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ReBoot Hardware.ppt

ReBoot Hardware.ppt






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  • The first part of this presentation is about BIOS, which is a simple software which tests the computer hardware and provides basic information about it to the user and to the computer operating system. BIOS settings are stored on Flash memory chips located on the motherboard. Power to maintain bios settings is provided by a small battery. This battery is usually a nickel sized disk.
  • When power is turned on, Bios first runs the Power-On Self Test, (called POST). This identifies, analyzes, and sets up components according to the values provided by the BIOS setup. Errors can have different results. Some are fatal.. A single beep means everything is OK.
  • Some errors are reported by either a written screen message or by a sequence of beeps. These error messages can be interpreted by checking the motherboard manual, manufacturer’s website, or visiting the websites listed.
  • Read slide
  • Let’s look at the BIOS setup on the computer you are looking at. Restart the computer and see if you can get into the BIOS.
  • If you can get into the BIOS setup, what is to keep students out. Think what might happen if a student changes the settings for the hard drive, or even sets a password. There are procedures for bypassing a forgotten password. Some BIOS programs have a master password. Some motherboards have password override jumpers. If none of these are available, you can remove the CMOS battery, which will eliminate all BIOS settings.
  • You can’t order just any memory for a computer. Motherboards may require specific kinds and sizes of memory, and may require that slots be filled in specific ways.
  • If you can’t find required information about memory upgrades in computer or motherboard manuals, some websites will help.
  • These recommendations are appropriate for any computer upgrade or repair situation, not just memory upgrades.
  • Use the motherboard for demonstration.
  • This picture shows one ISA slot at the bottom, 5 white PCI slots , and in the upper right, an Accelerated Graphics Port slot. Most cards come in ISA and PCI versions. Video cards can be any of the three.
  • If your bios says there is no operating system or no hard drive, start looking for reasons. If you a steady repeated clicking, your hard drive has probably died.
  • Demonstrate with the parts available.
  • Demonstrate with available parts. Jumpers are usually on the back, but not always. There is usually a chart somewhere on the drive, usually the top. Also, SCSI drives have a completely different jumper system.
  • Demonstrate ribbon and power cable removal with the samples. Emphasize orientation of red stipe and wire, and caution about bending the pins in the ribbon cable slot.
  • Emphasize checking tightness and correctness of connections.

