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  • 1. Introduction to Computers Prof. Sokol Computer and Information Science Brooklyn College
  • 2. What is a Computer? <ul><li>A COMPUTER is an electronic device that can: </li></ul><ul><li>Receive information </li></ul><ul><li>Perform processes </li></ul><ul><li>Produce output </li></ul><ul><li>Store info for future use. </li></ul>
  • 3. Information Processing Cycle <ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul>
  • 4. Hardware vs. Software <ul><li>Hardware - the physical parts that make up the computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. CPU, memory, disks, CD-ROM drives, printer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software - computer programs and applications. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating system, word processor, games, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Hardware: physical devices that comprise a computer system Printer (output) Monitor (output) Speaker (output) Scanner (input) Mouse (input) Keyboard (input) System unit (processor, memory … ) Storage devices (CD-RW, Floppy, Hard disk, zip, … )
  • 6. What Are The Primary Components Of A Computer ? <ul><li>Input devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Central Processing Unit (control unit and arithmetic/logic unit). </li></ul><ul><li>Memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Output devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Storage devices. </li></ul>
  • 7. Input Devices <ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Mouse </li></ul><ul><li>Scanner </li></ul><ul><li>Camera </li></ul><ul><li>Microphone </li></ul><ul><li>Touchpad </li></ul><ul><li>Stylus </li></ul><ul><li>… .. </li></ul>
  • 8. Central Processing Unit <ul><li>The central processing unit (CPU) is the “brain” of the computer. It: </li></ul><ul><li>interprets instructions to the computer (control unit), </li></ul><ul><li>performs the arithmetic and logical processing (ALU) </li></ul>
  • 9. Memory <ul><li>Memory, also called Random Access Memory or RAM stores: </li></ul><ul><li>instructions waiting to be executed </li></ul><ul><li>data needed by those instructions </li></ul><ul><li>results of processed data </li></ul><ul><li>Any information stored in RAM is lost when the computer is turned off. </li></ul>
  • 10. Memory <ul><li>Data in memory is stored as binary digits (BITS) e.g. 011100101010 </li></ul><ul><li>1 BYTE = 8 bits </li></ul><ul><li>1 byte usually stores 1 text character. </li></ul>
  • 11. Amount Of RAM In Computers <ul><li>We measure the size of memory by telling how many bytes it can hold. </li></ul><ul><li>1 kilobyte = 2 10 bytes = 1024 bytes </li></ul><ul><li>1 megabyte = 2 20 bytes = ~1 million bytes </li></ul><ul><li>1 gigabyte = 2 30 bytes = ~1 billion bytes </li></ul><ul><li>1 terabyte = 2 40 bytes = ~1 trillion bytes </li></ul><ul><li>One megabyte can hold approximately 500 pages of text information. </li></ul>
  • 12. Output Devices <ul><li>Output devices make the information resulting from the processing available for use. </li></ul><ul><li>printer - produces a hard copy of your output </li></ul><ul><li>screen - produces a soft copy of your output </li></ul><ul><li>speakers , etc. </li></ul>
  • 13. Storage Devices <ul><li>Auxiliary storage devices are used for permanent storage of data. </li></ul><ul><li>magnetic disks (hard disks, floppy disks) </li></ul><ul><li>optical disks (CD and DVD drives) </li></ul><ul><li>USB drives and flash memory cards </li></ul>
  • 14. Hard Disks (magnetic storage) <ul><li>Permanent storage that is inside of the computer, and NOT portable . </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of several platters which spin very fast </li></ul><ul><li>Typical hard disks range from 80 GB to 240 GB </li></ul>
  • 15. Optical Discs <ul><li>Use laser to read and write: </li></ul><ul><li>CD-ROM (read only memory), </li></ul><ul><li>CD-RW – (rewritable) </li></ul><ul><li>DVD-ROM </li></ul><ul><li>DVD+RW </li></ul><ul><li>Typical CD’s can store about 700 MB </li></ul><ul><li>Typical DVD’s can store up to 17 GB </li></ul>
  • 16. Flash Cards <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Small, easy to carry around </li></ul><ul><li>High memory capacity – up to 64 GB </li></ul><ul><li>Note: </li></ul><ul><li>There are several different form factors of flash cards, for e.g. CompactFlash, Secure Digital, xD Picture Card, and Memory Stick. </li></ul>
  • 17. Software <ul><li>A computer program or software tells it exactly what to do. </li></ul><ul><li>A computer program is a set of instructions to the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>The computer does one instruction at a time. (Note: a processor may be able to perform 10 million instructions in a tenth of a second.) </li></ul>
  • 18. Software <ul><li>Computer software is the key to productive use of computers. Software can be categorized into two types: </li></ul><ul><li>System software </li></ul><ul><li>Application software. </li></ul>
  • 19. System Software The most important system software is the operating system . Examples of operating systems: Windows, DOS, Apple, UNIX, Linux
  • 20. What is an operating system? <ul><li>An OS is a computer program that: </li></ul><ul><li>Controls the hardware of the computer, </li></ul><ul><li>Enables you to communicate with the computer. </li></ul>
  • 21. Application Software <ul><li>Application Software consists of programs that tell a computer how to produce information. Some of the more commonly used packages are: </li></ul><ul><li>Word processing </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic spreadsheet </li></ul><ul><li>Database </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation graphics </li></ul>
  • 22. Word Processing <ul><li>Word Processing software is used to create and print documents. A key advantage of word processing software is that users easily can make changes in documents. </li></ul>
  • 23. Electronic Spreadsheets <ul><li>Electronic spreadsheet software allows the user to add, subtract, and perform user-defined calculations on rows and columns of numbers. These numbers can be changed and the spreadsheet quickly recalculates the new results. </li></ul>
  • 24. Database Software <ul><li>Allows the user to enter, retrieve, and update data in an organized and efficient manner, with flexible inquiry and reporting capabilities. </li></ul>
  • 25. Presentation Graphics <ul><li>Presentation graphic software allows the user to create documents called slides to be used in making the presentations. Using special projection devices, the slides display as they appear on the computer screen. </li></ul>

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