Introduction to IOS and Cisco Routers
Memory Architecture
Memory Types <ul><li>RAM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to store working tables as well as running  IOS image </li></ul></ul><...
Memory Types RAM (Working Memory) Flash (IOS) ROM (Basic IOS) NVRAM (Startup Config)
Configuration and IOS Images
Configuration File <ul><li>The configuration is a text file that contains configuration commands that are executed at star...
Saving a Configuration RAM (Running-Config) NVRAM (Startup-Config) Copy running-config startup-config Copy startup-config ...
Syntax of the Copy Command Copy  From-Location To-Location   Where: From- and To-Location - {tftp|running-config|startup-c...
Entering the Configuration <ul><li>Setup Mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If no configuration exists when the router boots, it e...
Setup Mode <ul><li>Setup Mode allows configuration of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interface summary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Viewing Configurations Show {running-config|startup-config}
The CLI and Getting Help
Command Line Interface <ul><li>Most Cisco devices use a command line interface </li></ul><ul><li>Commands can be entered a...
Command Line Interface <ul><li>If a command has an error the command will be repeated and a “^” will mark the location of ...
Command History <ul><li>Up and Down arrows scroll through command history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also ctrl+p (up) and ctrl+...
Getting Help <ul><li>Typing ? at any point will cause IOS to show what options exist at that point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>J...
Connecting to the Router
Connecting to the Router <ul><li>Console </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect directly to console port and use a terminal program...
IOS Modes
IOS Modes User Mode Router> Privileged (Enable) Mode Router# disable enable Telnet  Aux  Console
IOS Configuration Modes Configuration Mode Router(config)# Privileged Mode Router# Config terminal (config t) Interface Co...
Router Interfaces
Interfaces <ul><li>LANs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethernet (Ethernet 0, E0, E1, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FastEthernet ...
Interfaces on Expansion Cards <ul><li>Interfaces on add in expansion cards include the slot number followed by a slash the...
Loopback Interfaces <ul><li>Loopback interfaces are internal interfaces and treated like other interfaces </li></ul><ul><u...
Interface Configuration Mode <ul><li>Use the Interface command in configuration or interface configuration mode to enter c...
Bringing up an Interface <ul><li>By default, all interfaces (except loopback interfaces) are in administrative shutdown mo...
Assigning an IP Address <ul><li>IP addresses are assigned in interface configuration mode </li></ul>Router#config t Router...
Setting the Clock Rate <ul><li>On serial connections the DCE must set a clock rate to synchronize communication </li></ul>...
Setting the Serial Encapsulation <ul><li>We’ll discuss this in more detail later in the semester but the data link layer p...
Passwords
Privileged Mode Passwords <ul><li>Enable password </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable password < password > </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
User Mode Passwords  <ul><li>Console Line console 0 Login Password < password > </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliary Line aux 0 Log...
Encrypting Passwords <ul><li>User mode passwords are normally stored in the configuration file in clear text </li></ul><ul...
IOS Commands to Know <ul><li>Enable/disable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable secret/password </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Config  </...
IOS Commands to Know <ul><li>Service password-encryption </li></ul><ul><li>Banner </li></ul><ul><li>Interface </li></ul><u...
IOS Commands to Know <ul><li>Show interface </li></ul><ul><li>Show controllers </li></ul><ul><li>Clock rate </li></ul><ul>...
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Introduction to the Cisco IOS

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Introduction to the Cisco IOS

  1. 1. Introduction to IOS and Cisco Routers
  2. 2. Memory Architecture
  3. 3. Memory Types <ul><li>RAM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to store working tables as well as running IOS image </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ROM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores a bootable IOS image that provides basic functionality as well as a barebones interface called the ROM Monitor (ROMMON) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flash Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores the full function IOS image and is the default location for IOS at boot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NVRAM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores startup configuration file </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Memory Types RAM (Working Memory) Flash (IOS) ROM (Basic IOS) NVRAM (Startup Config)
  5. 5. Configuration and IOS Images
  6. 6. Configuration File <ul><li>The configuration is a text file that contains configuration commands that are executed at startup </li></ul><ul><li>When the router boots a copy of the config in NVRAM (startup-config) is executed to establish the initial configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Configuration commands entered while the router is running are entered into the temporary configuration stored in RAM (running-config) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Saving a Configuration RAM (Running-Config) NVRAM (Startup-Config) Copy running-config startup-config Copy startup-config running-config Merged Replaces
  8. 8. Syntax of the Copy Command Copy From-Location To-Location Where: From- and To-Location - {tftp|running-config|startup-config} tftp – a trivial ftp server located somewhere on the network
  9. 9. Entering the Configuration <ul><li>Setup Mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If no configuration exists when the router boots, it enters setup mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Router hasn’t been configured before </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Someone used the ‘Erase Startup-Config’ then rebooted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NVRAM was damaged </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Setup mode is a question and answer process that can be used to create basic configurations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Command Line Interface (CLI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Configuration commands entered at command prompt then saved to NVRAM </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Setup Mode <ul><li>Setup Mode allows configuration of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interface summary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Router hostname </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passwords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SNMP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various network protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DECnet, Appletalk, IP, IPX </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Routing protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When finished setup mode gives the user the option of copying the configuration to NVRAM and RAM </li></ul>
  11. 11. Viewing Configurations Show {running-config|startup-config}
  12. 12. The CLI and Getting Help
  13. 13. Command Line Interface <ul><li>Most Cisco devices use a command line interface </li></ul><ul><li>Commands can be entered and edited before they are executed by hitting the enter key </li></ul><ul><li>Commands can be abbreviated as long as they are not ambiguous e.g. Show Interface => sh int </li></ul>
