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  • Instructor Tip When gaining attention and establishing common ground, ask questions of the class such as, “Who here has ever installed a floppy drive?” or “Where is pin 1 on a floppy drive?” For a positive statement, tell the class, “In this lesson, we are going to learn about various floppy drives, how they work, and how to recognize and install them.”
  • Tech Tip Floppies and booting It’s easy to forget and leave a floppy disk in the computer when you shut it down. If you boot a system with a non-bootable floppy disk in the A: drive, the system will attempt to boot off that floppy and, finding no actual operating system, will respond with an error message similar to this: Non-system Disk or Disk Error Replace and press any key to reboot Or you might see this equally famous error: No operating system found If you get this sort of error message, smack yourself in the forehead (okay, that part’s optional), pop out the floppy disk, and press any key to let the system start normally. Not that I have ever done this myself, of course!
  • DVDs are called both digital video discs and digital versatile discs . Movie rentals on DVD have taken over VHS rentals.
  • Tech Tip MPEG Standards Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) is a group of compression standards for audio and video. Reproducing video and sound on the PC provides interesting challenges for developers. How do you take a motion picture from film, translate it into ones and zeroes that the CPU understands, process those bits, and then send high-quality video and sound to the monitor and speakers for the pleasure of the computer user? How much data do you think is required to display even a 2-minute clip of a car racing through a city street, in all the minute detail of the shops, people, screeching tires, road debris, and so on? For that matter, how do you store the obviously huge amount of data required to do this? To handle these chores, the Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG) have released various coding standards, such as MPEG-1, MPEG-2, and MPEG-4. Each standard provides a different compression algorithm, which makes the files manageable. The standards also implement various technologies to handle movement and such, called motion compensation. The details of the standards matter a lot to the folks producing the movies and other video and audio content, but here’s the short answer that should suffice for the purposes of a PC tech. MPEG-1 is the standard upon which video and MP3, among other technologies, are based. The most common implementations of this standard provide a resolution of 352 × 240 at 30 frames per second (fps). This video quality falls just below that of a conventional VHS video. One well-known subset of MPEG-1 is better known for audio than video. MPEG-1 Layer 3, better known as MP3 format, dominates the world of audio. MP3 takes an uncompressed audio file and compresses it dramatically, but the algorithm is so tight that the music that comes out of the speakers remains almost completely faithful to the original audio file. To paraphrase a catch phrase from the ’80s—I want my MP3s! MPEG-2 is the standard that supports such technologies as digital TV set-top boxes and DVD. This standard provides resolutions of 720 × 480 and 1280 × 720 at 60 fps, plus CD-quality audio, making it adequate for all major TV standards, even HDTV. MPEG-2 is the standard that covers DVD-ROM technology—it can compress 2 hours of video into a file no larger than a few gigabytes. Although encoding video into MPEG-2 format requires a computer with some serious firepower, even a modest PC can decompress and play such a video. The MPEG-4 standard is based on MPEG-1, MPEG-2, and Apple’s QuickTime technology. MPEG-4 graphics and video files use what’s known as wavelet compression to create files that are more compact than either JPEG or QuickTime files. This superior compression makes MPEG-4 popular for delivering video and images over the Web.
  • To learn more about DVDs, visit www.dvddemystified.com
  • Exercise Troubleshooting As with other exercises, try changing jumpers, disconnecting cables, misconfiguring SCSI IDs, etc., and let your students troubleshoot. Do not reverse the ribbon cable on an SCSI CD-ROM; that will most likely destroy the drive.
  • Tech Tip CD image files Disk images are used quite often in the CD-burning world. A CD image, more commonly known as an ISO image, is a complete CD stored as a single massive file on your hard drive. It is common practice to use your burning software to create an ISO image and then use that ISO image to make multiple copies of an audio or data CD. However, Windows XP currently does not support the creation or burning of ISO images—which is one reason that many people who run Windows XP still use third-party burning software.
