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Revision Tutorial – Introduction to the PC Product
 

Revision Tutorial – Introduction to the PC Product

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  • Last edited 17 March 2010 Worldwide Computers-in-Use (#M) 5.0 35.2 105.6 237.6 459.5 543.2 721.6 1,044 An estimated 835 million PCs were sold worldwide between 1981 and 2000. (Source: International Data Corp.)
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Revision Tutorial – Introduction to the PC Product Revision Tutorial – Introduction to the PC Product Presentation Transcript

  • Revision Tutorial – Introduction to the PC Product Tutorial Questions A1 to A7 George South Involves material for Q1 and Q2 - compulsory questions in exam
  • Some companies involved in microprocessor technology
    • Microsoft $251 billion Market Capitalisation
    • Apple $186 billion
    • IBM $171 billion
    • Google $168 billion
    • HP $120 billion
    • Intel $113 billion
    • Dell $26 billion
    • Nokia $50 billion
    • Microchip Technology Inc $5 billion
    • AMD £5 billion ARM £5 billion (1-Mar-10)
  • A1 – Major stages in PC Product IBM-PC 8088 PC-bus IBM-AT 80286 AT-bus IBM-PS/2 80386 MCA-bus !!! ISA-PC 80386 ISA-bus ISA-PC 80486 ISA/VL bus PC Pentium Era PCI/ AGP PC Core 2 PCI/ PCIe PC Core i3/i5/i7 PCIe netbook x86-Atom WiFi Clock speed sells x86-Atom Smartphone Nokia ?? PowerPC Not x86 RISC-1994
  • A1 Success of PC Product
    • Simple design – no ASICs
    • PC-bus allowed very easy reconfiguration
    • Low cost 8-bit motherboard
    • 8088 processed 16-bit data internally with hardware multiply, divide etc
    • 8087 co-processor could perform 80-bit arithmetic (1981 !)
    • 8088 had 20-bit address bus ( 1 MByte)
  • A1 PC as de facto standard
    • PC was very popular so a volume market
    • Excellent performance/ price ratio
    • Application developers considered PC product would be long lifed – hence many innovative products e.g. Office tools, low cost networking
    • Having invested effort in learning Windows skills users wanted same environment at home
  • A1 Modern PC performance
    • A modern PC may have 10,000 times the performance of the original PC
    • As we saw in the lab most PCs have about 50 tasks active e.g. Windows Update/ Virus checker etc
    • However unless processing serious multimedia content - a PC may be running the System Idle Process for 99% of time
    • Performance is of course crucial for mm
  • A2 Success of PC/ISA Architecture
    • Developers want a stable hardware platform
    • However there is no standards authority for PCs
    • Standards for the PC were initiated by IBM and continue to be updated by Intel/ AMD (x86 processors and chipsets) and Microsoft (OS)
  • A2 Compliance
    • If you are a hardware manufacturer, the basic rules for the design of a PC require compliance with the design rules embedded in, say, the Intel chipsets
    • The BIOS then ensures that the hardware is initialised usually to provide basic operation prior to the loading of the OS
    • Windows provides basic device drivers for compliant hardware
  • A2 Alternatives to the PC
    • Apple Mac products
    • Now use same x86 processors/ chipsets as PCs
    • Well regarded for good design and usability
    • Relatively expensive
    • No clones
    • 10% of Personal Computer market
  • A2 Alternatives to the PC
    • Games consoles
    • e.g. Xbox 360/ PS3/ Wii
    • These use processors based on the IBM PowerPC e.g. 3.2 GHz PowerPC Tri-Core
    • Hardware is optimised for graphics
  • A3 x86 Legacy
    • Legacy – e.g. retention of low level hardware features means that:
      • old software will run on new hardware
      • new software will run on old hardware
      • 32-bit applications can migrate smoothly to a 64-bit environment as necessary
      • Hardware designs cannot take advantage of latest architectural ideas – e.g. RISC - ARM
      • Hardware gets complex
  • A4 Comparison of PC Products
    • A - Intel® Celeron® Processor 900 (2.20 GHz, 1MB L2 Cache, 800MHz FSB, Intel 64) 45 nm, $70, 410 million transistors, Core 2 Penryn, released Q1 2009
    • B - Intel® Core™ i5-650 (3.2 GHz, 2 Cores, 4 Threads, turbo boost up to 3.46 GHz, 4 MB smart cache) 32 nm, $176, 382 million transistors, Nehalem Clarkdale released Q1 2010
    •  
    • C - Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-920 quad-core processor (2.66GHz, 1MB L2 + 8MB shared L3 cache) 45 nm, $284, 731 million transistors, Nehalem Bloomfield released Q2 2009