  14. 14. Command Line Interface <ul><li>If a command has an error the command will be repeated and a “^” will mark the location of the error access-list 110 permit host 1.1.1.1 ^ %Invalid input detected at ‘^’ marker. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Command History <ul><li>Up and Down arrows scroll through command history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also ctrl+p (up) and ctrl+n (down) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Command history commands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Show history – shows commands in history </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Show terminal – shows terminal configurations and terminal history size (default = 10) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Terminal history size – changes history buffer size up to a max of 256 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Getting Help <ul><li>Typing ? at any point will cause IOS to show what options exist at that point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just ? on a line will list all commands available in that mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typing one letter followed by ? will show all commands that begin with the letter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding ? after a command will show what arguments are available for the command </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Connecting to the Router
  18. 18. Connecting to the Router <ul><li>Console </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect directly to console port and use a terminal program like Windows Hyperterminal or Linux’s Minicom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AUX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The auxiliary port is port you can attach a modem to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can also be used as a backup connection dial on demand circuit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TTY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can use Telnet to connect to TTY once router has been configured initially </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most routers have 5 TTY connections </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. IOS Modes
  20. 20. IOS Modes User Mode Router> Privileged (Enable) Mode Router# disable enable Telnet Aux Console
  21. 21. IOS Configuration Modes Configuration Mode Router(config)# Privileged Mode Router# Config terminal (config t) Interface Configuration Mode Router(config-if)# Interface < interface > (interface ethernet 0) Router Configuration Mode Router(config-router)# Router < protocol > (Router rip)
  22. 22. Router Interfaces
  23. 23. Interfaces <ul><li>LANs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethernet (Ethernet 0, E0, E1, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FastEthernet (FastEthernet 0, F0, F1, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Token Ring (TokenRing 0, TO0, TO1, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WANs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serial 0, S0, S1, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Interfaces on Expansion Cards <ul><li>Interfaces on add in expansion cards include the slot number followed by a slash then the interface number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first FastEthernet interface on a card in the first slot would be FastEthernet 0/0 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>On 7500 series routers three values are required (slot/port-adapter/port) so it would be FastEthernet 0/0/0 for example </li></ul>
  25. 25. Loopback Interfaces <ul><li>Loopback interfaces are internal interfaces and treated like other interfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loopback interfaces are never shutdown </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Loopback interfaces are useful when you need an interface that will never go down </li></ul>
  26. 26. Interface Configuration Mode <ul><li>Use the Interface command in configuration or interface configuration mode to enter configuration mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Router(config)#interface e0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Router(config-if)#interface Lo0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Router(config)#interface s0/1 </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Bringing up an Interface <ul><li>By default, all interfaces (except loopback interfaces) are in administrative shutdown mode </li></ul><ul><li>To activate the interface use the no shutdown command in the interface configuration mode </li></ul>
  28. 28. Assigning an IP Address <ul><li>IP addresses are assigned in interface configuration mode </li></ul>Router#config t Router(config)#interface s0 Router(config-if)#ip address 129.130.32.1 255.255.224.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config-if)#exit
  29. 29. Setting the Clock Rate <ul><li>On serial connections the DCE must set a clock rate to synchronize communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the lab the 2501 that is a router is a DCE because the cable attached is a DCE cable so the clock rate must be set on this router </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 2501 that is a Frame Relay switch is also a DCE but you do not configure this one </li></ul></ul>Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#clockrate 2000000
  30. 30. Setting the Serial Encapsulation <ul><li>We’ll discuss this in more detail later in the semester but the data link layer protocol must be set for the Frame Relay link using the encapsulation command </li></ul>Router(config)#interface s0 Router(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
  31. 31. Passwords
  32. 32. Privileged Mode Passwords <ul><li>Enable password </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable password < password > </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable password is shown in clear text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not used if enable secret password is set </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enable secret password </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable secret < password > </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable secret password is encrypted </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. User Mode Passwords <ul><li>Console Line console 0 Login Password < password > </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliary Line aux 0 Login Password < password > </li></ul><ul><li>Telnet Line vty 0 4 Login Password < password > </li></ul>Enter configuration mode Require login Set password Most routers have 5 telnet lines. This command sets all five.
  34. 34. Encrypting Passwords <ul><li>User mode passwords are normally stored in the configuration file in clear text </li></ul><ul><li>To encrypt them use the following sequence of commands </li></ul><ul><li>service password-encryption line console 0 login password < password> no service password-encryption </li></ul>
  35. 35. IOS Commands to Know <ul><li>Enable/disable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable secret/password </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Config </li></ul><ul><li>Editing commands </li></ul><ul><li>Show history </li></ul><ul><li>Show terminal </li></ul><ul><li>Terminal history size </li></ul><ul><li>Line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to require login and set password for console, vty and aux </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. IOS Commands to Know <ul><li>Service password-encryption </li></ul><ul><li>Banner </li></ul><ul><li>Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shutdown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know the interfaces commands for ethernet, fast ethernet, serial, token ring and loopback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hostname </li></ul><ul><li>Show running/startup-config </li></ul><ul><li>Copy < running-config/startup-config,tftp > < running-config/startup-config,tftp > </li></ul>
  37. 37. IOS Commands to Know <ul><li>Show interface </li></ul><ul><li>Show controllers </li></ul><ul><li>Clock rate </li></ul><ul><li>Ip address </li></ul><ul><li>Show Version </li></ul><ul><li>Show flash </li></ul>
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