  • PP_ch11f.ppt

    1. 1. Removable Media Chapter 11
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>In this chapter, you will learn to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain and install floppy disk drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate the variations among flash drives and other tiny drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and install optical-media technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Troubleshoot removable-media drives </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. What Is Removable Media? <ul><li>Floppy drives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional floppy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flash drives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USB thumb drives to flash memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optical media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-ROMs to DVDs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External drives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any drive that connects via an external cable </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Floppy Drive Basics
    5. 5. Floppy Drives <ul><li>Floppy disk inserts into floppy drive </li></ul><ul><li>Lit LED indicates data is being read or written to disk </li></ul>3½-inch 1.44 MB disappearing 5¼-inch legacy
    6. 6. Installing Floppy Drives Essentials CompTIA A+ Essentials
    7. 7. Installing Floppy Drives <ul><li>Floppy drives designated A: or B: </li></ul><ul><li>Floppy drives connect to the computer via a 34-pin ribbon cable </li></ul><ul><li>Cables supporting two floppy drives use a seven-wire twist </li></ul>
    8. 8. Inserting Ribbon Cables <ul><li>Connect Pin 1 on cable to Pin 1 on motherboard </li></ul><ul><li>Pin 1 on cable has red stripe </li></ul><ul><li>Many connectors are notched </li></ul>
    9. 9. Installing Floppy Drives <ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3½-inch use mini-connector </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CMOS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually configured to use 3½ inch, 1.44 MB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can disable Boot Up Floppy Seek </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can change boot order to boot off floppy </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Flash Memory
    11. 11. Flash Memory <ul><li>Same type of memory used in CMOS </li></ul><ul><li>Two different families </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USB thumb drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory cards </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. USB Thumb Drives <ul><li>Commonly used as replacement for floppy disks to transport data </li></ul><ul><li>AKA jump drive or flash drive </li></ul><ul><li>Hot-swappable </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-platform compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>Can create bootable thumb drives </li></ul>
    13. 13. Memory or Flash Cards <ul><li>Compact Flash (CF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use simplified PCMCIA bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two sizes: CF I and CF II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are actually micro hard drives with platters and heads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SmartMedia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was competitor to CF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaced by Secure Digital </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Memory or Flash Cards <ul><li>Secure Digital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common today </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of postage stamp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SD and SDIO versions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mini and micro forms available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular in cell phones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Memory Stick </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sony proprietary format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in Sony devices that use flash memory </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Memory or Flash Cards <ul><li>xD Picture Card </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by Olympus (proprietary) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used almost exclusively in Olympus and Fujifilm digital cameras </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Version available in USB housing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Card Readers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow reading the different types of memory cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available separately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often installed in PC </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Optical Drives
    17. 17. CD-Media <ul><li>Includes CD- and DVD-media </li></ul><ul><li>Generically called optical discs </li></ul><ul><li>Drives called optical drives </li></ul><ul><li>Includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-ROM, CD-R, CD-RW, DVD, DVD+RW, HD-DVD </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. How CDs Work <ul><li>Stores data in microscopic pits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burned in with power laser on glass master </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copies made on plastic copies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covered with reflective metallic covering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data on top under label </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written in “pits” and “lands” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard CD holds about 650 MB </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. CD Formats <ul><li>CD-Digital Audio (CDDA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Music CDs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CD-ROM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Added file support and directory structure for PCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many different types </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ISO-9660 defines CD File System (CDFS) </li></ul>
    20. 20. CD Formats <ul><li>IUSO-9660 Extensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joliet Microsoft’s extension Supported by Mac and Linux </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rock Ridge Open standard for UNIX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>El Torito Enabled bootable CDs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apple Extensions Proprietary Can’t be read by Windows </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. CD-ROM Speeds <ul><li>First CD-ROM had speed of 150 KBps </li></ul><ul><li>All others multiples of 150 KBps </li></ul>1X 150 KBps 10X 1500 KBps 40X 6000 KBps 2X 300 KBps 12X 1800 KBps 48X 7200 KBps 3X 450 KBps 16X 2400 KBps 52X 7800 KBps 4X 600 KBps 24X 3600 KBps 60X 9000 KBps 6X 900 KBps 32X 4800 KBps 72X 10800 KBps 8X 1200 KBps 36X 5400 KBps
    22. 22. CD-R (CD-Recordable) <ul><li>Gave users ability to record or burn CDs </li></ul><ul><li>CD-Rs come in two sizes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>74-minute 650 MB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80-minute 700 MB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most CD-R burners now support 80-minute CDs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Single-session and multi-session </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single-session data can be added only once </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-session allows data to be added multiple times (all modern CD-Rs are multi-session) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two speeds: read speed and write speed (8x/24x) </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. CD-RW (CD-Rewritable) <ul><li>CD-R drives have been replaced by CD-RW (CD-Rewritable) drives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-R discs sill around (cheaper) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-R can be written to only once </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-RW disks allow data to be written and overwritten </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. CD-RW (CD-Rewritable) <ul><li>CD Rewritable ( CD-RW ) works by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using a laser to heat an amorphous (non-crystalline) substance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When cooled slowly becomes crystalline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The crystalline areas are reflective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The amorphous areas are not </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The MultiRead method allows regular CD-ROM drives to read CD-RW discs </li></ul>