  • A4 Comparison of PC Products
    • budget prof enthusiast
    • Turbo Boost No Yes Yes
    • Hyper-Threading No Yes Yes
    • Virtualization Tech No Yes Yes
    • Intel 64 Yes Yes Yes
    • Speedstep No Yes Yes
    • Ex Disable Bit Yes Yes Yes
    • Trusted Execution No Yes No
    •   AES (encryption) No Yes No
    • Active Management No Yes No
    • Product B for the Professional Market
  • A4 Comparison of PC Products
    • A – budget (older technology) – slide 22
    • GM45 chipset (2 chips) plus ICH9 for IO support – FSB technology
    • B – Professional PC – slide 23
    • Q57 chipset (one chip) - See Topic 7 pack – DMI technology
    • C – Enthusiast’s PC – slide 24
    • X58 (2 chips) plus ICH10 - QPI technology
  • A4 Comparison of PC Products
    • A – budget PC
    • DDR2 DRAM – 3 GBytes (max = 4 GBytes)
    • Integrated graphics - GMA 4500MHD
    • B – Professional PC
    • DDR3 DRAM – 4 GBytes (max = 8 GBytes)
    • Integrated graphics - Intel ®  HD Graphics
    • C – Enthusiast’s PC
    • DDR3 DRAM - 6 GBytes (max = 24 GBytes)
    • PCIe graphics - 1GB ATI Radeon HD 4650
  • A4 Comparison of PC Products
    • A – budget PC
    • Disks - 4 SATA 1.5 Gbits/sec
    • 250GB (5,400rpm) Hard Drive
    • B – Professional PC
    • Disks - 6 SATA 3 Gbits/sec
    • mobile - 320GB (5,400rpm)
    • C – Enthusiast’s PC
    • Disks - 6 SATA 3 Gbits/sec
    • 750GB 7200 rpm
  • A5 Trends in PC Product
    • MID Mobile Internet Device
      • Computer with a fast internet connection WiFi , WiMAX or G3/G4/LTE mobile comms
      • Netbook using the Intel Atom processor
      • iPad using the Apple A4 RISC processor
    • The Cloud (internet)
      • Using remote servers e.g. from Google to run applications and store data
  • A6 Future of non-Windows OS
    • Windows is dominant in the desktop and notebook market
    • There will be a massive battle in the MID market e.g. netbooks/ Pads or Slates or Tablets
      • these are less about “Office” and more about mobility and battery life
      • many of the smartphone products see this as a potential market e.g. Apple iPad
  • A6 Future of non-Windows OS
    • There are many distributions of Linux (over 30 ?) the following are used for smartphones/ MIDs etc
    • Maemo (Nokia)/ MobLin (Intel)/ MeeGo / Android (Andriod Inc: Google: Open Handset Alliance/ LiMo (LiMo Foundation)/ WebOS (Palm)
    • Avoids OS license fees e.g. to Microsoft
  • A7 PC maintenance – First Lab
    • PCs are very popular (e.g. in professional environments) but:
      • involve processors which are burdened by x86 legacy
      • use a complex architecture which has to maintain 1980’s ISA legacy
      • run a complex OS and applications which are full of potential security holes
    • PC System administrators require help !!
  • A7 PC maintenance
    • There are a range of admin tools which:
      • Simplify taking a hardware inventory without opening the box
      • Allow conflicts in device requirements to be identified
      • Facilitate identification of hardware limitations e.g. lack of physical memory
      • Assist version control e.g. OS, applications, device drivers, codecs
  • Memory Controller Hub DDR/ DDR2 LVDS to display High Def Audio DDR/ DDR2 Celeron DDR2 Flash BIOS SATA 1.5 Gbps WiFi interface USB 2.0 DDR2 I/O Controller Hub Integrated Graphics GM45 chipset with Celeron A4 - Budget PC FSB Interface LVDS - low voltage differential signalling – laptop display
  • Pentium 4 Intel Q57 Express Chipset DDR/ DDR2 Intel HD Graphics High Def Audio DDR/ DDR2 DDR3 1333 MHz Flash BIOS + *ME Firmware 6 SATA 3.0 Gbps 8 PCI Express x1 USB 2.0 14 ports DDR3 1333 MHz A4 - Professional PC based on Q57 chipset PCI Express 2.0 optional * Trusted Execution Tech Core i3/ i5 /i7 cpu+gpu HDMI, DVI, DisplayPort 10/ 100/ 1000 LAN DMI Interface 2 GBytes/sec FDI Interface * Chipset and processor support vPro Professional PC management
  • Pentium 4 X58 IOH DDR/ DDR2 High Def Audio DDR/ DDR2 DDR3 1333 MHz Flash BIOS 6 SATA 3.0 Gbps 6 PCI Express x1 USB 2.0 12 ports DDR3 1333 MHz A4 - PC based on i7-9xx and x58 chipset PCI Express 2.0 x36 Core I7-9xx 10/ 100/ 1000 LAN QPI Interface 25 GB/sec DDR3 1333 MHz ICH10 DMI Interface 2 GB/sec
  • Pentium 4 Memory Controller Hub DDR/ DDR2 LVDS to display High Def Audio DDR/ DDR2 Celeron DDR2 Flash BIOS SATA 1.5 Gbps WiFi interface USB 2.0 DDR2 I/O Controller Hub Integrated Graphics GM45 chipset with Celeron Budget PC
  • SATA eSATA Smart Storage Core i3, i5, i7 Q57 for Professional Market PCIe x16 PCIe x1
  • X58 chipset – Core i7-9xx 04/15/10 Enthusiast's PC