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Introduction to Microcomputers

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  • CEO: Intro to Computers
  • CEO: Intro to Computers
  • CEO: Intro to Computers
  • CEO: Intro to Computers
  • CEO: Intro to Computers
  • CEO: Intro to Computers
  • CEO: Intro to Computers
  • CEO: Intro to Computers
  • CEO: Intro to Computers
  • CEO: Intro to Computers
  • CEO: Intro to Computers
  • CEO: Intro to Computers
  • CEO: Intro to Computers
  • CEO: Intro to Computers
  • CEO: Intro to Computers
  • CEO: Intro to Computers
  • CEO: Intro to Computers
  • CEO: Intro to Computers
  • CEO: Intro to Computers
  • CEO: Intro to Computers
  • CEO: Intro to Computers

Transcript

  • 1. Introduction to Computers Essential Understanding of Computers and Computer Operations
  • 2. Topics
    • The term “computer” 
    • Four basic computer operations 
    • Data and information 
    • Principal components of computer 
    • Data storage devices and usage 
    • Software 
    • The Internet & WWW 
  • 3. What is a Computer?
    • A programmable machine that inputs , processes , and outputs information
    • An electronic device for storing and processing data
    • Composed of hardware and software
    • Can exist in a variety of sizes and configurations
  • 4. Examples
  • 5. What Do Computers Do?
    • Input, Process, Output, & Store data
    Input Process Output Store Data
  • 6. Input, Processing, Storage, and Output Devices
  • 7. What is Data?
    • The raw material of information
    • Contain facts w/o interpretations
    • The information entered into, and stored within a computer or file
    • Used by applications to accomplish tasks
    • Unprocessed information
    • E.g. text, numbers, images, audio, & video
  • 8. What is Information?
    • Contains meaning, knowledge, instruction, communication, & representation of data
    • Result of processing, manipulating and organizing data in a way that adds to the knowledge of the person receiving it
    • The output of information systems
  • 9. Flow of Computing
    • Data  Processing  Information
    • Example
    Pat Brown 1001 Jump Street Shoreline, WA 98123 $25 per hour 40 hours Retrieve data Calculate weekly wage: $25 X 40 hours = $1000 Send information to output device
  • 10. Principal Components of Computer
    • Input devices
    • System units
    • Storage (memory) devices
      • Importance of Saving
    • Output devices
  • 11. Input Devices
    • Keyboard, mouse, scanner, & etc
  • 12. System Units
    • CPU (Central Processing Unit)
    • Random Access Memory (RAM)
    • Secondary Storage Devices
  • 13. Central Processing Unit (CPU)
    • Main processor of a computer that makes everything work
    • Interprets & carries out the basic instructions
    • Performs all the instruction, logic, & mathematical processing
  • 14. Storage (memory) Devices
    • Two types:
      • Primary & Secondary
    • Primary:
      • Temporary memory for dynamic access by the processor (CPU)
      • RAM (Random Access Memory)
    • Secondary:
      • For large data storage, e.g. hard disk drive
    • RAM is much faster than disk drives for dynamically interacting with the processor
  • 15. Random Access Memory (RAM) – the Primary Memory
    • Temporarily stores instructions and data waiting to be processed by the processor
    • Memory units are measured in kilobytes, megabytes, or gigabytes
    • 1 kilobytes = 1,000 bytes = 1,000 memory locations ≈ 1,000 characters
    • 1 megabyte (MB) = 1 million memory locations
    • 1 gigabyte (GB) = 1 billion memory locations
    • E.g. 512 MB = 512 million characters 1 MB can hold approx. 500 pages of text
  • 16. Secondary Memory (Semi-permanent)
    • Magnetic Disks
      • Hard disks, floppy disks, zip disks
    • Optical Disks
      • CD-ROM, CD-R (Recordable), CD-RW, DVD
    • Flash Memory Cards
      • USB flash drive: Small, lightweight, & large storage capacity
  • 17. Importance of Saving and Saving Often
    • When using an application, data is stored in RAM temporarily
    • When the file, application, or computer closes, the data in the RAM is erased
    • Where do I save the files?
      • At the Lab: Removable disks such as floppy, zip, or USB.
      • At home: Hard drive (C:) or any removable disk.
    • Never remove a disk while the light flashes
    • Saving on an existing file replaces the old data with new ( Save vs. Save As )
  • 18. Importance of Data Backup
    • All secondary storage devices such as floppy and hard drive disks eventually fail, and you lose the data
    • Make backup files weekly, if not daily
    • If you have a computer, use the hard drive or a removable disk as your backup
    • Otherwise, use the second removable disk
  • 19. Output Devices
    • Printers
    • Monitors
    • and more
  • 20. Personal Computers
    • PC, Mac, and other microcomputers
    • Desktop, Laptop, PDA
    • Windows, Mac OS, Linux, etc.
    • Increasingly more capable, portable, affordable, and mobile
  • 21. System Software
    • Manages computer operations
    • Instructs computer how to perform functions of loading, storing, and executing an application software and how to transfer data
    • Examples: Windows, Mac OS, Linux, & etc.
  • 22. Application Software
    • Programs that tell a computer how to perform tasks and produce information
    • Categories:
      • Word processing
      • Spreadsheet
      • Database
      • Presentation graphics
      • Web and Internet access
      • Desktop publishing / image editing / multimedia editing
  • 23. The Internet and WWW
    • The Internet is the world’s largest network
    • Uses:
      • Send messages (e-mail)
      • Access a wealth of information
      • Electronic commerce
      • Online meeting
      • Access entertainment and multimedia
    • WWW (World Wide Web)
      • The more popular component of the Internet
      • Web page: A document containing text, hyperlinks, images, & other multimedia contents
      • Web site: A collection of Web pages
  • 24. Communications Devices
    • Modem
    • Network card
    • Router
    • Wireless modem, network card, & router