    25. 25. CD-RW (CD-Rewritable) <ul><li>Most CD-RW drives today utilize a function called packet writing </li></ul><ul><li>Uses special format called the Universal Data Format (UDF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replacement for ISO-9660 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All movie DVDs use this </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Packet writing and UDF give drag-and-drop capabilities to CD-RW drives </li></ul><ul><li>CD-RW drive specs have three multiplier values: write, rewrite, read (8x4x32) </li></ul>
    26. 26. Windows and CD-media <ul><li>All optical drives ATAPI-compliant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means they plug into ATA controllers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Windows XP supports drag- and-drop for burning data onto CDs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Third-party software needed to create bootable CDs or CDs from ISO images </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Music CDs <ul><li>Different format—Music CD-R </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can record to a Music CD-R or CD-RW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can not record from one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to restrict duplication of copyrighted music </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Digital Video Discs (DVD) <ul><li>Developed by a consortium of electronics and entertainment firms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Released as digital video discs ( DVD ) in 1995 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD uses smaller pits than CD-media and packs them more densely, creating much higher data capacities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both single-sided (SS) and dual-sided (DS) formats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single-layer (SL) and dual-layer (DL) formats </li></ul></ul>DVD Version Capacity DVD-5 (SS/SL) 4.37 GB (> 2 hours of video) DVD-9 (SS/DL) 7.95 GB (@ 4 hours of video) DVD-10 (DS/SL) 8.74 GB (@ 4.5 hours of video) DVD-18 (DS/DL) 15.9 GB (> 8 hours of video)
    29. 29. DVD-Video <ul><li>DVD-Video can store two hours of video on one side </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports TV-style 4:3 aspect ratio screens as well as 16:9 theatre screens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some producers distribute both on opposite sides of the DVD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses MPEG-2 video and audio compression standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 1280x720 at 60 frames per second with CD-quality audio </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. DVD-ROM & Recordable DVD <ul><li>DVD-ROM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to CD-ROM data format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can store up to 16 GB of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support DVD-video and most CD-ROM formats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recordable DVD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD-R and DVD+R </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May write to them like CD-R </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot erase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Written and rewritten like CD-RW </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combo drives can do all of these - look for DVD Multi on the label </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all players read all formats </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Installing Optical Drives <ul><li>Most look the same from a distance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most also install the same way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most use PATA or SATA & support ATAPI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically set up as slave when using PATA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are SCSI or USB </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Installing Optical Drives <ul><li>Does Windows recognize the CD-ROM? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check Device Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To disable Autoplay on XP, use Group Policy </li></ul>
    33. 33. Applications <ul><li>CD-ROM drive installation does not require applications </li></ul><ul><li>CD-R and CD-RW require applications for burning capabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nero Burning ROM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roxio’s Easy Media Creator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CDBurnerXP Pro </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. ISO Files <ul><li>Complete copy of CD or DVD </li></ul><ul><li>Can download ISO image and burn to CD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides fully functional CD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commonly used to share copies of bootable CDs </li></ul>
    35. 35. Troubleshooting Removable Media CompTIA A+ Technician IT Technician
    36. 36. Floppy Drive Maintenance <ul><li>Floppy drives frequently fail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure to outside environment and mechanical damage are common causes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Floppy drive cleaning kits can be used to clean drives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can also use cotton swab with denatured alcohol </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Repairing Floppy Drives <ul><li>Check for a bad floppy disk </li></ul><ul><li>Check for data errors on the disk </li></ul><ul><li>Check the CMOS settings </li></ul><ul><li>Blame the floppy controller </li></ul><ul><li>Check the cable </li></ul><ul><li>Replace the floppy drive </li></ul>
    38. 38. Troubleshooting <ul><li>Connectivity problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occur if the power connector is not plugged in, cables are inserted incorrectly, or the jumpers have been misconfigured </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CDs may be dirty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t believe someone who says CDs can be cleaned in dishwasher </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Troubleshooting <ul><li>Most modern CD-media drives have a built-in cleaning mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>CD-media discs can be easily cleaned using a damp cloth or mild detergent </li></ul><ul><li>Problems such as stuck discs can be resolved with paper clip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find the small hole on the front of the CD drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insert a small wire (paper clip) in the hole to manually eject the CD-media from the drive </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Burning Issues <ul><li>Know what it can do </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check out technical documentation before making a purchase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type review and the model number in a search engine to get other opinions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media quality is based on speed and inks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check for a manufacturer guarantee on speed </li></ul></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Buffer Underrun <ul><li>Most often occurs when copying from CD-ROM to CD-R or CD-RW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability of the source device to keep the burner loaded with data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure your CD-RW drive has 2 MB or larger buffer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create an image file—one big file on the hard drive first because any hard drive can keep up with a CD burner </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Firmware Updates <ul><li>Most drives come with an upgradeable Flash ROM chip </li></ul><ul><li>Check the manufacturer’s Web site for updates </li></ul>
    43. 43. Beyond A+ <ul><li>Color books </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different specifications identified by colors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red, yellow, green, orange, white, blue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High-Definition Optical Drives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher capabilities in size and time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher capabilities in resolution </li></ul></ul>