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Actuators & Sensors Team <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operate actuators and sensors to carry out mission cont...
Section Outline <ul><li>Deployed Sensors & Actuators </li></ul><ul><li>Ballistic Cutter Actuator Design </li></ul><ul><li>...
Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><ul><li>Compass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GPS (navigation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GP...
Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>The following components are covered in the sections on Navigation & Communication: <...
Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>The following sensors are being developed by the Mechanical Engineering.  </li></ul><...
Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>Pressure (wing) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor: MPX5100DP Case867c, “Motorola” </li></u...
Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>Pressure (wing) … continued </li></ul>
Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>Pressure (absolute)   </li></ul><ul><li>Use: compute altitude </li></ul><ul><li>Senso...
Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>Pressure (absolute)  … continued </li></ul>
Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>Temperature (wing) </li></ul><ul><li>Wing temp. Important scientific data </li></ul><...
Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>Temperature (wing) … continued </li></ul>
Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>Temperature (external & internal) </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor: TMP100 temp. sensor, “Tex...
Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>Temperature … continued </li></ul>
Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>Accelerometers </li></ul><ul><li>To collect scientific data, two accelerometers are u...
Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>Accelerometers  … continued </li></ul>1 2 3 7 6 5 8 4 +3V R set 8051 X out Y out T2 A...
Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>High Current Switch </li></ul><ul><li>Part: IPS031 Power MOSFET from “International R...
Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>High Current Switch … continued </li></ul>
Ballistic Cutter Actuator  Tantalum Cap scalable
Ballistic Cutter Actuator Circuit
Future Needs <ul><li>Any necessary sensor or actuator interface circuitry will be provided as needed.  </li></ul><ul><li>F...
Risks & Testing <ul><li>Risks:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor failure at low temperature/pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Telemetry Team members: Aaron Welch Archana Vasudevan Dale Reid Chun Guan Matt Field Objective: Develop data strings for c...
Requirements <ul><li>Provide high capacity local storage (black box) for telemetry data </li></ul><ul><li>Provide high ban...
Flash Memory <ul><li>Used in 2 subsystems: 2MB black box and 8MB storage for camera </li></ul><ul><li>SPI interface </li><...
Flash Memory <ul><li>DataFlash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atmel AT45DCB004 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 MByte Capacity </li></u...
Multiplexing Flash Cards <ul><li>Serial In, Serial Out, and Serial Clock lines will all be common connections </li></ul>
Telemetry String <ul><li>Radios operate at 1200 baud </li></ul><ul><li>Data rate to ground: ~2 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>B...
Example Telemetry String Format <ul><li>Bytes 1 to 28: GPS data.  Includes time (hh:mm:ss), altitude, latitude, longitude,...
Byte Breakdown of Sensors <ul><li>29,30: airspeed (differential pressure sensor) </li></ul><ul><li>31-34: altitude (absolu...
Ground Program <ul><li>Used to decode telemetry string for easy reading in realtime </li></ul><ul><li>Gives the ability fo...
Camera Sub-System <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture, process and store digital still images. </li></ul></ul>...
Camera Sub-System Components JPEG Engine FLASH Storage Image Sensor RS-232 SPI 2 Data Bus Camera Driver Global Variables 4
Camera Sub-System Components <ul><li>Camera Module </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Image Sensor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Omniv...
Camera Sub-System Verification <ul><li>In chamber: temperature and pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>On test plane: vibration an...
Parachute Control <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deploy parachute to terminate mission as prescribed by the seque...
Parachute Control Integration Data Bus Flight Control Chute Control Mission Control Global Variables Camera Driver GPS Com...
Parachute Control Requirements <ul><li>Deploy at Fixed Minimum Altitude </li></ul><ul><li>Deploy on Request from Mission C...
Parachute Control Components Data Bus Chute Actuator Chute Control Global Variables GPS analog 1 4 TTL Altimeter 2 Altimet...
Parachute Control Components <ul><li>Processor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silicon Labs 310 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Altimeter </l...
Parachute Control Failure Identification <ul><li>Monitor Processors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Watchdog Counters in Global Vari...
Parachute Control Verification <ul><li>In chamber: simulated decent. </li></ul><ul><li>On test plane: decent rate, min. al...
Flight Testing <ul><li>Flight Testing Team: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Andrew Simpson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arvind Santhan...
Flight Testing <ul><li>Test fly individual pieces </li></ul>Feb 14 CDR March April Feb May 5 Launch Flight Testing of indi...
