IT Hardware


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  • Students will confuse Network server with Network computer. You need to distinguish the two.
  • Processor has millions of switches turned either off or on. Use the binary number system to store and compute numbers Figure shows that any integer number can be represented using 0’s and 1’s.
  • Floppy disk contains 1.44 Megabytes Zip drive (similar to floppy disk) up to 750 MB Hard disks can contain hundreds of GB of storage
  • IT Hardware

    1. 1. IT Hardware Left: The on-board L2 cache. Right: The Pentium® Pro processor core with 5.5 million transistors. Source: Intel
    2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Understand the history and evolution of computer hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the major technologies and uses of computer peripherals for input, output, and storage. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and give example of the components and functions of a computer system. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Learning Objectives <ul><li>4. Identify the computer systems and peripherals you would acquire or recommend for a business of your choice, and explain the reasons for your selections. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Computer System Categories
    5. 5. Microcomputer Systems <ul><li>Personal Computer (PC) – microcomputer for use by an individual </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop – fit on an office desk </li></ul><ul><li>Laptop – small, portable PC </li></ul>
    6. 6. Microcomputer Systems <ul><li>Workstation – a powerful, networked PC for business professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Network Server – more powerful microcomputers that coordinate telecommunications and resource sharing in small networks </li></ul>
    7. 7. Information Appliances <ul><li>Hand-held microcomputer devices </li></ul><ul><li>Personal digital assistants (PDA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BlackBerry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Video-game consoles </li></ul><ul><li>Internet enabled cellular phones </li></ul>
    8. 8. Motherboard: components bus , chipset, CPU, memory
    9. 9. Motherboard: bus system <ul><li>data bus </li></ul><ul><li>address bus </li></ul><ul><li>system/control bus </li></ul><ul><li>expansion slots </li></ul><ul><li>ISA, EISA, VESA,SCSI, PCI, AGP </li></ul><ul><li>How local bus works? PCI vs VESA </li></ul><ul><li>Bus speeds : Pentium 4 and AthlonXP </li></ul>
    10. 10. Motherboard: chipset <ul><li>components of the chipset </li></ul><ul><ul><li>memory controller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I/O controller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bus controller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cache controller </li></ul></ul><ul><li>types of chipsets </li></ul>
    11. 11. Semiconductor memory <ul><li>Microelectronic semiconductor memory chips </li></ul><ul><li>Used for primary storage </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shock and temperature resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volatility: must have uninterrupted electric power or lose memory </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Two types of semiconductor memory <ul><li>RAM: random access memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most widely used primary storage medium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volatile memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read/write memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ROM: read only memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be read but cannot be overwritten </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequently used programs burnt into chips during manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Called firmware </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Bit and Byte <ul><li>Bit (short for binary digit) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smallest element of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Either zero or one </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Byte </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group of eight bits which operate as a single unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Represents one character or number </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Representing characters in bytes
    15. 15. Computers use binary system to calculate Binary Octal Decimal
    16. 16. Measuring storage capacities <ul><li>Kilobyte (KB): one thousand bytes </li></ul><ul><li>Megabyte (MB): one million bytes </li></ul><ul><li>Gigabyte (GB): one billion bytes </li></ul><ul><li>Terabyte (TB): one trillion bytes </li></ul><ul><li>Petabyte (PB): one quadrillion bytes </li></ul>
    17. 17. Main Memory <ul><li>basic concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>memory banks (0,1,2): 64 Meg to 1 Gig </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SIMMs (single in-line memory modules) , DIMMS (dual in-line memory modules) , SDRAM ( synchronous DRAM ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SIMMs older, DIMMS old, SDRAM newer PCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organization: conventional and extended </li></ul></ul><ul><li>additional references </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upgrading memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c|net RAM Primer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PNY Electronics: configure memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crucial memory selector </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Disk drives <ul><li>Hard-drives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interfaces: IDE , SCSI , SATA , IDE vs SCSI </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CD and DVD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>basics : CD standard and DVD standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>x A measurement of CD or DVD drive speed. Each x translates to either 153,600 bytes of data per second, the data rate of the CD-audio or 1,250,000 bytes per second, the data rate of the DVD-video. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>USB flash drives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overview </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Magnetic Disks <ul><li>Used for secondary storage </li></ul><ul><li>Fast access and high storage capacity </li></ul>Source: Quantum. Source: Corbis.
    20. 20. Types of magnetic disks <ul><li>Floppy disks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic disk inside a plastic jacket </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hard disk drives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic disk, access arms, and read/write heads in sealed module </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RAID (Redundant arrays of independent disks) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk arrays of interconnected hard disk drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fault tolerant with multiple copies on several disks </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Optical Disks
    22. 22. Uses of optical disks <ul><li>Image processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term storage of historical files of images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scan documents and store on optical disks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Publishing medium for fast access to reference materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catalogs, directories, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interactive multimedia applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video games, educational videos, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Disk drive performance <ul><li>Fragmentation : overview and defragmentation software. </li></ul><ul><li>Compression: overview and file, folder and drives compression in Windows. </li></ul><ul><li>Cache: overview and hardware vs. software </li></ul><ul><li>Swap file (paging file): overview and changing its size </li></ul>
    24. 24. Others <ul><li>graphics cards: BIOS and memory </li></ul><ul><li>monitors: resolution, size, analog vs. digital </li></ul><ul><li>printers: ink, laser, color, speed. </li></ul><ul><li>Modems: phone lines, cable and DSL </li></ul><ul><li>scanners </li></ul><ul><li>digital cameras </li></ul>
    25. 25. Radio Frequency Identification <ul><li>RFID </li></ul><ul><li>Tag and identify mobile objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., store merchandise, postal packages, pets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use RFID chips to transmit and receive radio signals </li></ul><ul><li>Chips half the size of a grain of sand </li></ul><ul><li>Passive chips: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>do not have power source and derive power from signal in reader </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active chips: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-powered </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. RFID versus bar codes <ul><li>RFID </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scan from greater distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can store data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows more information to be tracked </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Privacy concerns due to invisible nature </li></ul><ul><li>RFID Controversy </li></ul>