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Hardware

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  • 1. CIL 102 Spring 2010
  • 2.
    • Make good purchasing decisions
    • Troubleshoot computer, as well as maintain and upgrade
    • Avoid hackers, viruses and spyware
    • Protect privacy
    • Maintain security
    • Embrace new technologies
  • 3.
    • Microcomputers
      • Desktop (single location)
      • Laptop or Notebook (mobile)
      • Tablet (mobile, touch screen, stylus)
      • Netbook (smaller mobile)
      • Personal Digital Assistant/Smart Phones (handheld)
    Image: © Shelly Cashman Vermaat 2004
  • 4.
    • Minicomputers
      • Mid-range computers that handle the computing needs of smaller organizations
    • Mainframe
      • Computer systems designed to handle large processing jobs in larger organizations
        • Airlines, Banks, etc.
    • Supercomputer
      • Computer used to solve complex scientific and military problems
          • NASA, National Weather Service, US Dept of Energy, etc.
  • 5.
    • IBM’s Roadrunner (2009)
      • Fastest supercomputer today
      • Hybrid – combo of IBM and AMD processors
      • 1 quadrillion calculations per second (1.105 petaflops)
      • Runs Red Hat Linux operating system
    • IBM Sequoia (2011)
      • Sequoia Article
      • 20 quadrillion calculations per second - the equivalent of more than 2 million laptops!!
      • Department of Energy
    IBM Roadrunner Wikipedia IBM Roadrunner CNET Article - June 2009
  • 6.
    • Dell
    • Gateway
    • Hewlett-Packard
    • Acer
    • Toshiba
    • Lenovo
    • Apple
    • Sony
    • ASUS
    • Alienware
    • Samsung
  • 7.
    • Server
      • Primary task is storing and retrieving large quantities of data (network)
    • Workstation
      • High end-computer running a variant of UNIX designed to be used by one person
    • Embedded Computer System
      • General CPUs that run single programs; embedded in consumer devices such as automobiles, microwave ovens, DVD players, electric toothbrushes.
  • 8. Image: ©Shelly Cashman Vermaat 2004 power supply ports drive bays processor memory sound card video card modem card network card
  • 9. Image: ©Shelly Cashman Vermaat 2004 processor chip adapter cards memory chips memory slots motherboard Expansion slots for adapter cards
  • 10.
      • Intel® Core TM   i7 Quad Core Processor (1.6GHz, 6MB L3 Cache, 1333MHz FSB)
      • Windows 7 Home Premium 64 bit
      • 6GB 1333MHz DDR3 SDRAM
      • 15.6” WLED LCD (1920x1080)
      • ATI Mobility RADEON – 1 GB
      • 500GB Hard Drive 7200 RPM
      • DVD/CD burner
      • 2 MP Camera
      • Dell Laptop Starts at $1599
    © Dell © Intel
  • 11.
      • Intel Atom Z520 1.33 GHz, 533 MHz FSB, 512 K Cache
      • 1 GB DDR2 SDRAM
      • 10.1” display with 1024x600 resolution
      • Intel Graphics Media Accelerator
      • 160 GB 5400 RPM Hard Drive
      • WLAN 802.11n WiFi
      • Windows XP Home Edition
      • Battery: 3-cell or 6-cell
      • Dell Mini Netbook Starts at $299
    © Dell.com
  • 12.
    • Central Processing Unit  - "Brain" of the computer; directs all operations in the computer and performs the processing steps for the data
      • Processes instructions
      • Performs calculations
      • Processes data user inputs into computer
      • Example: Intel® Core 2 Duo Processor
    • Main Memory (RAM) - temporarily holds the data and instructions that the computer uses during processing; primary storage (example: 6 GB DDR3 SDRAM)
    • Input/Output Devices - such as keyboards, monitors, printers        
  • 13.
    • Intel Core 2 Duo
    • AMD Opteron (server)
    • AMD Athlon (desktop)
    • AMD Turion 64 X2 (mobile)
    • AMD Phenom II (2009)
    • Intel Xeon (server / workstation) (8 core)
    • Intel Core 2 Quad (2007)
    • Intel Core i7 (mobile - 2010)
  • 14.
    • A custom-PowerPC CPU is used in Xbox 360 and Nintendo Wii gaming systems
  • 15.
    • Intel® Core TM   i7 Processor
    • (1.6GHz, 6MB L3 Cache, 1333MHz FSB)
      • Quad Core technology - offers better multitasking capability due to 4 processing cores on one CPU
        • Gaming, multimedia software
      • Operating system and applications need to recognize dual processors (‘ multi-thread aware’ or capable of running multiple tasks)
      • Intel Multi-core
  • 16.
    • 1.6 GHz – speed of system clock
      • The pace by which the computer moves from process to process.
      • System clock emits pulses at regular intervals enabling computer’s activities to be synchronized
      • Rate of speed:
        • Gigahertz – one billion clock ticks per second
        • Megahertz – one million clock ticks per second
    • 1333 MHz – Speed of Frontside Bus
      • System bus – circuitry (path) which runs between memory and CPU
    • Hertz – cycles per second
  • 17.