Flight Testing <ul><li>Test fly final configuration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Varying altitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Var...
Flight Testing <ul><li>Obtain Lift and Drag for wing from wind tunnel </li></ul><ul><li>Test inviscid and viscous numerica...
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  1. 1. Actuators & Sensors Team <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operate actuators and sensors to carry out mission control and scientific data collection tasks. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requirements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design sensor/controller interface hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Members: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nathir Rawashdeh (lead), Garrett Chandler, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chenxing Wang, Srinivasa Patri & Z. Cai </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Section Outline <ul><li>Deployed Sensors & Actuators </li></ul><ul><li>Ballistic Cutter Actuator Design </li></ul><ul><li>Risks and Testing </li></ul>
  3. 3. Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><ul><li>Compass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GPS (navigation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GPS (APRS communication) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wing Strain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UV Sensor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure (inflation tank, wing, absolute) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature (wing, external & internal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accelerometers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Current Switch </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>The following components are covered in the sections on Navigation & Communication: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compass (for Navigation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GPS (for Navigation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GPS (for APRS communication) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>The following sensors are being developed by the Mechanical Engineering. </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary interface circuitry will be provided. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wing Strain (scientific data) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UV Sensor (for wing curing process) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure (inflation tank) see inflation group </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>Pressure (wing) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor: MPX5100DP Case867c, “Motorola” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Range: 0 – 100 kPa (0 – 14.5 psi) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output Range: 0.2 t 4.7 Volts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size: 0.41 x 29.4 x 29.9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating Temp: -40 to 125 ºC </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>Pressure (wing) … continued </li></ul>
  8. 8. Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>Pressure (absolute) </li></ul><ul><li>Use: compute altitude </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor: 15PSI-A-4v from “All Sensors” </li></ul><ul><li>Size: 1.1” x 1.08” x 1.03” </li></ul><ul><li>Range: 0 ±0.3 to 15 psi </li></ul><ul><li>Output: Ratiometric 4V </li></ul><ul><li>Temp: -25 to 85ºC, 5 to 50ºC compensated </li></ul>
  9. 9. Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>Pressure (absolute) … continued </li></ul>
  10. 10. Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>Temperature (wing) </li></ul><ul><li>Wing temp. Important scientific data </li></ul><ul><li>Use MAX6674 thermocouple interface chip (?) </li></ul><ul><li>Size: 0.197” x 0.157” x 0.069” (5x4x1.75 mm) </li></ul><ul><li>Weight: < .035 oz. (< 1g) </li></ul><ul><li>Power Consumption: 1mA@3V </li></ul><ul><li>8-pin SO Package,SPI- compatible serial interface </li></ul><ul><li>Range: 0°C to +128 °C @ 0.125 °C resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy: ±2 °C for the range 0 °C to +125 °C </li></ul><ul><li>Interface: SPI </li></ul>
  11. 11. Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>Temperature (wing) … continued </li></ul>
  12. 12. Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>Temperature (external & internal) </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor: TMP100 temp. sensor, “Texas Instr.” </li></ul><ul><li>Size: 0.12” x 0.067” x 0.037” (3 x 1.7 x 0.95mm) </li></ul><ul><li>Power Consumption: 45µA@3V </li></ul><ul><li>Range: -55º to 125ºC, ±1º , ±0.0625ºC resolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Interface: I2C Interface 40ms conversion rate, 25 conversions per second </li></ul>
  13. 13. Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>Temperature … continued </li></ul>
  14. 14. Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>Accelerometers </li></ul><ul><li>To collect scientific data, two accelerometers are used to measure the attitude of the aircraft (orientation of axes relative to the horizon) </li></ul><ul><li>Sensors: Analog Dev. ADXL202E and ADXL210 </li></ul><ul><li>Power Consumption: <0.6mA @ 3V </li></ul><ul><li>Operating Temperature: -40 to 85 °C </li></ul><ul><li>Range: -2 to 2g , -10 to 10g </li></ul><ul><li>Interface: Duty cycle using 1 PCA input per axis </li></ul>
  15. 15. Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>Accelerometers … continued </li></ul>1 2 3 7 6 5 8 4 +3V R set 8051 X out Y out T2 ADXL202E X channel Duty Cycle output Y channel Duty Cycle output
  16. 16. Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>High Current Switch </li></ul><ul><li>Part: IPS031 Power MOSFET from “International Rectifier” </li></ul><ul><li>Use: provide bursts of high current. For example, ballistic cutter, ATV cam, solenoid actuators etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Size: roughly 10 x 20 x 5 mm </li></ul><ul><li>Range: 12A, 18A bursts </li></ul><ul><li>Protected: shuts off if current>12A or if too hot </li></ul><ul><li>Features: low-current logic level inputs </li></ul>
  17. 17. Deployed Sensors & Actuators <ul><li>High Current Switch … continued </li></ul>
  18. 18. Ballistic Cutter Actuator Tantalum Cap scalable
  19. 19. Ballistic Cutter Actuator Circuit
  20. 20. Future Needs <ul><li>Any necessary sensor or actuator interface circuitry will be provided as needed. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parachute or wing-door </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>deployment verification signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wing lift measurements </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Risks & Testing <ul><li>Risks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor failure at low temperature/pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interference & Errors can falsely trigger actuators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low battery when deploying chute </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Testing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive during development and at launch site. Test functionality at low temp/pressure. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Telemetry Team members: Aaron Welch Archana Vasudevan Dale Reid Chun Guan Matt Field Objective: Develop data strings for communication with ground stations and for logging data into the black box during the flight.