ReBoot Hardware.ppt ReBoot Hardware.ppt Presentation Transcript

  • ReBoot Hardware Module 19
  • BIOS/CMOS/Flash Memory Chip
    • BIOS or BIOS ROM = Basic Input/Output System
      • Lowest level software in the computer
      • Provides access to system hardware for the computer operating system
    • BIOS settings are stored on CMOS or Flash Memory Chips.
      • Older Computer have CMOS chips = c omplementary m etal o xide s emiconductor
      • Newer computers have Flash Memory Chips, which can be updated with BIOS revisions.
  • BIOS’ first task: POST
    • POST = Power-On Self Test
      • Identifies, analyzes, and sets up the components in the computer: keyboard, video, etc.
      • Some errors are fatal – system stops dead. (Example: no memory)
      • Single beep means system OK, and the boot continues.
  • POST Error Messages
      • .
      • Errors are reported with speaker beeps or printed code messages.
      • Beeps and coded messages can be interpreted – see motherboard manual, manufacturer’s website, or
      • go to PC Hell at http:// www.pchell.com/hardware/beepcodes.shtml
      • Or, go to a more extensive list of both beeps and messages at http://bioscentral.com/
  • BIOS Setup
    • How to get in?
      • Press a key or combination of keys before the operating systems starts to load.
    • What keys?
      • Key combinations are usually shown on boot screen.
    • Screen disappears too fast to read?
      • Press the pause key. This stops the boot processes and freezes the screen so you can read it. (Press enter to continue the boot.)
    • No keys displayed?
      • Check your motherboard or computer manual, or check the manufacturer’s Internet site.
      • Some information is at http://www.michaelstevenstech.com/bios_manufacturer.htm
  • BIOS Setup
    • Why?
      • Error code needs attention. (hard drive, memory, etc.)
      • You need information about BIOS settings or computer hardware.
      • You want to make changes in settings, such as passwords.
    • Warning: Making changes to BIOS settings can have adverse effects on the way a computer performs. Use caution when performing BIOS modifications.
  • BIOS Passwords
    • Security Passwords - security passwords to control access to the system at boot time and/or when entering the BIOS setup program. Supervisor Password supersedes User Password.
    • Forgot Your Passwords!!!!
      • There is hope…For procedures, go to http://www.pcguide.com/ts/x/comp/mbsys/cmosLostPassword-c.html
  • Forgot your Password!!!
    • Recommendations: from http://www.pcguide.com/
    • If you haven't already, and if you can live without the machine for a day or so, wait and try to remember the password. This is the best solution, if you can remember it. :^)
    • If your system has an AMI BIOS, try the default password, which is either "AMI" or "ami". This will not usually work, but is worth a try.
    • If you cannot get into the BIOS program, your only remaining option is to try to clear the CMOS memory that holds BIOS settings. Included in this memory is the password, so this will let you get back into the PC. See here for instructions on erasing the CMOS memory .
  • EDO, SDRAM, RDRAM, SRAM, DDR SDRAM, DDR2 SDRAM, non-pariety, configuration, pins, sizes??
    • Memory – things to think about?
    • How much memory do I need?
    • How much memory will my system recognize?
    • What kind of memory is compatible with my system?
    • How many sockets are open and how should I fill them? All the same? descending order? Fill which first?
    • Quality, Prices, ???
  • Order Carefully!
    • Some machines have specific memory requirements.
      • Check computer or motherboard manuals.
      • Check manufacturer websites.
      • Many suppliers offer a configuration search page to help you avoid mistakes. Some Examples.
        • http:// www.crucial.com / http:// www.shop.kingston.com/default.asp?bannersource = comju
        • http:// www.pny.com/configurator /
        • http:// www.comtread.com /
  • Before you install…
    • Place your computer's power switch in the off position and disconnect the AC power cord.
    • Follow the instructions in your owner's manual that describe how to locate your computer's memory expansion sockets.
    • Before touching any electronic components or opening the package containing your new module(s), make sure you first touch an unpainted, grounded metal object to discharge any static electricity you may have stored on your body or clothing.
    • Handle your new module(s) carefully; do not flex or bend the module(s). Always grasp the module by its edges.
    • The above from http://www.kingston.com/tools/umg/umg07.asp
  • Installing DIMM Memory
    • Spread the ejector tabs on each end of the socket apart.
    • Align the notches on the bottom edge of the Dimm with the tabs in bottom of the socket.
    • Slide the card into the grooves on each end of the socket, and carefully push the card straight down until the ejector tabs pop up and catch the ends of the card.
    • Check to see if the Dimm is correctly seated and tight.
  • Installing Older Style Simm Memory
    • Note that one side of the card has a cutout on one lower edge. One end of the socket will fit this cutout. Both ends of the socket have spring tabs that will hold the Simm upright and in place. Also you must match the notch in the bottom of the Simm with a tab in the socket.
    • Align the memory card with the socket at about a 45 degree angle.
    • Seat the bottom of the Simm into the socket, snap the top gently upright, so the ends are held by the snap springs.
  • Cards?
    • PCI, ISA, AGP,
    • Video, Sound, SCSI controller, Network?
  • Card Install & Uninstall
    • To install, remove the slot cover, usually by removing a screw at the top.
    • Align the card with the socket and push it gently and firmly until it is seated.
    • Reinstall the screw to secure the card.
    • To uninstall, remove the screw, and pull the card straight up out of the socket.
    • Put a spare slot cover in the space where you removed the card.
  • Hard Drives
    • Is it really dead?
      • No longer recognized by BIOS? Check to see if settings have been changed.
      • Check that ribbon cable and power cable are correctly installed.
      • Check Jumpers for correct master or slave setting.
      • Dreaded Click of the Dead Hard Drive.. RIP
  • Troubleshooting chart , from http://www.fonerbooks.com/ide_hd.htm
  • Find the Hard Drive
    • Place your computer's power switch in the off position and disconnect the AC power cord.
    • Remove the case cover. On a tower you may need to remove both sides.
    • The IDE hard drive should be in one of the 3.5 inch drive bays. It will usually be held in the bay by 2 screws on each side.
    • The drive will be connected to the motherboard by a ribbon cable, and connected to the power supply by a standard 4 wire power connector.
  • IDE Ribbon (Data) Cable, and Power Cable
    • These cables are connected to the back of the drive.
    • Remember the orientation of these cables, using the red wire on the power cable and the red strip on the ribbon as guides.
  • Configuration Jumpers
    • If there are two devices connected to the IDE cable, one must be designated as master, or primary device, and the other must be slave, or secondary device.
    • Configuration jumpers on the back of the drive assign this role.
  • Removal
    • Gently remove the ribbon data cable from the rear of the drive by pulling on the plastic end piece, not the ribbon.
    • Note that the ribbon cable is connected on the other end into the motherboard.
    • There may be two drives connected to the ribbon cable.
    • The red edge of the ribbon cable is connected it to pin 1.
    • Do the same with the power cable. Note the orientation of the power cable.
    • Remove the 4 screws and slide the drive out of its bay.
    • Don’t Drop The Drive. It’s Fragile!
  • Installation
    • Set the jumper configuration.
    • Follow the preceding steps in reverse to reinstall the drive.
    • Check the drive ribbon cable, power connector, and all other connections that you may have touched to make sure they are correctly installed and tight.
  • Sources of Information and Images
    • http://www.fonerbooks.com/pcrepair.htm
    • http://www.bioscentral.com/
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BIOS
    • http://www.pcguide.com/index.htm
    • http://www.bios-drivers.com/
    • http://www.michaelstevenstech.com/bios_manufacturer.htm
    • http:// www.pchell.com/hardware/beepcodes.shtml
    • http://www.pchell.com/
    • http://www.youcanbuildapc.com/images/pcislots.jpg
    • http://www.mid.muohio.edu/computer/techtips/images/cards3.jpg
    • http://www.computermemoryupgrade.net/types-of-computer-memory-common-uses.html
    • http://www.kingston.com/tools/umg/umg07.asp
    • http://www.fonerbooks.com/ide_hd.htm
    • http://www.pcguide.com/proc/physinst/hdd.htm
    • http://www.hitachigst.com/hdd/support/images/cablemt.jpg
    • http://www.wizri.com/wdold.gif
    • http://www.ontrack.com/jumperviewer/
    • http://www.pcworld.com/hereshow/graphics/47370-1906p194-5b.jpg