora, not just for man's utilization for nutrition or ornamental purposes, but for all plants, as if it were a live herbarium to be carefully maintained. Encourage the development of nurseries in general. 14th article Seek to have continuity in the care of plants, in public as well as in private collections, frequently looked after by senior citizens.
  55. 55. Plants Rights 15th article Many seeds are lost in Nature and we humans should help to propagate and cultivate them in a controlled manner. 16th article Although the plants themselves try to cure their wounds and diseases, we humans may intervene e.g. with tree seals and fumigation. There are experts in this field just as there are veterinarians for animals to keep plants surrounding us healthy.
  56. 56. Plants Rights 17th article Apply the principles and rules of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD) and ban the uncontrolled exploitation of timber for firewood and over- grazing by animals. 18th article Use preferably organic fertilizers for growing plants. Dead plants ought to be used in compost instead of burning them and dead trees left in place as habitat for other species.
  57. 57. Plants Rights 19th article Plants for scientific use may be cultivated in special nurseries or botanical gardens. In modern science, especially genetics, there is an immense quantity of information hidden in plants, that may be studied for the benefit of the plants themselves and for other living beings, including ourselves.
  58. 58. Plants Rights 20th article We have to learn to share our lives with plants in general and particularly with trees that provide us with so many benefits. Historically significant trees should have special protection.
  59. 59. Plants Rights 21st article Seek to eliminate the causes that destroy the ozone layer. The deterioration of the ozone layer is harmful to DNA, photosynthesis, pollination, germination and growth of plants. Seek to eliminate the causes of climate change. An increase in environmental temperature has already been detected with important climatic changes and implications for plants worldwide.
  60. 60. Plants Rights 22nd article Empower all movements acting in defence of plants to voice their views and to vote at government level in order that the continued devastation of the planet will not be continued. Furthermore, plants could have the support of an international organization which devotes itself to the rights of the plants, applying the principle of "Reverence for life".
  61. 61. Rights Many things in the world has rights, like humans, animals, plants, … They are treated so badly that some of them die. So, were created some laws about the rights and the liberty of them. Their rights must be respected.
  62. 62. Sitografia http://direitosdosanimais.no.sapo.pt/direitosdosanimais.htm http://www.junior.te.pt/servlets/Rua?P=Animais&ID=1024 http://www.avepalmas.org/rights.htm