    • Overclocking
      • Process of running computer component at higher clock rate (more cycles per second) than it was designed
        • Processors, video cards, RAM, motherboards
        • Generates heat (need better cooling)
          • All electronic circuits produce heat generated by movement of electrons
        • Very Risky – operating component outside of manufacturer’s recommended operating conditions;
          • Void warranty, risk of fire, higher power consumption, etc.
  • 18.
    • Cache  - high-speed memory usually on the CPU chip; small, but quite effective.  Used for most commonly used instructions
    • Level 1 (L1) - sample size 32KB (SRAM)
    • Level 2 (L2) – sample size 2 MB
    • Level 3 (L3) – sample size 6 MB
    • Demo machine: 6MB Level 3 cache (Good!)
  • 19. Front Side Bus Connects CPU and RAM
  • 20. Image: ©Shelly Cashman Vermaat 2004
  • 21.
    • Motherboard – primary circuit board inside of computer; used to connect components together
    • Registers - special, high-capability storage locations used by the CPU to store data
    • Cache  - high-speed memory usually on the CPU chip; small, but quite effective.  Increases computer’s performance. Used for most commonly used instructions. Level 1 usually on CPU chip and Level 2 usually on chip near CPU. L3 used for multi-core CPUs. Example: Level 1(L1) or  Level 2 (L2)
    • Expansion Slots - represent additional connecting places to an internal bus, allowing connections for future components  (example: network card, video card, sound card, fax/modem card)
    • Power Supply – supplies power to computer; converts AC to DC for use by the components
  • 22. Image: ©Shelly Cashman Vermaat 2004
  • 23.
    • Fastest  Faster  Fast
  • 24.
    • 4GB 1067MHz DDR3 SDRAM
    • Slowest to Fastest
    • DRAM (60ns- billionths of a second ) dynamic RAM
    • SDRAM – synchronous dynamic RAM
      • 100-133 MHz
    • DDR SDRAM – (2 word minimum read/write rate))
      • 200-400 MHz
    • DDR2 SDRAM (4 word minimum read/write rate)
      • 400-1066 MHz
    • DDR3 SDRAM (8 word minimum read/write rate)
      • 800-1600 MHz (data transfer speed)
    • SRAM ( Static RAM ) Fastest – Expensive – Used for Cache memory )
      • Access time 10-30 nanoseconds
      • No ‘refresh’ signal needed
          • Note : Word size is 32 or 64 bits
    www.wikipedia.com
  • 25.
    • Hard Drive
    • CD-ROM, DVD, Blu-ray
    • Flash Devices (USB)
    • External vs. Internal
  • 26.
    • Input device
      • A peripheral device used to provide data to a computer. Together with output devices, these peripherals make up the interface between the computer and the “outside world”
        • Keyboard
        • Mouse
        • Microphone
        • Web Camera
        • Digital Camera
        • Game controller
        • Scanner
  • 27.
    • Output Device
      • Peripheral device used to represent information from a computer.
        • Printer
        • Monitor
        • Speakers
  • 28.
    • What applications do you want to run on a new computer?
      • What type of processor do you need?
      • How much memory do you need?
      • What type of storage requirements do you need?
      • Other considerations?
        • Audio capabilities, video capabilities, printer , etc.
        • Ease of use (PC, Macintosh)
  • 29.
    • Look at Web sites ( Example: Dell, PCWorld )
      • Machine specifications and computer reviews
      • PC World: Selecting The Right Laptop For You
      • PC World: Making Sense of the Specifications
  • 30.
    • If evaluating two comparable computers, how do you know which one performs better?
    • Run Benchmark tests
      • Numbers obtained by running a program or group of programs on a computer.
        • Can be used to compare performance of computers with different hardware and/or software combinations.
        • Generally, measures speed
          • Take an average of performance
  • 31.
    • Add more memory
    • Clean up software issues (via operating system)
      • Delete unnecessary files & Defragment hard drive
        • Reorganizes files on hard drive; improves access time
      • Clean up Startup folder
        • Remove unnecessary programs from Startup
        • Resident in RAM
      • Run antispyware and antivirus programs
      • In extreme cases, backup computer, reformat hard drive and re-install operating system and applications
    • Upgrade motherboard / processor
    • Upgrade graphics card
    • Install faster hard drive or CD/DVD drive
  • 32.
    • Adapter Cards
    • ALU
    • Benchmark
    • Bus or FSB
    • Cache
    • Computer applications
    • Computer Vendors
    • Control Unit
    • CPU – examples
      • Intel Core Duo / AMD Athlon, etc.
    • Data
    • Dual-Core
    • Embedded computer system
    • Expansion slot
    • Hardware
    • Information
    • I/O devices (examples)
    • Main Memory (RAM) – size and speed
    • Mainframe
    • Minicomputer
    • Motherboard
    • Overclocking
    • Ports (Examples)
    • Processing
    • Power Supply
    • Quad-Core
    • Registers
    • Roadrunner (IBM)
    • Sequoia (IBM)
    • Speed up computer?
    • Storage devices (examples)
    • Supercomputer
    • System Bus – Front Side Bus
    • Tablet
    • Vendors (examples)

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