  23. 23. Requirements <ul><li>Provide high capacity local storage (black box) for telemetry data </li></ul><ul><li>Provide high bandwidth communication with ground </li></ul><ul><li>Develop reasonable coding scheme for telemetry data, possibly for each stage of flight </li></ul>
  24. 24. Flash Memory <ul><li>Used in 2 subsystems: 2MB black box and 8MB storage for camera </li></ul><ul><li>SPI interface </li></ul><ul><li>3V compliant, so no regulation needed </li></ul><ul><li>Available in MMC packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Camera storage may be multiplexed chip selects to conserve I/O pins </li></ul><ul><li>Total I/O pins required: 4 on MC, 5 on camera (if multiplexing required) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Flash Memory <ul><li>DataFlash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atmel AT45DCB004 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 MByte Capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPI Interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.7V - 3.6V Supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two SRAM Buffers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13.2 mW Read Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5V Tolerant Inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment: -40 to 85C </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Multiplexing Flash Cards <ul><li>Serial In, Serial Out, and Serial Clock lines will all be common connections </li></ul>
  27. 27. Telemetry String <ul><li>Radios operate at 1200 baud </li></ul><ul><li>Data rate to ground: ~2 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Black box data rate: variable </li></ul><ul><li>String length to ground: 64 bytes </li></ul><ul><li>String length to black box: 70 bytes </li></ul><ul><li>If sufficient rate available, pictures can be sent down as well </li></ul>
  28. 28. Example Telemetry String Format <ul><li>Bytes 1 to 28: GPS data. Includes time (hh:mm:ss), altitude, latitude, longitude, speed, track, and other data </li></ul><ul><li>Bytes 29 to 60: Sensor data </li></ul><ul><li>Bytes 61 and 62: Software tracking location </li></ul><ul><li>Byte 63: Health check bits </li></ul><ul><li>Byte 64: “/r” byte signaling end of string </li></ul><ul><li>Bytes 65 to 70: Sensor data only for logging </li></ul>
  29. 29. Byte Breakdown of Sensors <ul><li>29,30: airspeed (differential pressure sensor) </li></ul><ul><li>31-34: altitude (absolute pressure sensor) </li></ul><ul><li>35,36: yaw rate (gyro) </li></ul><ul><li>37-42: 3-axis accelerometer </li></ul><ul><li>43,44: compass </li></ul><ul><li>45-48: wing pressure sensors (left and right) </li></ul><ul><li>49,50: wing thermocouple </li></ul><ul><li>51,52: tank pressure </li></ul><ul><li>53,54: chute thermocouple </li></ul><ul><li>55,56: internal temperature </li></ul><ul><li>57,60: Mission length in seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Bit 0: Mission Control microprocessor </li></ul><ul><li>Bit 1: Autopilot microprocessor </li></ul><ul><li>Bit 2: Chute Control microprocessor </li></ul><ul><li>Bit 3: Camera health </li></ul><ul><li>Bit 4: ATV state (on/off) </li></ul><ul><li>Bit 5: Wing/Inflation state </li></ul><ul><li>Bit 6: Door state </li></ul><ul><li>Bit 7: open </li></ul><ul><li>65,66: chip temperature </li></ul><ul><li>67,68: external temperature </li></ul><ul><li>69,70: UV intensity </li></ul>Byte 63: Health check Logged Data only
  30. 30. Ground Program <ul><li>Used to decode telemetry string for easy reading in realtime </li></ul><ul><li>Gives the ability for much more complex encoding schemes </li></ul>
  31. 31. Camera Sub-System <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture, process and store digital still images. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>640x480 Pixel Resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage for 100 Pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image Sensor Stable to -10C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infinite Focal Length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Level Interface </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Camera Sub-System Components JPEG Engine FLASH Storage Image Sensor RS-232 SPI 2 Data Bus Camera Driver Global Variables 4
  33. 33. Camera Sub-System Components <ul><li>Camera Module </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Image Sensor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Omnivision OV7640 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environment: -10 to 70C </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>640 x 480 x 16bpp </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JPEG Engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Omnivision OV528 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Configurable Compression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serial Data Transmission </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Atmel DataFlash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AT45DCB008 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C8051F310 Processor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UART (Camera) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPI (FLASH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I 2 C (Data Bus) </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Camera Sub-System Verification <ul><li>In chamber: temperature and pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>On test plane: vibration and shock. </li></ul><ul><li>On bench: file system and data processing. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Parachute Control <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deploy parachute to terminate mission as prescribed by the sequence or autonomously when failure modes are identified. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Team Members </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Garrett Chandler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>David Jackson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kevin Morris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muthulakshmi Muthukumarasamy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Srinivasa Patri </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osamah Rawashdeh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dale Reid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archana Vasudevan </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Parachute Control Integration Data Bus Flight Control Chute Control Mission Control Global Variables Camera Driver GPS Compass Accelerometers Pressures Altimeter Temperatures Cut Actuator Radio Chute Deploy Altimeter Accelerometers Servos Airspeed Rate Gyros Flash Memory Flash Memory CMOS - JPEG Video Actuators Wing Actuators
  37. 37. Parachute Control Requirements <ul><li>Deploy at Fixed Minimum Altitude </li></ul><ul><li>Deploy on Request from Mission Controller </li></ul><ul><li>Signal Fault Tolerant Firing Circuit </li></ul><ul><li>Automatically Identify and Respond to Error Conditions </li></ul>
  38. 38. Parachute Control Components Data Bus Chute Actuator Chute Control Global Variables GPS analog 1 4 TTL Altimeter 2 Altimeter 1
  39. 39. Parachute Control Components <ul><li>Processor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silicon Labs 310 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Altimeter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All Sensors Corp. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 PSI-A-4V (104 kPa) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chute Actuator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holex 5800 Guillotine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TTL Logic Interface </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Parachute Control Failure Identification <ul><li>Monitor Processors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Watchdog Counters in Global Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reset Counters in Global Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health Identifiers in Global Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitor Data Bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read/Write Tests to Global Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitor Power Bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backup Power Activated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitor Altitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum Set Point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Rate of Decent </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Parachute Control Verification <ul><li>In chamber: simulated decent. </li></ul><ul><li>On test plane: decent rate, min. altitude. </li></ul><ul><li>On bench: awash in radio EMI. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Flight Testing <ul><li>Flight Testing Team: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Andrew Simpson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arvind Santhanakrishnan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Ritchie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daniel Porter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Michiko Usui </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bobby Jones </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Flight Testing <ul><li>Test fly individual pieces </li></ul>Feb 14 CDR March April Feb May 5 Launch Flight Testing of individual components Spring Break W/S Flight Testing of Final Design Test fly final configuration Preparation for Launch 70 58 Total:         10 15 ATV   0 Communications 5 0 Still Camera 5 0 Telemetry 10 16 Sensors/Actuators 0 0 Mission Control 5 0 Chute control 10~15 0 Flight Control Electrical Component 5 6 Parachute 5 3 Tail 5 8 Airframe 0 0 Wing Door 0 0 Inflation System 0 0 Wing Cure Sensor 5 10 Composite Wing Mechanical Component Required Tests Past Tests Test Flights Components  
  44. 44. Flight Testing <ul><li>Test fly final configuration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Varying altitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varying conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drop test at low altitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure G-loads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply to high altitude </li></ul></ul>John Herbst’s Hot Air Balloon
  45. 45. Flight Testing <ul><li>Obtain Lift and Drag for wing from wind tunnel </li></ul><ul><li>Test inviscid and viscous numerical models using CFD (TetrUSS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary Re, Mach number, Alpha and Beta for final configuration </li></ul></ul>
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